Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine

Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO or D.O.) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States. A DO graduate may become licensed as an osteopathic physician, having equivalent rights, privileges, and responsibilities as a physician who has earned the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree.[1] DO physicians are licensed to practice the full scope of medicine and surgery in 65 countries,[2] and in all 50 US states. They constitute 7% of all US physicians. As of 2017, there were more than 137,000 osteopathic medical physicians and osteopathic medical students in the United States.[3]

DO degrees are offered in the United States at 34 medical schools, at 51 campuses in 32[4] states,[5] compared to MD degrees offered at 140 schools.[6][7] Since 2007, total DO student enrollment has been increasing yearly. In 2015, more than 20% of all medical school enrollment in the US comprised DO students.[8][9] The curricula at osteopathic medical schools are similar to those at MD-granting medical schools, which focus the first two years on the biomedical and clinical sciences, then two years on core clinical training in the clinical specialties.[10]

Upon completing medical school, a DO graduate may enter an internship or residency training program, which may be followed by fellowship training.[10] Some DO graduates attend the same graduate medical education programs as their MD counterparts,[11] and then take MD specialty board exams,[12] while other DO graduates enter osteopathic programs,[13][14] and take DO specialty board examinations.[15]

One notable difference between DO and MD training is that DO training adds 300–500 hours studying techniques for hands-on manipulation of the human musculoskeletal system,[1][16] a system shared (in general but not all particulars) with chiropractic medicine.

History

The practice of osteopathy began in the United States in 1874. The term "osteopathy" was coined by physician and surgeon[17][18] Andrew Taylor Still, who named his new discipline of medicine "osteopathy", reasoning that "the bone, osteon, was the starting point from which [he] was to ascertain the cause of pathological conditions".[19] Still founded the American School of Osteopathy (now A.T. Still University of the Health Sciences) in Kirksville, Missouri, for the teaching of osteopathy on May 10, 1892. While the state of Missouri granted the right to award the MD degree,[20] he remained dissatisfied with the limitations of conventional medicine and instead chose to retain the distinction of the DO degree.[21] In 1898 the American Institute of Osteopathy started the Journal of Osteopathy and by that time four states recognized the profession.[22]

The osteopathic medical profession has evolved into two branches: non-physician manual medicine osteopaths, who were educated and trained outside the United States; and US-trained osteopathic physicians, who conduct a full scope of medical practice. The regulation of non-physician manual medicine osteopaths varies greatly between jurisdictions. In the United States, osteopathic physicians holding the DO degree have attained the same rights, privileges, and responsibilities as physicians with a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree.[1] Osteopathic physicians and non-physician osteopaths are so distinct that in practice they function as separate professions.

As originally conceived by Andrew Still, the letters "DO" stood for "Diplomate in Osteopathy" and the title conferred by the degree was "Doctor of Osteopathy".[23] Subsequently, the degree also came to be entitled "Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine".[24] Since the late 20th century, the AOA has preferred that this title be used exclusively.[25] Its members resolved at a 1960 conference:

Be it resolved, that the American Osteopathic Association institute a policy, both officially in our publications and individually on a conversational basis, to use the terms osteopathic medicine in place of the word osteopathy and osteopathic physician and surgeon in place of osteopath; the words osteopathy and osteopath being reserved for historical, sentimental, and informal discussions only.[26]

A minority of DOs continue to use the old terms, and the American Academy of Osteopathy retains the old usage in its name.[27]

Demographics

In 2015, there were 96,954 osteopathic medical doctors in the United States and 123,075 total DOs and osteopathic medical students.[3] The proportion of females in the profession has steadily increased since the 1980s.[28] In 1985, about 10 percent of DO physicians were female, compared with 40 percent in 2015.[29] Between 2008 and 2012, 49 percent of new DO graduates were females.[28]

During the 2011-12 academic year, the osteopathic medical student body consisted of: 69 percent white/non-Hispanic, 19 percent Asian or Pacific Islander, 3.5 percent Hispanic, 3 percent African-American, and 0.5 percent Native American or Alaskan.[28] The remainder were listed as "other or not entered". The five-year change in osteopathic medical student enrollment by ethnicity has increased by 19 percent for white/non-Hispanic students, 36 percent for Asian-American students, 24 percent for Black/African American students and 60 percent for Hispanic/Latino students.[29]

Education, training and distinctiveness

Osteopathic medical school curricula are virtually identical to those at schools granting the MD degree (Doctor of Medicine). Once admitted to an osteopathic medical school, students study for four years in order to graduate. The schooling is divided into the pre-clinical and clinical years. The pre-clinical years, the first and second years, focus on the biomedical and clinical sciences. The clinical years, the third and fourth years, consist of core clinical training and sub-internships in the clinical specialties.

Osteopathic medical school accreditation standards require training in internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics, family medicine, surgery, psychiatry, emergency medicine, radiology, preventive medicine, and public health.[30] According to Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, "the training, practice, credentialing, licensure, and reimbursement of osteopathic physicians is virtually indistinguishable from those of physicians with MD qualifications, with 4 years of osteopathic medical school followed by specialty and subspecialty training and board certification".[10]

DO schools provide an additional 300–500 hours in the study of hands-on manual medicine and the body's musculoskeletal system, which is referred to as osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM).[1] Historically, osteopaths subscribed to the view that such body manipulation can bring about systemic healing – a belief which is a form of pseudomedicine. In the early 21st century, American osteopathic physicians have largely shifted their thinking from such pre-scientific ideas.[16]

Osteopathic physicians who use OMM predominantly use it to treat musculoskeletal conditions, for which there is conflicting evidence about effectiveness.[31][32] Particular criticism has been targeted at craniosacral therapy, a component of OMM taught at many DO schools, which has limited scientific support.[33][34]

Examinations

Before entering osteopathic medical school, an application must complete a four-year undergraduate degree and take a national standardized exam called the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT). Some combined undergraduate/medical programs exist. Some authors note the differences in the average MCAT scores and grade point average of students who matriculate at DO schools compared to those who matriculate at MD schools within the United States. In 2015, the average MCAT and GPA for students entering US-based MD programs were 31.4 and 3.70, respectively,[35] and 27.33 and 3.55 for DO matriculants,[36] although the gap has been getting smaller every year.[36] DO medical schools are more likely to accept non-traditional students,[37][38] who are older and entering medicine as a second career, or coming from non-science majors.

DO medical students are required to take the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensure Examination (COMLEX-USA), which is sponsored by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME). The COMLEX-USA is series of four osteopathic medical licensing examinations. The first three exams of the COMLEX-USA are taken during medical school and are prerequisites for osteopathic residency programs, which are available in almost every specialty of medicine and surgery. Level 2 consists of a multiple-choice portion and a patient evaluation exam (2PE). COMLEX-Level 2PE, is available only in Chicago, IL and Philadelphia, PA. It is graded as a Pass/Fail exam. Finally, COMLEX Level 3 is taken during the first year of residency.

In addition to the COMLEX-USA, DO medical students may choose to sit for the MD licensure examinations, which are called the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE).[39] This is typically done if the student desires to enter an MD residency. However, this is not always required, as some MD residency programs do not require the USMLE from DO applicants.[40][41][42][43] USMLE pass rates for DO and MD students in 2012 are as follows: Step 1: 91% and 94%, Step 2 CK: 96% and 97%, and Step 2 CS: 87% and 97%, respectively (this number may be misleading as only 46 DO students compared to 17,118 MD students were evaluated for Step 2 CS) Step 3: 100% and 95% (this number may be misleading, as only 16 DO students compared to 19,056 MD students, were evaluated for Step 3).[44]

Licensing and board certification

To obtain a license to practice medicine in the United States, osteopathic medical students must pass the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX),[45] the licensure exam administered by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners throughout their medical training. Students are given the option of also taking the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to apply for some Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) residency programs. Those that have received or are in the process of earning an MD or DO degree are both eligible to sit for the USMLE. Because of their additional training, only DO candidates are eligible to sit for the COMLEX.[46]

Upon completion of internship and residency requirements for their chosen medical specialty, and depending on whether the program attended as ACGME or AOA accredited, holders of the DO may elect to be board certified by either a specialty board (through the American Medical Association's American Board of Medical Specialties) or an osteopathic specialty board (through the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists certifying boards). In February 2014, the American Osteopathic Association and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education agreed to unify allopathic and osteopathic Graduate medical education starting in 2020.[47]

Depending on the state, medical licensure may be issued from a combined board (DO and MD) or a separate board of medical examiners.[48] All of the 70 state medical boards are members of the Federation of State Medical Boards.[49]

International variations

Currently, there are no osteopathic programs located outside of the United States that would qualify an individual to practice as an osteopathic physician in the United States.[50] Foreign osteopathic degrees are not recognized by any state in the US as being equivalent to American DO degrees.

International practice rights

The following is an international licensure summary for US-trained doctors of osteopathic medicine, as listed by the American Osteopathic Association:[51][52]

AOA International Licensure Summary.[52]
Country Year of Latest Policy Medical Practice Rights Requirements for Licensure
Argentina 2006 Unlimited Foreign physicians must submit credentials to various agencies and then appear before any of the National Universities in order to have their diploma recognized.
Australia 2013 Unlimited According to documents published online, the Medical Board of Australia has "agreed to accept the DO USA as a primary medical qualification for the purposes of medical registration provided that the DO USA was awarded by a medical school which has been accredited by the Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation".[53]
Austria 2009 Unlimited Hospital must have position unable to be filled by Austrian physician.
Bahamas 2004 Unlimited US license recognized.
Bahrain 2010 Unlimited US license recognized.
Barbados 1995 Limited Osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) only.
Belize 2009 Unlimited Must complete a Belizean residency for permanent license eligibility.
Bermuda 1997 Unlimited Required at least 2 years of GME and examination or interview by the Council's Examination Committee. Non-Bermudans must have approval from the Ministry of Labour & Home Affairs to work on the island.
Brazil 2007 Unlimited Completion of Brazilian board exam, establishing residency & some training in Brazilian hospital is required.
Canada Alberta Unlimited Requires at least 2 years of GME accredited by the ACGME or AOA and must have passed the Universities Coordinating Council Exam, a basic sciences exam, and have passed all three parts of the LMCC.
British Columbia Unlimited Requires at least 1 year of GME approved by the AOA or the ACGME, completed at least 1 year of GME in Canada, passed all three parts of the LMCC.
Manitoba Unlimited US license recognized.
New Brunswick Unlimited Requires at least 2 years of GME approved by the AOA or the ACGME and have passed all 3 parts of the LMCC. Reciprocity pathway for DO physicians with a Maine license.
Newfoundland Unlimited The Medical Act 2011 allows full licensure of osteopathic physicians, both for the country's full registry & its educational registry.
NW Territories Unlimited US license recognized.
Nova Scotia Unlimited Requires a Canadian or ACGME residency.
Ontario Unlimited Requires a Canadian or ACGME residency.
Prince Edward Island Unlimited
Quebec Unlimited Requires 1 year of GME approved by the AOA or ACGME, 1 year of GME in Quebec passed the written, oral and clinical board examination of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and must speak French fluently.
Saskatchewan Unlimited
Yukon Territory Unlimited US license recognized.
Cayman Islands (UK) 1983 Unlimited US license recognized.
Central African Republic 1990 Unlimited US licensure and annual attendance at the National Congress for Physicians.
Chile 2008 Unlimited A written exam in Spanish is required, besides a series of practical tests involving common procedures (CPR, intubation, lumbar puncture, etc.).
China 2009 Unlimited United States DO physicians are permitted to apply for short-term medical practice licensure.
Colombia 1996 Unlimited Same requirements as other foreign physicians.
Costa Rica 2009 Unlimited Same requirements as other foreign physicians.
Dominican Republic 2000 Unlimited US license & board certification recognized.
Ecuador 1990 Unlimited Same requirements as other foreign physicians. Reciprocity exists with most Latin American countries.
Ethiopia 2011 Unlimited Must renew the license every 5 years.
Finland 1996 Unlimited Same requirements as other foreign physicians.
France 2009 Limited OMM only. The French government does not recognize the full scope of practice osteopathic medicine.
The Gambia 2011 Unlimited
Germany 2008 Unlimited Same requirements as other foreign physicians. Depends on need. Decisions made on individual basis.
Greece 2009 Unlimited Greek citizenship required, unless, in rare instances, there exists a crucial need for certain types of specialist physicians. Further, a work permit must be obtained, a difficult task, and speaking Greek is an unwritten requirement. These are the same requirements as other foreign physicians.
Grenada 2007 Unlimited US license recognized.
Guyana 1996 Unlimited Case-by case basis.
Honduras 2009 Unlimited National Autonomous University must accredit all foreign titles. After accreditation is completed, the applicant must seek registration with the Medical College of Honduras (MCH).
Hong Kong 1998 Unlimited Written examination. Personal interview. Training approval.
India 2012 Unlimited Unlimited for short-term work.
Indonesia 1992 Unlimited and restricted Foreign physicians affiliated with a university project or a mission have unlimited practice rights. No private practice allowed.
Iran 2009 Unlimited Iranian citizens who have received both the DO degree from a US osteopathic school and are board certified in a clinical specialty. Osteopathic degrees from other countries are not accepted. The process of evaluation of the medical education and clinical training is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME).
Israel 2007 Unlimited Same requirements as other foreign physicians. Hebrew required.
Italy 2009 Unlimited Physicians are discouraged from seeking employment in Italy without firm contracts and work permits. If there is a US state law outlining reciprocity with Italy, a statement to this effect from the Italian Consulate will warrant better chances.
Jamaica 1994 Limited and restricted DO physicians were permitted to supply some services while participating in a specific mission project.
Jordan 2012 Unlimited
Kenya 2007 Unlimited
Lebanon 2004 Unlimited AOA letter required. Examination required.
Lesotho 1990s Unlimited Applicants must appear before the Medical, Dental and Pharmacy Council to answer some medical questions and present their credentials. The Council will also make a recommendation about where the applicant's skills would be most helpful in the country.
Liberia 1990s Unlimited Same requirements as other foreign physicians.
Luxembourg 1987 Unlimited The practice of medicine in Luxembourg by a doctor who is not an EU national is very rare.
Malta 2010 Unlimited Accepted on a case by case basis if training meets the minimum educational requirements for physicians in the EU (Article 24 of Directive 2005/36/EC). Examination required.
Malawi 1991 Unlimited
Mexico 2011 Unlimited & Restricted Health Secretary Quijano of the Yucatán State of Mexico signed a Proclamation recognizing US-trained osteopathic physicians in that state; DO physicians can now obtain short-term & long-term licensure through the Health Secretary's office. All other Mexican states require work permits - only available in conjunction with the association of a short-term medical mission project.
Micronesia 1993 Unlimited Statutes specifically include DOs
Nepal 2008 Unlimited Approval by the Nepal Medical Council & a visa from the Immigration Department.
Netherlands 2009 Unlimited Same requirements as other foreign physicians.
New Zealand 2008 Unlimited Hearing required. Case-by-case basis.
Nigeria 2010 Unlimited US licensure and completion of specialty training required.
Norway 2009 Limited OMM only, but DOs may apply for recognition as medical doctors.[54]
Pakistan 2011 Unlimited US osteopathic medical schools meet the Medical and Dental Council's statutory regulations for international medical graduates. Scope is unlimited, but practice setting may be restricted
Panama 2009 Unlimited Panamanian citizenship required.
Papua New Guinea 2010 Unlimited Work permit required. Short-term or a long-term volunteer service license also available.
Peru 2011 Unlimited Process for licensure is the same as for other IMGs.
Poland 2009 Unlimited Examination & Polish required.
Qatar 2011 Unlimited Must possess a valid work visa, and pass written and oral examinations.
Russia 2006 Unlimited Foreign physicians make arrangements to practice through Russian sponsors, such as hospitals or businesses.
Saint Lucia 2000 Unlimited US credentials recognized.
Saudi Arabia 2009 Unlimited Foreign physician must be recruited by a government agency, a corporation or a private health care entity, such as a hospital.
Sierra Leone 1993 Unlimited Notarized US credentials recognized.
South Africa 2009 Limited OMM only
Sweden 2005 Unlimited US license recognized.
Taiwan 2008 Unlimited The ROC government recognizes American DO degrees. Applicants must take Taiwan Examination Yuan to obtain Taiwanese license.
Tanzania 1985 Unlimited US license and GME recognized. Temporary work permits are available
Uganda 2008 Unlimited
United Arab Emirates 2009 Unlimited Examination required.
United Kingdom 2005 Unlimited US-trained DO physicians are eligible for full medical practice rights. Applicants must pass the PLAB examination and work for one year in the National Health Service. Following that year, the applicants will be able to apply for a license to practice privately. For GMC registration as a specialist, postgraduate training will need to be separately recognized by the Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board (PMETB). GOsC registration is also required.
Venezuela 2007 Unlimited Recognized status under the law of the practice of medicine.
Vietnam 1995 Unlimited Foreign physicians can fill vacancies in hospitals that are in need of certain specialists.
Zambia 2009 Unlimited US licensure required.
Zimbabwe 2009 Limited OMM only.
OMM: Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine

See also

Notes and references

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  3. ^ a b "Osteopathic Medical Profession Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-06-29. Retrieved 2017-05-20.
  4. ^ American Osteopathic Association 2017 Statistics
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  6. ^ Directory of Accredited Medical Education Programs, Liaison Committee on Medical Education Archived 2011-07-22 at WebCite
  7. ^ "AAMC Medical Schools". Association of American Medical Colleges. Archived from the original on 2013-08-12. Retrieved 2006-12-13.
  8. ^ Berger, Joseph (14 August 2014). "The D.O. Is in Now. Osteopathic Schools Turn Out Nearly a Quarter of All Med School Grads" (ED14). NY Times. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  9. ^ "OMP Report: Osteopathic Medical Schools". American Osteopathic Association. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  10. ^ a b c Kasper, Dennis L.; Eugene Braunwald; Anthony S. Fauci; Stephen L. Hauser; Dan L. Longo; J. Larry Jameson; Kurt J. Isselbacher (2004). "Chapter 10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine". Harrison's principles of internal medicine (16th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0071391405.
  11. ^ "Graduate Medical Education Data Resource Book: 2011-12" (PDF). Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. pp. 5, 6, 59, 60. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  12. ^ "Roadmap to Residency: From Application to the Match and Beyond" (PDF). Association of American Medical Colleges. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  13. ^ "AOA Approved Internships and Residencies". American Osteopathic Association. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  14. ^ "Opportunities, Directory of Osteopathic Postdoctoral Education Programs, Supplemental OPTI Affiliation List" (PDF). The DO. October 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  15. ^ "AOA Specialty Certifying Boards". American Osteopathic Association. Archived from the original on 2012-06-01. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  16. ^ a b Swanson ES (2015). "Pseudoscience". Science and Society: Understanding Scientific Methodology, Energy, Climate, and Sustainability. Springer. p. 65. ISBN 978-3-319-21987-5.
  17. ^ "''Medical Registration for Macon County, MO as of March 27, 1874,'' Missouri Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri". Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  18. ^ "Medical registration for Adair County, MO dated 28 July 1883". Missouri Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri.
  19. ^ "Early American Manual Therapy". Archived from the original on 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
  20. ^ "Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation" (PDF). State of New Jersey. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-08.
  21. ^ "Osteopathic Virtual Museum". Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  22. ^ "General Notices". Popular Science Monthly: 710. Mar 1898. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
  23. ^ Emmons Rutledge Booth (2006). History of Osteopathy. p. 80. ISBN 978-3-936679-04-5.
  24. ^ Eileen L. DiGiovanna; Stanley Schiowitz; Dennis J. Dowling (2005). An Osteopathic Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7817-4293-1.
  25. ^ "Terminology for Reporting on Osteopathic Medicine". Archived from the original on 2013-05-14. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
  26. ^ Allen, TW (1993). "'Osteopathic physician' defines our identity". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 93 (9): 884. PMID 8244784.
  27. ^ Allen, TW (2010). "Osteopathic medical terminology--redux". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 110 (12): 743–4. PMID 21178160.
  28. ^ a b c "Osteopathic Medical Profession Report 2012" (PDF). American Osteopathic Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-16. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
  29. ^ a b "Osteopathic Medicine Profession Report 2015" (PDF). American Osteopathic Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
  30. ^ "Overview of Osteopathic Medical Education/Accreditation/The Four-Year Curriculum (2012 Osteopathic Medical College Information Book)" (PDF). American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. 2012.
  31. ^ Franke H, Franke JD, Fryer G (August 2014). "Osteopathic manipulative treatment for nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis". BMC Musculoskelet Disord (Systematic review & meta-analysis). 15 (1): 286. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-286. PMC 4159549. PMID 25175885.
  32. ^ Orrock PJ, Myers SP (2013). "Osteopathic intervention in chronic non-specific low back pain: a systematic review". BMC Musculoskelet Disord (Systematic review). 14: 129. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-129. PMC 3623881. PMID 23570655.
  33. ^ Jäkel A, von Hauenschild P (2012). "A systematic review to evaluate the clinical benefits of craniosacral therapy". Complement Ther Med. 20 (6): 456–65. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2012.07.009. PMID 23131379.
  34. ^ Ernst E (2012). "Craniosacral therapy: A systematic review of the clinical evidence". Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 17 (4): 197–201. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7166.2012.01174.x.
  35. ^ "Table 17: MCAT Scores and GPAs for Applicants and Matriculants to U.S. Medical Schools" (PDF). Association of American Medical Colleges. 2000–2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-14.
  36. ^ a b "AACOMAS Matriculant Profile 2011 Entering Class" (PDF). American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  37. ^ "Osteopathic Medical College Information Book" (PDF). American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. 2012.
  38. ^ Madison Park (June 13, 2011). "Never too late to be a doctor". CNN News. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  39. ^ "United States Medical Licensing Examination | USMLE Bulletin | Eligibility". Usmle.org. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
  40. ^ Sarko, John; Svoren, Elena; Katz, Eric (February 2010). "COMLEX-1 and USMLE-1 Are Not Interchangeable Examinations". Academic Emergency Medicine. 17 (2): 218–220. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00632.x. PMID 20070273.
  41. ^ Chick, Davoren A.; Harley P. Friedman; Vincent B. Young; David Solomon (22 January 2010). "Relationship Between COMLEX and USMLE Scores Among Osteopathic Medical Students who Take Both Examinations". Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 22 (1): 3–7. doi:10.1080/10401330903445422. PMID 20391276.
  42. ^ "Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Residency Program Director's Manual" (PDF). Association of Academic Physiatrists. Retrieved 2016-12-24.
  43. ^ "Program Directors FAQ". NBOME. Archived from the original on 2011-08-07. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
  44. ^ "2012 Annual Report" (PDF). National Board of Medical Examiners. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  45. ^ "Board Examinations and Licensure" (PDF). Medical College Information Book, 2012 edition. AACOM. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  46. ^ "COMLEX-USA: Bulletin of Information" (PDF). National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  47. ^ "Allopathic and Osteopathic Medical Communities Commit to a Single Graduate Medical Education Accreditation System" (PDF). Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  48. ^ "Directory of State Medical and Osteopathic Boards". Federation of State Medical Boards. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  49. ^ "Federation of State Medical Boards". Federation of State Medical Boards. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  50. ^ "The Difference Between U.S.-Trained Osteopathic Physicians and Osteopaths Trained Abroad". American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  51. ^ Frequently Asked Questions regarding International Licensure, Council on International Osteopathic Medical Education & Affairs, American Osteopathic Association. Contact information listed.
  52. ^ a b "AOA International Licensure Summary" (PDF). American Osteopathic Association. April 2013.
  53. ^ "FAQ and Fact Sheets". AHPRA. Medical Board of Australia.
  54. ^ "Norway: Osteopathic Medicine" (PDF). Osteopathic International Alliance.

External links

Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine is a private, non-profit medical school for osteopathic medicine located in the city of Dothan in the U.S. state of Alabama. It is the first osteopathic medical school in the state and is believed to be the first osteopathic medical school in the nation established by a regional not-for-profit hospital.On April 24, 2017, the American Osteopathic Association's Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA), awarded ACOM full accreditation status. Graduates of the college receive a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree (D.O.). The first class began study on 5 August 2013, and graduated on 13 May 2017.

Arkansas College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Arkansas College of Osteopathic Medicine (ARCOM) is a private, non-profit, medical school for osteopathic medicine located in Fort Smith, in the U.S. state of Arkansas. Founded in 2014 as a division of the Arkansas Colleges of Health Education, the school holds provisional accreditation with the American Osteopathic Association. The school opened its doors to its inaugural class of 150 students in August 2017. Graduates of ARCOM will receive the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree.

College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Northwest

The College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Northwest (COMP Northwest) is a non-profit, private, medical school for osteopathic medicine located in Lebanon, in the U.S. state of Oregon. Opened in 2011, the school is a branch campus of Western University of Health Sciences' College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, and is operated in partnership with Samaritan Health Services. Graduates of the college will receive the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree. The university plans to eventually open additional colleges at the Lebanon campus.

Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation

The American Osteopathic Association's (AOA) Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA) accredits medical schools granting the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) degree in the United States. The US Department of Education lists the Commission as a recognized accreditor.

Council of Osteopathic Student Government Presidents

The Council of Osteopathic Student Government Presidents (COSGP) was established in 1972 as an official council of the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM) to serve as the official national representative voting voice of osteopathic medical students. There are currently 35 accredited colleges of osteopathic medicine that offer the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) degree, with 55 locations in 32 states nationwide. The council includes a student representatives from each of these schools. COSGP serves as a national voting body within AACOM and the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) and represents the collective voice of osteopathic medical students.

Doctor of Humane Letters

The degree of Doctor of Humane Letters (Latin: Litterarum humanarum doctor; D.H.L.; or L.H.D.) is almost always conferred as an honorary degree, usually to those students who have distinguished themselves in areas other than science, government, literature or religion, which are awarded degrees of Doctor of Science, Doctor of Law, Doctor of Letters, or Doctor of Divinity, respectively.

Doctor of Humane Letters degrees should not be confused with earned academic degrees awarded on the basis of research, such as Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Science or Doctor of Theology, nor earned professional doctorates such as Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Doctor of Podiatric Medicine, Juris Doctor, Doctor of Optometry etc.

Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine (OU-HCOM) is the medical school of Ohio University and the only osteopathic college in the U.S. state of Ohio. Its mission is to emphasize the practice of primary care and train physicians to serve Ohio, especially in the underserved Appalachian and urban areas of the state.

Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine offers a single program conferring the degree Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.), and several combined degree programs. Graduates are eligible to practice medicine in all 50 states and more than 50 countries. The college is fully accredited by the American Osteopathic Association's Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation, and by the Institutions of Higher Education of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.

Ivan Raimi

Ivan M. Raimi (born 1956) is an American Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.), and screenwriter, and the older brother of filmmaker Sam Raimi and actor Ted Raimi. Ivan works as an emergency physician in Ann Arbor, traveling to Los Angeles occasionally to work in Hollywood.

Liaison Committee on Medical Education

The Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) is an accrediting body for educational programs at schools of medicine in the United States and Canada. The LCME is sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the American Medical Association. It publishes many guides and standards, including the Directory of Accredited Medical Education Programs. The LCME currently accredits 134 U.S. schools, which includes 4 in Puerto Rico, as well as 17 others in Canada. The LCME accredits only the schools that grant a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree; osteopathic medical schools that grant the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree are accredited by the Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation of the American Osteopathic Association.

Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine is a private, non-profit medical school for osteopathic medicine located in Indianapolis, in the U.S. state of Indiana. It is one of the colleges at Marian University, and the first osteopathic medical school to open at a Roman Catholic university.Founded in 2010, the college holds accreditation status with the American Osteopathic Association's Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA). Graduates of the college will receive a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.).

Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine (MSUCOM) is the osteopathic medical school of Michigan State University located in East Lansing, Michigan. The college grants the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree, as well as a DO-PhD combined degree for students interested in training as physician-scientists. MSUCOM operates two satellite campuses in Macomb and Detroit. The college is accredited by the American Osteopathic Association's Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA) and by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.

National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners

The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME), founded in 1934 as the National Osteopathic Board of Examiners for Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons, Inc., is a United States examination board which sets state recognized examinations for osteopathic medical students and began administering exams in February 1935. The NBOME is an independent, not-for-profit organization and is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois and Conshohocken, Pennsylvania. The NBOME states that its mission is "to protect the public by providing the means to assess competencies for osteopathic medicine and related health care professions." The NBOME conducts research to monitor the quality of the COMLEX examinations.The Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX) is a multi-part professional examination and must be passed successfully before a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) can obtain a license to practice medicine in the United States.

Osteopathic medicine

Osteopathic medicine is a branch of the medical profession practiced primarily in the United States, but has also spread to 65 other countries, with universities throughout Europe and Asia, and including Australia, New Zealand and Canada. The Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree in the United States is equivalent to the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree and allows medical doctors to practice medicine and surgery in all 50 states. Outside the U.S., a degree in osteopathy is more similar to physical therapy, and exists as an allied health profession.

Osteopathic medicine in Canada

This article discusses osteopathic physicians practicing medicine in Canada, for non-physician osteopathic practitioners, see Osteopathy in Canada.

Osteopathic medicine in Canada is similar to conventional medicine in Canada, with the addition of osteopathic manipulation to diagnose and treat patients. Osteopathic physicians hold equal practice rights to non-osteopathic physicians (MDs) in Canada. North American osteopathic medicine requires an osteopathic physician to be trained and receive the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree granted by a College of Osteopathic Medicine accredited by the American Osteopathic Association.

The Canadian Osteopathic Association (COA) represents osteopathic physicians registered for medical practice across Canada, and the Canadian Osteopathic Medical Student Association (COMSA) is the affiliated student organization. In Canada, the titles "osteopath" and "osteopathic physician" are protected in some provinces by the medical regulatory college for physicians and surgeons. As of 2011, there were approximately 20 U.S.-trained osteopathic physicians, all of whom held a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree, practicing in all of Canada. As of 2014, no training programs have been established for osteopathic physicians in Canada. Currently, there are no DO programs outside the United States. DO programs are accredited by the Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA) of the American Osteopathic Association. The authority for licensure of osteopathic physicians lies with the provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons.

Rocky Vista University College of Osteopathic Medicine

Rocky Vista University College of Osteopathic Medicine (RVUCOM) is a private, for-profit osteopathic medical school with campus locations in Parker, Colorado and Ivins, Utah. The school opened in 2006 as the only modern for-profit medical school in the United States but has since been joined by California Northstate University College of Medicine. RVUCOM grants the degree of Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, and admitted its inaugural class of medical students at the Parker, Colorado campus in August 2008.

Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine

The Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine (also known as RowanSOM or SOM) is a public medical school for osteopathic medicine located in Stratford, in the U.S. state of New Jersey. Founded in 1976, RowanSOM is one of two medical schools associated with Rowan University. RowanSOM confers the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree (DO), and is one of the top medical schools for geriatric care and primary care as ranked by the U.S. News & World Report.RowanSOM is accredited by the American Osteopathic Association’s Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation.

Sean Conley

Sean Patrick Conley is an American physician and United States Navy officer who is the incumbent Physician to the President.

Conley was born in Doylestown, Pennsylvania. He graduated from Central Bucks High School East, and received his bachelor's degree from the University of Notre Dame in 2002.

Conley received his Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree from the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine in 2006. He is a 2013 graduate of the Emergency Medicine Residency Program of Naval Medical Center Portsmouth in Portsmouth, Virginia. He received the Honor Graduate Award, Nurses' Choice Award for Outstanding Senior Resident Award, and the Resident Research Award. In 2014, he served as an emergency physician with the International Security Assistance Force at Kandahar International Airport outside the city of Kandahar, Afghanistan. He was assigned to NATO Role 3 MMU, and was appointed head of the trauma department. The unit won a commendation from the Romanian Land Forces for saving the life of a Romanian soldier injured by an improvised explosive device in 2014. He served as the research director at Portsmouth Navy Department of Emergency Medicine prior to his assignment to the White House Medical Unit.He became the Physician to the President upon Dr. Ronny Jackson's nomination for Secretary of Veterans Affairs.

The DO

The DO is a monthly online magazine published by the American Osteopathic Association. According to its website, the magazine "contains news of the osteopathic profession and its members, articles of professional and personal interest to osteopathic physicians (D.O.) and osteopathic medical students, legislative developments, meeting coverage, clinical updates, and an extensive listing of osteopathic continuing medical education programs."

The title of the magazine refers to the initials of the degree held by osteopathic physicians in the United States, the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree.

The magazine was established in April 1927 as The Forum of Osteopathy and obtained its current title in September 1960.

University of the Incarnate Word School of Osteopathic Medicine

The University of the Incarnate Word School of Osteopathic Medicine (UIWSOM) is a private, non-profit, medical school for osteopathic medicine located in San Antonio, in the U.S. state of Texas. Opened in 2015 as an academic division of the University of the Incarnate Word, the school holds provisional accreditation with the American Osteopathic Association.The school plans to begin the inaugural class in summer 2017. Graduates of UIW-SOM will receive the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree.

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