Doctor of Nursing Practice

The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) is a terminal professional degree in nursing. In the United States, the DNP is one of two doctorate degrees in nursing, the other being the PhD (Doctor of Philosophy). The curriculum for the DNP degree builds on traditional master's programs by providing education in evidence-based practice, quality improvement, and systems leadership.[1] Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) include the nurse practitioner (NP), certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA), certified nurse midwife (CNM), and the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and are prepared in master's-degree programs. Although approximately 52% of nurse anesthetist programs will award the DNP, the remaining 48% may use the title Doctor of Nurse Anesthesia Practice (DNAP).

Education requirements in the United States

According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), transitioning advance practice registered nursing programs from the graduate level to the doctoral level is a "...response to changes in health care delivery and emerging health care needs, additional knowledge or content areas have been identified by practicing nurses. In addition, the knowledge required to provide leadership in the discipline of nursing is so complex and rapidly changing that additional or doctoral level education is needed."[2] According to the AACN, "...benefits of practice-focused doctoral programs include:

  • development of needed advanced competencies for increasingly complex clinical, faculty and leadership roles;
  • enhanced knowledge to improve nursing practice and patient outcomes;
  • enhanced leadership skills to strengthen practice and health care delivery;
  • better match of program requirements and credits and time with the credential earned;
  • provision of an advanced educational credential for those who require advanced practice knowledge but do not need or want a strong research focus (e.g. clinical faculty);
  • parity with other health professions, most of which have a doctorate as the credential required for practice;
  • enhanced ability to attract individuals to nursing from non-nursing backgrounds;
  • increased supply of faculty for clinical instruction; and
  • improved image of nursing."[2]

Transitioning toward the doctorate

The AACN recommended that all entry-level nurse practitioner educational programs be transitioned from the Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) degree to the DNP degree.[3] The American Association of Nurse Anesthetists has followed suit, requiring the DNP (or DNAP-Doctor of Nurse Anesthesia Practice) degree for entry-level nurse anesthetist programs by the year 2025.[4] Meanwhile, the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists (NACNS) announced in July 2015 its endorsement of the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) as the required degree for CNS entry into practice by 2030. Nurse practitioners and nurse anesthetists currently practicing with either an MSN or certificate will not be required to obtain the DNP for continued practice.

In the United States there are two terminal doctorate degrees in the field of nursing: The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP), and the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). Previous doctorate level degrees have been, or are in the process of being phased out and converted to one of the two terminal degrees. The Doctor of Nursing (ND, not to be confused with Naturopathic Doctor ND) and the (DrNP) have transitioned into the DNP whereas the Doctor of Nursing Science (DNSc, DNS or DSN) has transitioned into the PhD. The PhD in nursing is generally considered the academic and research-oriented degree, whereas the DNP is the practice-oriented or professional terminal degree.[3]

See also


  1. ^ "American Association of Colleges of Nursing | DNP Fact Sheet". Retrieved 2015-09-19.
  2. ^ a b Report of the Task Force on the Clinical Doctorate
  3. ^ a b American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2004). AACN Position Statement on the Practice Doctorate in Nursing. Available at
  4. ^ American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (2007). AANA Position on Doctoral Preparation of Nurse Anesthetists. Available at "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
Advanced practice nurse

An advanced practice nurse (APN) is a nurse with post-graduate education in nursing. APNs are prepared with advanced didactic and clinical education, knowledge, skills, and scope of practice in nursing.Advanced practice nursing defines a level of nursing practice that utilizes extended and expanded skills, experience and knowledge in assessment, planning, implementation, diagnosis and evaluation of the care required. Nurses practicing at this level are educationally prepared at the post-graduate level and may work in either a specialist or generalist capacity. However, the basis of advanced practice is the high degree of knowledge, skill and experience that is applied within the nurse-patient/client relationship to achieve optimal outcomes through critical analysis, problem solving and evidence-based decision making.

Amy Doneen

Amy Lynn Doneen (born in 1969) is an American doctor of nursing practice (DNP) and co-founder of the Bale-Doneen Method for the prevention and treatment of heart attack, stroke and type 2 diabetes, and for treatment after one of these medical events.She is also the owner and medical director of the Heart Attack & Stroke Prevention Center in Spokane, Washington. She holds professorships at Washington State University School of Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry and Texas Tech University Health Science Center.

Cannabis City

Cannabis City is an American recreational marijuana retail store located in Seattle, Washington. The store, located in the SoDo neighborhood south of downtown, opened on July 8, 2014, and was the first of its kind in that city. The store is owned by James Lathrop, a Doctor of Nursing Practice, and a U.S. Desert Storm war veteran. In July, the store was asked to submit historical paraphernalia to Seattle's Museum of History and Industry for preservation.

Diploma in Nursing

A Diploma in Nursing or Nursing Diploma is an entry-level tertiary education nursing credential.

Duke University School of Nursing

The Duke University School of Nursing is located in Durham, NC and is affiliated with Duke University and Duke University Health System. The school offers an accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing, a Master of Science in Nursing, Doctorate in Nursing Practice (DNP), and a Ph.D. Program. The 2018 US News & World Report ranked both the Masters and the Doctor of Nursing Practice degree programs as #1 overall.

On January 2, 1931, the school opened its doors to its first class of 24 undergraduate students under the direction of Dean Bessie Baker and instructor Ann Henshaw Gardiner.

The school has offered many different degrees over the years. The first students, high school graduates, received a diploma after a three-year program that cost just $100 per year. In 1938, the school began offering baccalaureate degrees to students who had completed two years of college along with the nursing curricula. In 1944, the school began a Bachelor of Science in Nursing Education degree program. In 1953, it added a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) degree program. Five years later, under the leadership of Thelma Ingles, The Duke School of Nursing was one of the first schools in the nation to offer a graduate nursing program.

In 1984, as a part of Duke University’s retrenchment plan, the last class of BSN students graduated. The graduate programs also ended in 1984, re-opening in 1985 with a new curriculum and focus on research. In response to the increasing nursing shortage, the school once again began offering a BSN degree in 2002– this time as an accelerated, 16-month degree offered to students already holding an undergraduate degree. In 2006, the school accepted the first students into the new PhD program. In 2008, the school launched the first Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree program in North Carolina to prepare nurses for leadership positions in clinical care.

Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing

The Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing is a nursing school at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, OH. The school is named in honor of Frances Payne Bolton, a former congresswoman from Cleveland's 22nd District.The Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing educates health care professionals. It offers undergraduate and graduate nursing programs, including:

Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN)

Graduate Entry (MN)

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)

Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (PhD)

Dual Doctorate DNP/PhD ProgramKate Benedict Hanna Harvey (1871-1936), an heiress to the M. A. Hanna Company fortune and philanthropist, spearheaded its establishment.

Johns Hopkins School of Nursing

The Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing (JHUSON) is part of the Johns Hopkins University located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Established in 1889, it is one of the nation’s oldest and schools for nursing education, ranking 2nd in the nation. It is also among the top recipients of nursing research funding from the National Institutes of Health. The school's mission is to provide leadership to improve health care and advance the nursing profession through education, research, practice, and service.

Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing

Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing is the nursing school of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. The school awards the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN), Master of Science in Nursing (MSN), Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP), Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (PhD). The school is named after Nell Hodgson Woodruff, wife of long-time president of The Coca-Cola Company Robert W. Woodruff. Mrs. Woodruff left nursing school when she married, but she supported nursing causes throughout her life.Two of the school's nursing specialties—pediatrics and midwifery-were highly ranked in U.S. News & World Report's 2012 edition of "America's Best Graduate Schools." The school's pediatric nurse practitioner program made its first appearance in the report at No. 11. The school's midwifery program remains in the U.S. News rankings at No. 13.

Nursing management

Nursing management consists of the performance of the leadership functions of governance and decision-making within organizations employing nurses. It includes processes common to all management like planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. It is common for registered nurses to seek additional education to earn a Master of Science in Nursing or Doctor of Nursing Practice to prepare for leadership roles within nursing. Management positions increasingly require candidates to hold an advanced degree in nursing.

Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions

Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions (RMUoHP) is a regionally accredited institution established in 1998 as a graduate healthcare education provider. It is located in Provo, Utah. RMUoHP’s student body represents all 50 states and offers both residential and limited-residency programs. RMUoHP is accredited by the Northwest Commission of Colleges and Universities.

School of Nursing at The Catholic University of America

The School of Nursing at The Catholic University of America was founded in 1935Courses and degree programs at the school include Bachelor Science in Nursing, Spanish for Healthcare Professionals, Master of Science in Nursing, Family Nurse Practitioner, and Doctor of Nursing Practice.

According to US News & World Report, The School of Nursing at The Catholic University of America ranks #41 of Best Nursing School, Master's and #42 for Best Nursing Schools DNP.

St. Luke's International University

St. Luke's International University (聖路加看護大学, Seiruka kokusai daigaku) is a private university in Chuo, Tokyo, Japan, formerly called St. Luke's College of Nursing. The school started in 1920 as a high school to educate nurses for the affiliated St. Luke's International Hospital. It was chartered as a three-year college in 1954 and became a four-year college in 1964. In 1980 and 1988 postgraduate doctoral programs were established, including a Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) course.

University of Mary Hardin–Baylor

The University of Mary Hardin–Baylor (UMHB) is a Christian co-educational institution of higher learning located in Belton, Texas, United States. UMHB was chartered by the Republic of Texas in 1845 as Baylor Female College, the female department of what is now Baylor University. It has since become its own institution and grown to 3,914 students and awards degrees at the baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral levels. It is affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas.The university is fully accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. UMHB's first doctoral program, leading to the doctor of education (EdD), officially began in June 2007 with 21 students in the inaugural class. The university's overall student/faculty ratio is 16:1. This university also now awards the doctor of physical therapy and the doctor of nursing practice degrees.

University of Massachusetts Amherst College of Nursing

The University of Massachusetts Amherst College of Nursing is a nursing college at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

University of Minnesota School of Nursing

The University of Minnesota School of Nursing is the nursing school of the University of Minnesota that was founded in 1909. It is the nation's first and oldest continuously operated university-based school of nursing. It has historically been an innovator in nursing, it was the first university to create a Bachelor of Science in Nursing and it graduated the first bachelor's degree nurses in 1909. It is ranked amongst the nation's top nursing schools, it has a research budget of $6 million each year, and produces more than half of the faculty in Minnesota's public and private nursing schools and advanced practice nurses. College courses and continuing education are offered at the University of Minnesota East Bank in Minneapolis and at the University of Minnesota, Rochester campus in Rochester, Minnesota.

It is notable as first school of nursing in the nation to offer Doctor of Nursing Practice programs in Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist, Nursing Informatics and Health Innovation and Leadership as well as the first to create a midwifery program to be fully accredited within a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree. It offers the Bachelor of Nursing, entry-Master of Nursing, Doctorate of Nursing Practice, Philosophy Doctorate in Nursing as well as certificates and continuing education.

University of North Florida

The University of North Florida (UNF) is a public university in Jacksonville, Florida, United States. A member institution of the State University System of Florida, the university is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, masters and doctorate degrees to its students. Its campus comprises 1,300 acres surrounded by a natural preserve on Jacksonville's Southside. The current president is Dr. David Szymanski.

UNF opened in 1972, with Thomas G. Carpenter serving as its first president. Initially designated an upper division college for juniors and seniors, it began admitting freshmen in 1984. UNF is organized into five colleges which offer 53 undergraduate degree programs, 28 graduate degree programs and 7 doctoral degree programs, with noted business, coastal biology, nursing, nutrition, and music programs. Doctoral programs offered through the Brooks College of Health at UNF include Doctorate in Clinical Nutrition, BSN-DNP in Family Nurse Practitioner, BSN-DNP in Nurse Anesthetist, Post-MSN Doctor of Nursing Practice, Post-MSN Doctor of Nursing Practice in Psych-Mental Health and Doctor of Physical Therapy. The College of Education and Human Services offers doctoral degrees in Specialist in Educational Leadership and Doctorate of Education in Educational Leadership. Most students reside off campus, though there are six areas of on-campus housing. In 2006, the Social Sciences building became the first facility to be LEED-certified in northeast Florida, as well as the first "green" building on campus. As of 2010, there are five buildings on campus that have been certified by the U.S. Green Building Council.

UNF has 220 clubs and organizations for students as well as an active Student Government and Greek life. The student-run newspaper The Spinnaker is published monthly. Its intercollegiate athletics teams are known as the Ospreys, and are currently members of the Atlantic Sun Conference in NCAA Division I.

VCU School of Nursing

The School of Nursing at Virginia Commonwealth University is a national leader in education, research and service. Ranked among the nation's 50 top graduate nursing programs by U.S. News and World Report, the School of Nursing offers the full range of academic programs from the baccalaureate to the doctoral level. Established in 1893, the School is part of a leading academic health sciences center on the MCV Campus. Programs include: Baccalaureate: Traditional B.S., Accelerated B.S., and RN to B.S. (online); Master's - Family NP, Adult-gerontology Primary Care NP, Adult-gerontology Acute Care NP, Psychiatric and Mental Health NP, and Nursing Administration and Leadership (online); Post-master's Certificates; and Doctoral (both online) - Ph.D. and DNP (Doctor of Nursing Practice).

Vanderbilt University School of Nursing

Vanderbilt University School of Nursing (VUSN) is one of the graduate schools of Vanderbilt University, located in Nashville, Tennessee. VUSN enjoys a close relationship with its university parent and with the separate nonprofit Vanderbilt University Medical Center, known for its teaching hospital and efforts in electronic medical records. The School of Nursing is ranked, along with the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, in the top 20 in the U.S. News & World Report rankings.

Washington State University College of Nursing

The Washington State University College of Nursing is a nursing school affiliated with Washington State University. Its main location is on the Washington State University Health Sciences campus in Spokane, Washington, with programs also offered at WSU Vancouver, WSU Tri-Cities, and in Yakima, Washington. Degrees offered include Bachelor of Science in Nursing; RN-BSN; Master of Nursing; Doctor of Nursing Practice; and PhD. Enrollment among all programs at all locations was 942 for spring semester 2018.

The college was founded in Spokane in 1968 as the Intercollegiate Center for Nursing Education. The WSU College of Nursing still accepts students from Eastern Washington University and Whitworth University, two of the three original intercollegiate partners.

Levels of practice
and licensure
Specialties and
areas of practice
Nursing process
By country

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.