Doctor of Medicine

A Doctor of Medicine (M.D. from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States, Canada and other countries, the MD denotes a first professional graduate degree awarded upon initial graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom, Ireland and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who already hold a first professional degree in medicine; in those countries, the equivalent first professional degree is typically titled Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery.[1]

History

Claude Bernard's thesis for his doctorate Wellcome M0011459
The thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his doctorate of medicine (1843)

In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine.[2]

University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, and in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees (MB BS/MBChB/MB BChir/BM BCh etc.). North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MoD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century. The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York (which at the time was referred to as King's College of Medicine) was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB.[3]

Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Penn, Harvard, Maryland, and McGill.[4] These first few North American medical schools that were established were (for the most part) founded by physicians and surgeons who had been trained in England and Scotland.

A feminine form, "Doctress of Medicine" or Medicinae Doctrix, was also used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s.[5][6][7] In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. Typically a doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction.

Doctor of Medicine Degrees by country

First or Basic Professional Degree

Afghanistan

In Afghanistan, medical education begins after high school. No pre-medicine courses or bachelor's degree is required. Eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam held every year throughout the country. Entry to medical school is competitive, and only students with the highest ranks are accepted into medical programs. The primary medical degree is completed in 7 years. According to the new medical curriculum (from 2016), during the 12th semester, medical students must complete research on a medical topic and provide a thesis as part of their training. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, regarded "MD" and validated by the "Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan". All physicians are to obtain licensing and a medical council registration number from the "Ministry of Public Health" before they officially begin to practice. They may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. After graduation, students may complete residency.

The MD specification: Before the civil wars in Afghanistan, medical education used to be taught by foreign professors or Afghan professors who studied medical education abroad. The Kabul medical institute certified the students as "Master of Medicine". After the civil wars, medical education has extremely changed, and the MD certification has been reduced to "Medicine Bachelor".

Argentina

In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate (Spanish: Título de Médico)[8] is equivalent to the North American MD Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by usually three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation.[9]

Australia

Historically, Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine (MD) for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor's degrees together with other undergraduate programs.

The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's (Extended) degrees which permits the use of the term 'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have also renamed their previous medical research doctorates. The University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, and has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science (DMedSc).[10]

Brazil

In Brazil, the degree of 'Doutor em Medicina' (Medical Doctor, abbreviated as 'Dr') is awarded after six years of intensive undergraduate theoretical and practical studies necessarily including an intensive internship (of usually two years in duration). There are no strict requirements regarding research work to be completed during those years yet most courses will offer and enforce some involvement in research. 'Doutorado' is the equivalent of a PhD (i.e. a research postgraduate degree) which is usually referred to by the title 'Professor Doutor (Prof.Dr.)' in case of medical doctors who achieve such degree. There is no particular distinction in title (or abbreviation) between physicians and surgeons, or between medical graduates and specialists.

Bulgaria

At the end of the six-year medical programs from Bulgarian medical schools, medical students are awarded the academic degree Master in Medicine and the professional title Physician - Doctor of Medicine (MD).[11][12]

Cambodia

After 6 years of general medical education (a foundation year plus 5 years), all students will graduate with a Bachelor of Medical Sciences (BMedSc, Khmer: បរិញ្ញាប័ត្រ វិទ្យាសាស្រ្តវេជ្ជសាស្ត្រ), equivalent to Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS). This degree does not allow graduates to work independently as a physician, but it is possible for those who wish to continue to master's degrees in other fields relating to medical sciences such as public health, epidemiology, biomedical science, and nutrition.

Medical graduates, who wish to be fully qualified as physicians or specialists must follow the process as below:

  • General Practitioner's (GP) course of 8 years (BMedSc plus a 2-year internship). Clinical rotation in the internship is modulated within four main disciplines (general medicine, surgery, gynecology, and pediatrics). The medical degree awarded is Doctor of Medicine (MD, Khmer: បណ្ឌិតវេជ្ជសាស្ត្រ ឬ វេជ្ជបណ្ឌិត) – equivalent to a master's degree [?].
  • After graduating with BMedSc; any students who wish to enter a Residency Training Program, are required to sit for an Entrance Exam. The duration of residency programs takes 4 years after either BMedSc or MD (BMedSc or MD plus 4 years of specialization). Once the graduates have successfully defended their practical thesis, they are awarded the Degree of Specialized Doctor (MD with specialization, Khmer: សញ្ញាប័ត្រ៖ វេជ្ជបណ្ឌិតឯកទេស, lit. 'Professional Doctorate').

All medical graduates must complete a Thesis Defense and pass the National Exit Exam (Khmer: ប្រឡងចេញថ្នាក់ជាតិក្នុងវិស័យសុខាភិបាល) to become either GPs or medical or surgical specialists.

China

In China,there are some universities offer 8-year Doctor of Medicine programs. After a degree is acquired, one needs to pass the certification exam to be allowed to practice.

Croatia

In Croatia, the title of "doktor medicine" (abbreviated "dr. med.") is awarded upon completion of six years of study at a Faculty of Medicine ("medicinski fakultet") immediately after high school.

Dominican Republic

In the Dominican Republic, it is known as "Doctor en Medicina" (Doctor in Medicine). In 1511 the Spanish Catholic church founded the first university of the Americas in Santo Domingo present capital of modern-day Dominican Republic and name it Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino (today Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo). In 1630 this university graduated the first medical doctors of the Americas and amongst the graduates some Native Americans included.

France

After graduating from high school with a Baccalaureat, any student can register at a university of medicine (there are about 30 of them throughout the country). At the end of first year, an internal ranking examination takes place in each of these universities in order to implement the numerus clausus. First year consists mainly of theoretical classes such as biophysics and biochemistry, anatomy, ethics or histology. Passing first year is commonly considered very challenging, requiring hard and continuous work. Each student can only try twice. For example, the Université René Descartes welcomes about 2,000 students in first year and only 300 after numerus clausus.

The second and third year are usually mainly quite theoretical although the teachings are often accompanied by placements in the field (e.g., internships as nurses or in the emergency room, depending on the university).

During fourth, fifth and sixth years, medical students get a special status called "externe" (In some universities, such as Pierre et Marie Curie, the externe status is given starting in the third year). They work as interns every morning at the hospital plus a few night shifts a month and study in the afternoon. Each internship lasts between three and four months and takes place in a different department. Med students get five weeks off a year.

At the end of the sixth year, they need to pass a national ranking exam, which will determine their specialty. The first student gets to choose first, then the second, et cetera. Usually, students work hard during fifth and sixth years in order to train properly for the national ranking exam. During these years, actual practice at the hospital and some theoretical courses are meant to balance the training. Such externs' average wage stands between 100 and 300 euros a month.

After that ranking exams, students can start as residents in the specialty they have been able to pick. That is the point from which they also start getting paid.

Towards the end of the medical program, French medical students are provided with more responsibilities and are required to defend a thesis; however, unlike a PhD thesis, no original research is actually necessary to write an MD thesis. At the conclusion of the thesis defense, French medical students receive a State Diploma of Doctor of Medicine (MD, French: diplôme d'Etat de docteur en médecine). Every new doctor must then proceed to a Diploma of Specialised Studies (DES, French: diplôme d'Etudes spécialisées) to mark their specialty. Some students may also receive a Diploma of Complementary Specialized Studies (DESC, French: diplôme d'Etudes spécialisées complémentaires).[13]

Georgia

In Georgia, medical universities in Georgia offer a 6-year curriculum leading to award Doctor of Medicine (MD) "Physician" "Medical Doctor (MD), a European medical degree which is valid throughout the world.Some of the reputed medical universities include Tbilisi state Medical University and Petre Shotadze Tbilisi Medical Academy[14]

Germany

After at least six years of medical school, the students graduate with a final federal medical exam (Dritter Abschnitt der ärztlichen Prüfung). Graduates receive their license to practice medicine and the professional title of physician (Arzt). About 80% of them additionally obtain the academic MD-like degree Doctor of Medicine (Dr. Med.).[15] The corresponding "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study and are comparable to a master's thesis in science;[15] but students are only allowed to finish the dissertation process after their studies. Obtaining the title is a practical necessity because many medical laypersons incorrectly assume that a doctorate is required for the practice of medicine. The European Research Council decided in 2010 that those Dr. med. doctorates do not meet the international standards of a PhD research degree.[16][17]

Guyana

In Guyana, Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree is awarded after the completion of 4 years or 5 years of study. Texila American University, Green heart university, American International School of Medicine, Alexander American University provides medicine programs.

Indonesia

In Indonesia, the title of "dokter" (dr.) is awarded after 3-3.5 years of study (at least) and 1.5–2 years of clinical course in university hospitals. After a medical student finished those five years of study, they need to take "Uji Kompetensi Mahasiswa Program Profesi Dokter" (UKMPPD). If they pass the test, they can take Hippocrates Oath and the title of Dokter (dr.) is entitled before their name. Then they need to take a year-long internship course in primary health care clinics (also known as Puskesmas) or primary hospitals all over the country to practice as general practitioner under supervision of senior doctors. Those who wished to further their study into specialties can take graduate course of medicine of their preference and will be entitled with "Specialist of ..." after their name (e.g.: Sp.A for Spesialis Anak = Pediatrician). Graduate course of medicine is equal with residency program which is required the candidates to study for four years and hospital internship. Note that "dr." is used for medical graduates, while Dr. (or wrongfully DR., Doktor) is used for PhD holders.

Iran

In Iran, Medical education begins after high school. No pre-med course or BSc degree is required. The eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam being held every year throughout the country. The entry to medical school is competitive and only students with the highest rank are accepted into medical program. The primary medical degree is completed in 7–7.5 years. On the final years (last 1–2 years) medical students need to do a research on a medical topic and provide thesis as part of their trainings. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, called "Professional Doctorate in Medicine" validated by the "Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran". All physicians will obtain license and medical council registration number from the "Medical Council of Iran" before they officially begin to practice. They may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications.

Israel

There are five university medical schools in Israel, including the Technion in Haifa, Ben Gurion University in Be'er Sheva, Tel Aviv University, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Medical school of the Bar-Ilan University in Safed. They all follow the European 6-year model except Bar-Ilan University, which has a four-year program similar to the US system.[18] However, as of 2009, Tel Aviv University has introduced a four-year program similar to the US system for students with a bachelor's degree in certain biological sciences. The entrance requirements of the various schools of medicine are very strict. Israeli students require a high school Baccalaureate average above 100 and psychometric examination grade over 740. The demand for medical education is strong and growing, and there is a lack of doctors in Israel. The Technion Medical School, Ben Gurion University, and Tel Aviv University Sackler Faculty of Medicine[19] offer 4-year MD programs for American students who have American college degrees and have taken the MCAT interested in completing rigorous medical education in Israel before returning to the US or Canada. In Israel, the degree of Doctor of Medicine (MD) is considered to be equivalent to a Master's degree academically and legally.[20]

Italy

In Italy, the title of "Dottore in Medicina e Chirurgia" (literally Doctor in Medicine and Surgery) is awarded after completion of a Master's course in medicine and surgery (lasting six years) in a university. After obtaining this degree, graduates have to pass a state examination (called "abilitazione alla professione medica", which translates to habilitation exam to medical practice) through which they acquire the right to work as a medical doctor.

Japan

In Japan, the title "Doctor of Medicine (MD)" is awarded by the government, after graduating from a medical university or college with a 6-year curriculum and passing the national examination.

Latvia

In Latvia, the duration of basic medical education is six years and the course leads to the degree of Doctor of Medicine.[21]

Malaysia

In Malaysia, MD are awarded by both private and public universities, mostly are trained as a 5-year course, however with the establishment of Perdana University, it became the first university in Malaysia to provide a 4-year graduate entry course. Examples of universities in Malaysia offering the M.D degree are University Sains Malaysia, National University of Malaysia, University Putra Malaysia, UCSI University, etc.

Philippines

In the Philippines, the MD is a first professional degree in medicine. It is attained by either completing a 4-year degree or a 5-year degree (with internship included) from an accredited institution by the Association of Philippine Medical Colleges and the Commission on Higher Education. An MD degree does not permit the practice of medicine but qualifies the degree-holder to apply for registration to the Professional Regulatory Commission. Registration to the Commission through completion of internship and examinations will grant the privilege of practicing medicine in the Philippines.

Poland

In Poland the title of lekarz (physician, medical doctor) or "lek." is granted after completing a 6-year medical program (students apply to it directly after graduating high school).[22] Many medical schools in Poland also offer medicine programs in English, which award the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree.[23][24][25] In contrast, a higher doctoral academic research degree in medicine resembling a PhD is named "dr n. med." or doktor nauk medycznych (Doctor of Medical Sciences). Specialization is valued similarly to a specialization in the English system and is a pre-requisite for a "dr. n. med." which is usually defined within the same field.

Romania

Romanian medical programs last for 6 years (including clinical practice), which is the long-cycle first professional degree and concludes with a final licensing examination (licența), based on the dissertation of the student's original research. The degree awarded is 'Doctor-Medic' and graduates are entitled to use the title "Dr."[26]

Russia

In Russia, medical universities in Russia offer a 6-year curriculum leading to award Doctor of Medicine (MD) "Physician".

Serbia

In Serbia, MD degree is awarded upon completion of six years of study at a Faculty of Medicine immediately after high school.

Singapore

The American Duke University has a medical school based in Singapore (Duke-NUS Medical School), and follows the North-American model of styling its first professional degree "Doctor of Medicine" ("MD"), consid.[27] By contrast, the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore confers MB BS as the first professional degree.

Slovenia

In Slovenia, the title of "doktor medicine" (abbreviated "dr. med.") is awarded upon completion of six years of study at one of the two Slovenian Faculties of Medicine ("medicinska fakulteta") in Ljubljana or Maribor. Studying at these faculties is only possible if the student has finished a gymnasium/grammar school ("gimnazija") with a general diploma called "splošna matura".

South Korea

In South Korea, there is a Medical Doctor (MD) license.

The medical educations in South Korea (Republic of Korea) are 6 or 4 years in duration, 6-year courses starting right after high schools, and 4-year course starting after 4-year's university education(To start the 4-year course, the student needs a bachelor's degree). The first 2 years in the 6-year system is composed of basic sciences and liberal art courses.

Taiwan

In Taiwan, the MD is a first professor awarded professional degree that goes up and beyond the limits of upper education.[28]

Thailand

The Thai medical education is 6 years system, consisting of 1 year in basic-science, 2 years in pre-clinical training, and 3 years for clinical training. Upon graduation, all medical students must pass national medical licensing examinations and a university-based comprehensive test. After medical school, newly graduated doctor are under contract to spend a year of internship and 2 years of tenure in rural areas before they are eligible for any other residency positions or specialized training. The students will receive Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. However, the degree is equivalent to master's degree in Thailand. Specialty training after the MD degree requires at least 4–6 years residency program in the training university hospitals and must pass the board examination. Board certified specialized degree is equivalent to doctorate degree.

Tunisia

In Tunisia, education is free for all Tunisian citizens and for foreigners who have scholarships. The oldest Medical school is a faculty of the University of Tunis. There are four medicine faculties situated in the major cities of Tunis, Sfax, Sousse and Monastir. Admission is bound to the success and score in the baccalaureate examination. Admission score threshold is very high, based on competition among all applicants throughout the nation. Medical school curriculum consists of five years. The first two years are medical theory, containing all basic sciences related to medicine, and the last three years consists of clinical issues related to all medical specialties. During these last three years, the student gets the status of "Externe". The student has to attend at the university hospital every day, rotating around all wards. Every period is followed by a clinical exam regarding the student's knowledge in that particular specialty. After those five years, there are two years on internship, in which the student is a physician but under the supervision of the chief doctor; the student rotates over the major and most essential specialties during period of four months each. After that, student has the choice of either passing the residency national exam or extending his internship for another year, after which he gains the status of family physician. The residency program consists of four to five years in the specialty he qualifies, depending on his score in the national residency examination under the rule of highest score chooses first. Whether the student chooses to be a family doctor or a specialist, he has to write a doctoral thesis, which he will be defending in front of a jury, after which he gains his degree of Doctor of Medicine (MD).

Turkey

In Turkey, the title of "Tıp Doktoru" (literally "Doctor of Medicine")is awarded upon completion of six years continuous study started with five years university education include three years basic sciences, two years clinical courses followed by one year of internship in university hospitals.

Ukraine

In Ukraine, by 2018, graduates of the school with completed secondary education who have cope with the relevant exams (in the disciplines designated by these universities) in the nationwide system for assessing graduates' knowledge - EIT (Ukrainian: ЗНО, External independent testing) based on the rating - may be admitted to the Medical Universities[29].

Ukrainian medical universities offer a 6-year curriculum, which should end with the passing of the State Complex Examination. The graduate receives the Diploma of the State Standard with the title "Specialist Diploma", which specifies a specialty and qualification (for example, "Physician"), or "Magister's Diploma" also of a state standard. After that, the graduate according to the rating division (at the university) is required to undergo a practical internship course (working as a doctor under the supervision of an experienced doctor) with a duration of 2 to 3 years, in the corresponding specialty. Successful completion of internship implies that an intern passes an examination on a specialty, including testing [30] and receives a certificate of a specialist physician of the Ministry of Health, which is a formal permission for practical activity[31][32].

Thus, the American MD and the Ukrainian Physician have identical titles. On the other hand, the colloquial (not official terminology) Doctor of Medicine means that a Physician with a higher education successfully defended his thesis, after a 2-year postgraduate course and corresponding term of research (Candidate of Medical Sciences before 2015, or Ph.D. after 2015 - till 2019), which is closer to the English system of degrees.

United States and Canada

In the United States, MDs are awarded by medical schools as "Professional Doctorate"[33][34] (as opposed to the Doctor of Philosophy degree which requires additional studies) and are accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), an independent body sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges, and the American Medical Association (AMA).[35][36]

Admission to medical school in the United States and Canada is highly competitive, and in the United States about 17,800 out of approximately 47,000 applicants (~38%) received at least one acceptance to any medical school in recent application years. Before entering medical school, students are required to complete a four-year undergraduate degree and take the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT); however, some combined undergraduate-medical programs exist. Before graduating from a medical school and being awarded the Doctor of Medicine degree, students are required to take the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and both the clinical knowledge and clinical skills parts of Step 2. The MD degree is typically earned in four years. Following the awarding of the MD, physicians who wish to practice in the United States are required to complete at least one internship year (PGY-1) and pass the USMLE Step 3. In order to receive board eligible or board accredited status in a specialty of medicine such as general surgery or internal medicine, physicians undergo additional specialized training in the form of a residency. Those who wish to further specialize in areas such as cardiology or interventional radiology then complete a fellowship. Depending upon the physician's chosen field, residencies and fellowships involve an additional three to eight years of training after obtaining the MD. This can be lengthened with additional research years, which can last one, two, or more years.

In Canada, the MD is the basic medical degree required to practice medicine. McGill University Faculty of Medicine is the only medical school in Canada that continues to award the M.D., C.M. degrees (abbreviated M.D.C.M.). M.D.C.M. is from the Latin Medicinae Doctor et Chirurgiae Magister meaning "Doctor of Medicine and Master of Surgery". Upon graduation, students enter into a residency phase of training. Prior to obtaining an independent practicing license from a provincial regulatory body, students must complete the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination to obtain the Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada (LMCC) qualifications.

Even though the MD is a professional degree and not a research doctorate (i.e., a Ph.D.), many holders of the MD degree conduct clinical and basic scientific research and publish in peer-reviewed journals during training and after graduation; an academic physician whose work emphasizes basic research is called a physician-scientist. Combined medical and research training is offered through programs granting an MD-PhD. The National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its Medical Scientist Training Program, funds MD-PhD training programs at many universities. Some MDs choose a research career and receive funding from the NIH as well as other sources such as the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.[37] The United States Department of Education and the National Science Foundation do not include the MD or other professional doctorates among the degrees that are equivalent to research doctorates.[38][39]

Postgraduate Clinical Degrees

India

The MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery) degree represents the first (undergraduate) level of training required to be licensed as a physician (other degrees in alternative medicine are present like BAMS, BHMS, BSMS etc.) and the MS or MD degree is a postgraduate degree, representative of specialty training. The equivalent training in the US or Canada would be the completion of a medical (post-graduate) degree. Eligibility for the MS or MD course is restricted to medical graduates holding the MBBS degree.

The MBBS course is for five and a half years, and training imparted is as follows:

  1. Pre-clinical (Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry)
  2. Para-clinical (Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Forensic Medicine and Community Medicine)
  3. Clinical (Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, General Medicine, General Surgery, Pediatrics and Obstetrics/Gynecology; with specialty rotations such as Orthopaedics, Radiology, etc.).

After three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, in a pre-clinical or clinical subject of a non-surgical nature [e.g. Anatomy (since the subject deals with study of anatomy through dissecting cadavers, thus given an MD degree), Physiology, Pharmacology, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Pathology, Microbiology] the candidate receives MD degree, whereas in a clinical subject of a surgical nature (e.g. General Surgery, Orthopaedics, Obstetrics/Gynaecology, Ophthalmology), the candidate receives the equivalent degree Master of Surgery (MS).

A second alternate qualification termed DNB [Diplomate of National Board], is considered equivalent to the MD and MS degrees. This can be obtained by passing the exam conducted by the National Board of Examinations after completing 3 years of post-MBBS residency training in teaching hospitals recognised by the board. The College of Physicians & Surgeons of Bombay, India (Established 1912) also awards higher postgraduate degrees in clinical and pre-clinical specialties, called FCPS; it involves three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, and a research thesis and a viva. The FCPS is representative of specialty clinical training, and equivalent to MD/MS/DNB/Ph.D Medical in Medical Doctorate in other parts of the world. Until 2007, the Government of India and the Medical Council of India recognised the FCPS qualification - since then, this is being done by State Medical Councils.

After obtaining the first postgraduate degree, that is MD/MS/FCPS/DNB/Ph.D Medical, one can go for further specialisation in medical or surgical fields. This involves a highly competitive entrance examination. This course has three years of additional training and requires the submission of a dissertation (thesis). This is considered a clinical doctorate as the focus is on preapring a super-specialist with adequate clinical as well as research training. After the dissertation is approved and the exit examination (theory and practical) is cleared, the degree awarded is DM (Doctor of Medicine), Ph.D Medical . Based on the specific field of training, the degree awarded is DM in Cardiology, Neurology, Nephrology, Gastroenterology, Neuroradiology, Critical Care, Pulmonology, Hematology, Medical Oncology, Cardio-anaesthesia, Clinical Pharmacology, Pediatric Critical Care, Pediatric Neurology, Neonataology, Pediatric Gastroenterology, Neuroanaesthesia, etc. For surgical superspecialities the degree awarded is MCh (Magister Chirurgiae), like MCh in Cardio-thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Endocrine Surgery, Neurosurgery, Surgical Gastroenterology, Urology, Plastic Surgery, Pediatric Surgery etc. DM and MCh are the clinical equivalent of a Doctorate degree. A third alternate qualification is DNB (superspecialties), offered by National Board of Examinations, like DNB in Cardiology, Neurology, Cardiac Surgery, Neurosurgery.

Following DM or MCh, one can further go for postdoctoral fellowship programs of one-year duration in specific subspecialties like Cardiac Electrophysiology, Invasive cardiology, Pediatric cardiology, Epilepsy, stroke, electroencephalography, movement disorders, neuromuscular disorders, cerebrovascular surgery, skull base surgery, neurocritical care, pediatric cardiac surgery etc. offered by prestigious government institutes and abroad.

Pakistan

In Pakistan the MD is a higher doctorate, awarded by medical universities based on successful completion of a residency program of four to six years' duration in a university hospital.Many universities are offering MD. Parallel to MD, MS is a higher doctorate awarded on successful completion of four to six years' duration of a residency program in surgical field.

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, the MD degree is a higher postgraduate degree that is awarded by the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine after completion of a postgraduate course, examinations and speciality training. The MD degree in Sri Lanka is representative of specialty training in clinical, para clinical, and preventive medicine (e.g., general medicine, cardiology, nephrology, oncology, para clinical such as microbiology, haematology and preventive such as community medicine). Entry for the MD course is open only for medical graduates holding the MBBS degree (with a duration of five and a half years), and training is obtained in medical disciplines that are non-surgical in nature (e.g., internal medicine, radiology, pathology, etc.) After three or four years of study and the successful completion of an examination with written as well as cases and via examinations, the MD degree in the respective field of study is awarded. In community medicine and medical administration, part I examination consists of a theoretical exam while the degree is conferred after completion of a thesis as a PhD. This thesis has to be completed within a period of five years. After successfully defending the academic thesis, the MD degree is conferred to the candidate. The MD degree holder is certified as a board certified specialist by the respective board of study of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine after he or she undergoes 2–4 years of local and foreign training depending on the specialty/subspecialty selected.

In Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery B.A.M.S in Unani, Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery BUMS in Sidha, Bachelor of Sidha Medicine and Surgery BSMS are the basic qualification for practicing Ayurveda, Unani,&Sidha. The B.A.M.S, B.U.M.S, and B.S.M.S are 6-year degree (including internship) courses accepted by the University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka). M.D (Ayu)(Ayurveda vachaspati) can be done after B.A.M.S, as a specialty, and it takes 3 years (including submission of a thesis) to complete the course. Ayurveda M.D (Ayu) (Ayurveda vachaspati) is a master's degree accepted by University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka), after completion of MPhil can follow Ph.D. level programmes in Sri Lanka.

Research Degrees

United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries

The entry-level first professional degree in these countries for the practice of medicine is that of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MB, MB BCh BAO, BMBS, MBBChir, or MBChB). This degree typically requires between four and six years of study and clinical training, and is equivalent to the North American MD degree. Due to the UK code for higher education, first degrees in medicine comprise an integrated programme of study and professional practice spanning several levels. These degrees may retain, for historical reasons, "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" and are abbreviated to MBChB, MBBS or BMBS.[40]

In the UK, Ireland and many Commonwealth countries, the MD is a postgraduate research degree in medicine. At some universities, this takes the form of a first doctorate, analogous to the Ph.D., awarded upon submission of a thesis and a successful viva. The thesis may consist of new research undertaken on a full- or part-time basis, with much less supervision (in the UK) than for a Ph.D., or a portfolio of previously published work.[41]

In order to be eligible to apply for an MD degree from a UK or Commonwealth University one must hold either a "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" (MBBS, MBChB, BMBS for example) degree, or an equivalent U.S.-MD degree and must usually have at least five years of postgraduate experience. Therefore, graduates from the MBBS/MBChB/BMBS degrees do not hold doctorates; however, physicians holding these degrees are referred to as "doctor" as they are fully licensed as medical practitioners. In some commonwealth nations, these interns are designated as "house officers".

At some other universities (especially older institutions, such as Oxford, Dublin, Cambridge and St Andrews), the MD is a higher doctorate (similar to a DSc) awarded upon submission of a portfolio of published work representing a substantial contribution to medical research.[42] The University of Cambridge has introduced a new degree of MedScD (more akin to the ScD degree) awarded on the basis of a career's contribution to the science or art of medicine, rather than a thesis, for which a candidate may be awarded the MD degree.[43] Oxford did not do the same but instead demoted the rank of the degree the same level as the DPhil but retaining its original academic dress.

In the case where the MD is awarded (either as a first or higher doctorate) for previously published research, the candidate is usually required to be either a graduate or a full-time member of staff, of several years' standing of the university in question.[44]

Equivalent degrees in other countries

  • In Bangladesh, the basic medical degree is the MBBS. After completing the intermediate level of education (12 years) the candidate must undergo 5 years of medical training in any medical college to achieve the MBBS degree. After obtaining the degree, the candidate needs to undergo one year of internship to obtain BMDC (Bangladesh medical and dental council) accreditation in order to practice in the country.
  • In mainland China, some medical schools award MBBS to foreign students while all medical schools award Bachelor of Medicine to nationals. Some MD degrees are higher academic research degrees.
  • In Colombia, the medicine faculties of the universities awards the title of "Medico Cirujano" after taking 12 semesters of studies on "all clinic and surgery discipline a two semester on internship. After receiving the degree there is a mandatory year "obliged social work" were the doctors practice as GP in the countryside. Residency programs last between 3–4 years depends on the specialty.
  • The Czech and Slovak title MUDr. (Medicinae Universae doctor or doktor medicíny) is a professional doctorate granted upon completion of six years pregraduate Master's study at medical schools. The postgraduate academic research degree in medicine is a PhD degree.
  • The Danish and Norwegian Candidatus medicinae or Candidata medicinae degrees (cand. med.) is awarded after completing a six-year medical programme, to which students apply directly upon finishing secondary school. The programme usually includes a small thesis. However, the cand. med. degree must not be confused with the previous Danish and Norwegian Dr. Med. degree, which is a separate degree from the Ph.D. and represents a higher degree of medical research experience. It typically consists of at least 5–6 original publications.
  • In Finland, the duration of basic medical education is six years and the course leads to the degree of Licentiate of Medicine.[45]
  • In Greece, after a six-year study, a medical student acquires his medical degree and the right to use "Δρ.", (Dr.) before his name. This is considered equivalent to the MD title.
  • In Kosovo, there are medical high schools. Students from elementary school can choose to attend the medical high school, which lasts 3 years. When they finish the 3 years of medical high school, they practice for 4 months. After that, they can be a nurse or they can go to medical facilities in Pristina, with the education there taking around 6 years, including practice, to become a doctor.
  • In Mexico and Peru, schools of medicine award the "Título de Médico Cirujano" degree after completing either six or seven years of study. This curriculum includes a rotating internship year and a year of social service providing care to an underserved community.
  • In Nepal, a MBBS degree is awarded. This is an undergraduate level degree, which is awarded after completion of four and half years of medical school followed by one year of clinical internship. Most medical schools also offer postgraduate M.D and M.S. degrees, which requires three years of further training. Post-doctorate D.M. and M.Ch. terminal degrees are awarded by a few elite institutions after three more years of super-speciality training.
  • In the Netherlands, medical students receive six years of university education prior to their graduation. Prospective students can apply for medical education directly after finishing the highest level of secondary school, vwo; previous undergraduate education is not a precondition for admittance. Medical students receive three years of preclinical training, followed by three years of clinical training (co-assistentschappen, or co-schappen) in hospitals. At one medical faculty (Utrecht University), clinical training already begins in the third year of medical school. After 6 years, students graduate as Basisartsen ("base physician"). As a result of the Bologna process, medical students in the Netherlands receive a bachelor's degree (BSc) concluding successfully three years of medical university curriculum, and a master's degree (MSc) upon successful graduation. After graduation, physicians can apply for, and complete a R&D based doctorate, earning them a PhD in Medicine. Contrary to popular (international) daily use, the title "MD" does not exist, is not granted, nor recognised for Dutch physicians. Furthermore, no specific notation signifying board registration exists for physicians in the Netherlands.
  • In Belgium, Belgian medical education is much more based on theoretical knowledge than the Dutch system. In the first three years, which are very theoretical and lead to a university bachelor's degree, general scientific courses are taken such as chemistry, biophysics, physiology, biostatistics, anatomy, virology, etc. To enter the bachelor course in Flanders, prospective students have to pass an exam, as a result of the numerus clausus. After the bachelor courses, students are allowed to enter the 'master in medicine' courses, which consist of three years of theoretical and clinical study. In general, the first two master years are very theoretical and teach the students human pathology, diseases and pharmacology. The third year is a year full of internships in a wide range of specialities in different clinics. The seventh, final year serves as a kind of 'pre-specialization' year in which the students are specifically trained in the specialty they wish to pursue after medical school. This contrasts with the Dutch approach, in which graduates are literally 'basic doctors' (basisartsen) who have yet to decide on a specialty.
  • In Portugal, to practice medicine, a master's degree in medicine (awarded after a 6-year Integrated master's program in medicine) is mandatory. Before the 2007 Bologna Process, the same course was only a Licentiate Degree. After the 6-year program, students must go through the National Seriation Exam (Prova Nacional de Seriação), and then a year of General Medical Internship (Ano Comum). When the internship ends, the students are placed in their choice of Medical Specialty, according to their ranking in the aforementioned Exam and the vacancies available for each medical specialty. Only when each student finishes the Medical Internship, will they be allowed to practice medicine without supervision. Entry to the Integrated Masters Program in Medicine is done directly after High School, based on the student's grade - each year there are about 1800 new Medical Students in Portugal, in 8 different Medical Schools.
  • In Sudan the awarded degree in most of the medical schools is, Bachelor of Medicine and Basic Surgery (MBBS). In schools that are based on the English system of medical teaching, the degree is granted after six years of studying. As for the schools that are adopting the American system, they grant their students the degree of MBBS in only five years.
  • In Sweden, medical education begins with a five-and-a-half-year undergraduate university program leading to the degree "Master of Science in Medicine" (Swedish: Läkarexamen). Following this, the National Board of Health and Welfare requires a minimum of 18 months of clinical internship (Swedish: Allmäntjänstgöring) before granting a medical license (Swedish: Läkarlegitimation) to be fully qualified as the Swedish equivalent to Medical Doctor (MD).[46] This internship consists of surgery (3–6 months), internal medicine (3–6 months), psychiatry (three months) and family medicine (six months). Upon receiving a license to practice, a physician is able to apply for a post to start specialist training. There are currently 52 recognised medical specialties in Sweden. The specialist training has a duration of minimum five years, which upon completion grants formal qualification as a specialist.

Other postgraduate clinical degrees

There is also a similar advanced professional degree to the postgraduate MD: the Master of Surgery (usually ChM or MS, but MCh in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and at Oxford and MChir at Cambridge). The equivalence of these degrees, but their differing names, prevents the need for surgeons (addressed as Mr. in the UK) having to revert to the title Dr., which they once held as new MBBS graduates.

In Ireland, where the basic medical qualification includes a degree in obstetrics, there is a similar higher degree of Master of the Art of Obstetrics (MAO). A Master of Midwifery was formerly examined by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London (hence MMSA) but fell into abeyance in the 1960s; in this case, the term Master referred not to a university degree but rather a professional rank that is common among craft guilds.

In East Africa, the medical schools in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda award the degree of Master of Medicine (MMed) degree in both surgical and medical specialty disciplines following a three to six-year period of instruction.

In West Africa, the West African College of Physicians and the West African College of Surgeons award the Fellowship of the West African College of Physicians (FWACP) and the Fellowship of the West African College of Surgeons (FWACS) in medical and surgical disciplines respectively after a minimum of four-year residency training period.

The Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine or DO degree allows the same practice rights in the United States and Canada to the MD degree and Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine are fully licensed physicians. Holders of the MD degree must pass MD level board exams while DO holders can pass either the DO (COMLEX) exam or MD exam (USMLE).[47] Similarly, MDs must attend MD rated residency and fellowship programs while DOs can attend either MD programs or Osteopathic (DO) programs. As a result of this, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are currently transitioning to a single accreditation system for medical residencies in the U.S.[48] On average, MD matriculants score 510 on MCAT examinations and have an average GPA of 3.70 while DO matriculants score 504 and have an average GPA of 3.56. The American MD degree is also recognized by most countries in the world. While DO physicians are only licensed to practice the full scope of medicine and surgery in 65 countries.[49]

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Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery

Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin: Medicinae Baccalaureus Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated in many ways, e.g. MBBS, MB ChB, MB BCh, MB BChir (Cantab), BM BCh (Oxon), BMBS), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom (UK). The historical degree nomenclature suggests that they are two separate undergraduate degrees; however, in practice, they are usually treated as one and conferred together, and may also be awarded at graduate-level medical schools. In countries that follow the system in the United States, the equivalent medical degree is awarded as Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO).

Deccan College of Medical Sciences

Deccan College of Medical Science (DCMS) is a medical school situated in Hyderabad, India offering the courses M.B.B.S., postgraduate degree / diploma and superspeciality courses. It has an approved intake of 150 M. B. B. S. seats annually.

The college is affiliated to the KNR University of Health Sciences, Warangal from the academic year 2016-17 onwards. It was earlier affiliated to Dr. N. T. R. University of Health Sciences, Vijayawada. It is recognized by the Medical Council of India. It follows the syllabus prescribed by the University for M.B.B.S course as mandated by Medical Council of India. The management observes such rules, regulation or orders which are applicable to minority institution without violating the rights conferred under Article 30(1) of the constitution of India.

Doctor of Humane Letters

The degree of Doctor of Humane Letters (Latin: Litterarum humanarum doctor; D.H.L.; or L.H.D.) is almost always conferred as an honorary degree, usually to those students who have distinguished themselves in areas other than science, government, literature or religion, which are awarded degrees of Doctor of Science, Doctor of Law, Doctor of Letters, or Doctor of Divinity, respectively.

Doctor of Humane Letters degrees should not be confused with earned academic degrees awarded on the basis of research, such as Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Science or Doctor of Theology, nor earned professional doctorates such as Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Doctor of Podiatric Medicine, Juris Doctor, Doctor of Optometry etc.

Donald Van Slyke

Donald Dexter Van Slyke (March 29, 1883 – May 4, 1971) was a renowned Dutch American biochemist. His achievements included the publication of 317 journal articles and 5 books, as well as numerous awards, among them the National Medal of Science and the first AMA Scientific Achievement Award. A non-SI unit of measurement for buffering activity, the slyke, is named after him, as is the Van Slyke determination, a test of amino acids.

Duke–NUS Medical School

The Duke-NUS Medical School (Duke-NUS) is a medical school in Singapore. It is a collaboration between Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina, United States, and the National University of Singapore, in Singapore. The school was first set-up in 2005, and was formerly known as "Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School." Duke-NUS follows the American model of post-baccalaureate medical education, in which students begin their medical studies after earning a bachelor’s degree.

Singhealth and Duke-NUS have also come together to form the Academic Medicine Centre. The SingHealth Duke-NUS Academic Medicine Centre brings together Clinicians, Educators and Researchers, in order to bring about an improvement in patients' care.

Emory University School of Medicine

The Emory University School of Medicine is the Graduate Medical School of Emory University and a component of Emory’s Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center. It is located on the university's main campus in the Druid Hills neighborhood of Atlanta, Georgia. The medical school offers a full-time Doctor of Medicine degree program, Masters programs in Anesthesiology and Genetic Counseling, degrees in Physical Therapy and Physician Assistant training, joint degree programs with other Emory graduate divisions, graduate medical education, and continuing medical education. Emory University School of Medicine traces its origins back to 1915 when the Atlanta Medical College (founded 1854), the Southern Medical College (1878), and the Atlanta School of Medicine (founded 1905) merged.

With an acceptance rate of 7% in the Doctor of Medicine Program (2018), Emory University School of Medicine is consistently ranked among the top institutions for biomedical education, clinical care, and research in the United States.

Geisel School of Medicine

The Geisel School of Medicine is the medical school of Dartmouth College, an Ivy League research university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. The fourth-oldest medical school in the United States, it was founded in 1797 by New England physician Nathan Smith and grew steadily over the course of the 19th century. Several milestones in medical care and research have taken place at Dartmouth, including the first clinical X-ray (1896), the first intensive care unit in the United States (1955), and the Brattleboro rat (1961).Today, Dartmouth's Geisel School of Medicine continues to grant the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees, as well as a Master of Public Health (M.P.H.) and Master of Science (M.S.) degrees. The school has a student body of about 700 students and more than 2,300 faculty members and researchers. Geisel organizes research through over a dozen research centers and institutes, receiving more than $140 million in grants annually. The Geisel School of Medicine is one of seven Ivy League medical schools and is ranked as a "top medical school" by U.S. News & World Report for both primary care and biomedical research. Dartmouth's medical school has numerous clinical partners, including Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, White River Junction Veterans Administration Medical Center, California Pacific Medical Center, and Manchester Veterans Administration Medical Center.

Jacques Géry

Jacques Géry (12 March 1917, Paris – 15 June 2007, Sarlat, France) was a French ichthyologist. He was also a scientist and a Doctor of Medicine.

The most notable species he described are:

Green neon tetra, Paracheirodon simulans (Géry, 1963)

Black neon tetra, Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi (Géry, 1961)

Inpaichthys kerri, Inpaichthys kerri (Géry & Junk, 1977)

Hemigrammus bleheri, Hemigrammus bleheri (Géry & Mahnert, 1986)

Hyphessobrycon sweglesi, Hyphessobrycon sweglesi (Géry, 1961)

John Joyce (American politician)

John Patrick Joyce (born February 8, 1957) is an American dermatologist and politician from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He is the U.S. Representative for Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district, serving since 2019. He is a member of the Republican Party.

Joyce graduated from Pennsylvania State University with his bachelor's degree and Temple University School of Medicine with his Doctor of Medicine. He completed his medical residency at Johns Hopkins Hospital.Joyce and his wife, Alice, founded Altoona Dermatology Associates. In the 2018 elections, Joyce ran for the United States House of Representatives in Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district. Joyce won the Republican Party primary election against seven other candidates with 22% of the vote. Joyce won the general election against Brent Ottaway with 70.5% of the vote.

Liaison Committee on Medical Education

The Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) is an accrediting body for educational programs at schools of medicine in the United States and Canada. The LCME is sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the American Medical Association. It publishes many guides and standards, including the Directory of Accredited Medical Education Programs. The LCME currently accredits 134 U.S. schools, which includes 4 in Puerto Rico, as well as 17 others in Canada. The LCME accredits only the schools that grant a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree; osteopathic medical schools that grant the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree are accredited by the Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation of the American Osteopathic Association.

MD–PhD

The Doctorate of Medicine and of Philosophy (MD–PhD) is a dual doctoral degree for physician–scientists, combining the vocational training of the Doctor of Medicine degree with the research expertise of the Doctor of Philosophy degree. The degree is granted by medical schools often through the Medical Scientist Training Program or other non-MSTP MD–PhD programs. The National Institutes of Health currently provides 43 medical schools with Medical Scientist Training Program grants that support the training of students in MD–PhD programs at these institutions through tuition and stipend allowances. These programs are often competitive, with some admitting as few as two students per academic year. The MCAT score and GPA of MD–PhD matriculants are often higher than MD only matriculants.

Medical degree

A medical degree is a vocational or technical degree awarded for studies in fields associated with medicine and/or surgery.

A worldwide study conducted in 2011 indicated on average: 64 university exams, 130 series exams, and 174 assignments are completed over the course of 5.5 years. As a baseline, students need greater than an 85% in prerequisite courses to enroll for the aptitude test in these degree programs.

Medical school

"JS6456 Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery". Retrieved 2019-01-14.

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MBChB, BMBS), Doctor of Medicine (MD), or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO). Many medical schools offer additional degrees, such as a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D), Master's degree (M.Sc), a physician assistant program, or other post-secondary education.

Medical schools can also carry out medical research and operate teaching hospitals. Around the world, criteria, structure, teaching methodology, and nature of medical programs offered at medical schools vary considerably. Medical schools are often highly competitive, using standardized entrance examinations, as well as grade point average and leadership roles, to narrow the selection criteria for candidates.

In most countries, the study of medicine is completed as an undergraduate degree not requiring prerequisite undergraduate coursework. However, an increasing number of places are emerging for graduate entrants who have completed an undergraduate degree including some required courses. In the United States and Canada, almost all medical degrees are second entry degrees, and require several years of previous study at the university level.

Medical degrees are awarded to medical students after the completion of their degree program, which typically lasts five or more years for the undergraduate model and four years for the graduate model. Many modern medical schools integrate clinical education with basic sciences from the beginning of the curriculum (e.g.). More traditional curricula are usually divided into preclinical and clinical blocks. In preclinical sciences, students study subjects such as biochemistry, genetics, pharmacology, pathology, anatomy, physiology and medical microbiology, among others. Subsequent clinical rotations usually include internal medicine, general surgery, pediatrics, psychiatry, and obstetrics and gynecology, among others.

Although medical schools confer upon graduates a medical degree, a physician typically may not legally practice medicine until licensed by the local government authority. Licensing may also require passing a test, undergoing a criminal background check, checking references, paying a fee, and undergoing several years of postgraduate training. Medical schools are regulated by each country and appear in the World Directory of Medical Schools which was formed by the merger of the AVICENNA Directory for medicine and the FAIMER International Medical Education Directory.

Praboromarajchanok Medicine Program, Mahidol University

Praboromarajchanok Medicine Program (Thai: กลุ่มนักศึกษาแพทยศาสตร์พระบรมราชชนก), or the Praboromarajchanok Institute is the 13th medical program established in Thailand, and was founded in 1997. The Praboromarajchanok Institute is a medical school which consists of a collection of Medical Education Centers (MEC), in the Collaborative Project to Increase Production of Rural Doctor (CPIRD) under the management of Mahidol University. The university approved 4 hospitals as teaching affiliates in this project, and the institute offers only the Doctor of Medicine program (M.D.) - PIMD/B, which produces around 132 medical doctors annually.

Research associate

Research associates are scholars and professionals that usually have an advanced degree beyond a bachelor's degree. The research associate position does not explicitly require mentoring and is a regular staff position with appointment letters processed by Human Resources. In contrast to a research assistant, a research associate often has a graduate degree, such as a master's (e.g. Master of Science) or in some cases Master of Engineering or a doctoral degree (e.g. Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Pharmacy). In some cases it can be synonymous with postdoctoral research.

Saint James School of Medicine

Saint James School of Medicine (SJSM) is a private, international medical school with two basic science campuses, one in British Overseas Territory of Anguilla, and the other in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, it is considered one school with two campuses. Saint James confers upon its graduates the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree.

UNC School of Medicine

The University of North Carolina School of Medicine is a professional school within the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It offers a Doctor of Medicine degree along with combined Doctor of Medicine / Doctor of Philosophy or Doctor of Medicine / Master of Public Health degrees.

It is one of the top ranked medical schools in the country: the 2013 U.S. News & World Report ranks the school 1st in primary care and 22nd in research. In 2016, the school received $449 million in research funding. With approximately two-thirds of that amount coming from the National Institutes of Health, the school received more federal research funding than any other public or private university in the South.

University of Florida College of Medicine

The University of Florida College of Medicine is the medical school of the University of Florida. It is part of the J. Hillis Miller Health Science Center, with facilities in Gainesville and Jacksonville, Florida. The college grants the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), Doctor of Medicine-Doctor of Philosophy (M.D.-Ph.D.), and Physician Assistant (P.A.) degrees to its graduates. The University of Florida College of Medicine was awarded $349 million in annual research expenditures in sponsored research for 2018.

Vargas Vidot

José Antonio "Chaco" Vargas Vidot (born May 22, 1954), better known simply by his two last names Vargas Vidot, is a Puerto Rican doctor of medicine, philanthropist, and politician focused on drug rehabilitation. His community service is channeled throughout his organization, Iniciativa Comunitaria (Community Initiative) which provides free health care to drug addicts in Puerto Rico. In 2016, Vargas Vidot became the first independent candidate elected to the Senate of Puerto Rico.

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