Doctor of Law

Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law. The application of the term varies from country to country, and includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D. or S.J.D), Doctor juris (Dr. iur. or Dr. jur.), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Juris Doctor (J.D.), and Legum Doctor (LL.D.).

Master of Sigena - Jesus amongst the Doctors of the Law - Google Art Project
Jesus amongst the Doctors of the Law, Master of Sigena, active at the Monastery of Santa María de Sigena, 1515–1519 (current location: Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya)

By country

Argentina

In Argentina the Doctor of Laws or Doctor of Juridical Sciences is the highest academic qualification in the field of Jurisprudence.[1] To obtain the doctoral degree the applicant must have previously achieved, at least the undergraduate degree of Attorney.[2] (Título de Abogado). The doctorates in Jurisprudence in Argentina might have different denominations as is described as follow:

  • Doctorate in Law (Offered by the University of Buenos Aires, NU of the L, and NU of R)
  • Doctorate in Criminal Law
  • Doctorate in Criminal Law and Criminal Sciences
  • Doctorate in Juridical Sciences
  • Doctorate in Juridical and Social Sciences (Offered by the NU of C)
  • Doctorate in Private Law (Offered by the NU of T)
  • Doctorate in Public Law and Government Economics (Offered by the NU of T)

Brazil

In Brazil, the Doctor of Laws degree, known in Portuguese as Doutor em Direito or Doutor em Ciências Jurídicas, is the highest academic degree in law available.

In some of the country's most important universities there is a higher title known as livre docência, like the habilitation in some European countries. However, this higher title is not a degree in the strict sense, because livre docência nowadays is an internal title, that applies solely within the institution granting it.

In the past, livre docência was a degree in the fullness of the term, and a professor bearing the title would enjoy the privileges of livre docência if he transferred from one institution to another; there are still living professors who hold the "old" livre docência degrees; but all new titles of that name only confer privileges within the institution granting it.

The doctoral degree is awarded upon the completion and the successful defense of a thesis prepared by the doctoral candidate under the supervision of a tutor. The thesis must be examined by a board of five professors, holders of the title of doctor or of a livre docência. Two of the members of the board must be professors from another institution. In most Brazilian Law Schools, the candidates are also required to earn a minimum number of credits.

Unlike the rules of other countries, the Brazilian norms governing the grant of doctoral titles do not require the publication of the thesis as a precondition for the award of the degree. Nevertheless, copies of the thesis must be delivered to the institution's library. Usually, doctoral thesis are published by specialized editors after the grant of the doctoral title.

If one obtains a doctoral title in a foreign country, one cannot enjoy the academic privileges of the title in Brazil unless the title be first validated by a Brazilian University. In that case, the doctor asking for the validation of the title will present his thesis and other documents relating to his foreign doctoral course to a board examiners of the Brazilian University and the examiners will then pass judgement on whether the work done by the candidate adheres to the minimum standards of quality that are usually required by a Brazilian university when granting doctoral degrees.

Admission to doctoral courses is almost universally reserved to holders of a master's degree (the Master's in Brazil is a graduate degree and is not the first professional degree). Therefore, a bachelor of Laws (a bearer of the first professional degree), seeking the degree of doctor must usually complete a postgraduate course to attain the degree of Master of Laws (to attain that degree one must write and defend a dissertation before a panel of three professors, bearing the title of master, doctor or a "livre docência, and also complete credits), and only then, after being a Master of Laws, one will apply for admission to a doctoral course.

There are, however, a few universities that allow "direct" admission to the doctoral course without previous completion of the Master's course in exceptional circumstances. Thus, in rare cases, a bachelor of Laws (i.e., a holder of the first professional degree), can be admitted directly to a doctoral course.

Usually, one is allowed three years time to complete a Master of Laws degree, and four years time to complete the doctoral course. So, if one were to graduate from Law School and immediately enter a Master of Laws course and a Doctor of Laws course in immediate succession, that person would become a doctor about seven years after graduating from the Law School. On the other hand, in the rare cases in which a bachelor of Laws is allowed to pursue a "direct" doctorate, he is usually allowed five years time to complete the doctoral course.

Unlike the Master of Laws dissertation, the Doctoral Thesys must contain an original contribution to the field of Law under study.

Canada

In Canada, there are several academic law-related doctorates: the Doctor of Laws (LL.D.); Doctor of Juridical Science or Doctor of Legal Science (J.S.D./S.J.D); Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.); and the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). The Doctor of Jurisprudence (Juris Doctor or J.D.) is the professional doctorate degree that is usually required for admissions to post-graduate studies in law.

The first law degree was known until recently as the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.). However, since law schools in Canada generally insist on a prior degree or some equivalent in order to grant admission, it was a more advanced degree than the LL.B. degrees awarded by programs abroad, which would accept high school graduates.[3] The majority of Canadian universities now grant that degree rather than the LL.B.;[4] the University of Saskatchewan replaced its LL.B. with a J.D. in 2010, because the Canadian LL.B. is equivalent to the J.D.[5]

All Canadian J.D. programs are three years, and all (except those in Quebec) have similar mandatory first-year courses: In "public", "constitutional," or "state" law; tort law; contract law; criminal law, and some sort of "professional practice" course. Beyond first year and the minimum requirements for graduation, course selection is elective, with various concentrations such as business law, international law, natural resources law, criminal law, and Aboriginal law.

After the first law degree, one may pursue a second, the Masters of Laws (LL.M.) and after that, the Doctor of Law (LL.D.), at some Canadian universities. (The LL.D. is awarded by several universities only as an honorary degree, but when awarded by a law school is an earned degree). Of the universities in Canada that offer earned academic doctorates in law, four (University of Ottawa,[6] University of Montreal,[7] Laval University,[8] and University of Quebec at Montreal)[9] offer LL.Ds, five (University of Alberta,[10] University of British Columbia,[11] Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, Dalhousie University,[12] and University of Victoria)[13] offer Ph.D.s, only one (University of Toronto,[14]) offers J.S.D./S.J.D degrees (Doctor of Juridical Science or Doctor of Legal Science), and one (McGill University)[15] offers a D.C.L (Doctor of Civil Law). The differences largely reflect the divide between Canada's two legal systems (the common law and the civil law). Faculties that teach in the civil law tradition grant LL.D degrees, whereas those in the common law tradition grant either Ph.D.s or J.S.Ds. The York University Ph.D. in law was formerly termed Doctor of Jurisprudence (D.Jur.), until the name was changed in 2002.[16]

Czech Republic and Slovakia (former Czechoslovakia)

In the Czech Republic and Slovakia the Doctor is a postgraduate degree in two types - as a traditional doctorate (JUDr) and the PhD doctorate.

JUDr (Juris Utrisque Doctor) is a degree with a tradition of several centuries, originally the highest possible degree. Nowadays, its scholar importancy is quite limited, but it serves as a traditional and popular badge degree, especially useful for attorneys. In older times with no master's degree, JUDr. served as the only law degree (and was roughly equivalent to the today's master's degree, plus a special exam). Requirements for obtaining a JUDr degree are a highly rated Master (Mgr.) degree in law, the compilation of a thesis (including successful defense) and passing an oral exam called Rigorosum. The thesis itself is also sometimes called Rigorosum. Many JUDr. theses are based on the students previous Master theses; however, nowadays universities require that the dissertation work is completely new.

Doctoral studies leading to PhD degree are different from the JUDr exam. PhD studies are internal (PhD student is at the same time teacher at the University), which lasts 3–5 years, and external up to 8 years long. PhD. students are obliged to pass some exams during the studies and mainly to work on their dissertation. The PhD is intended basically for candidates interested in an academic career, and it gives them the right to teach at a university.

The Czech system is in many ways similar to the German and Austrian systems. Therefore, a PhD degree is necessary for habilitation procedure. Through habilitation, the doctor of law who submits his habilitation work (similar to German Habilitationsschrift) can be given a capacity and title of Docent (Doc.), similar to German Dozent, Privatdozent or US Assistant Professor. Docent is not a degree, but a scholar title.

Only a docent can be appointed a professor through a special procedure. Unlike Germany (and unlike the traditional Czech practice), a professor is not a function (a seat, Cathedra) at a University, but a scholarly title. This leads to many problems, especially the phenomenon of so-called "flying professors", who are teaching at two or three universities at the same time and to the decline of academic life.

European and Commonwealth usage

In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and Europe, the degree is a higher doctorate usually awarded on the basis of exceptionally insightful and distinctive publications that contain significant and original contributions to the study of law. Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award a Doctor of Civil Law degree instead. In South Africa the LL.D. is awarded based upon research and completion of a Ph.D. equivalent dissertation; the LL.D. may also be awarded as an honorary degree based upon contributions to society; see below.

Finland

In Finland, the Doctor of Laws (Finnish: Oikeustieteen tohtori, OTT) (Swedish: Juris doktor, JD) is the highest academic degree in law, based on 60 credits of course studies and, most importantly, successful completion of a doctoral dissertation. The dissertation usually takes the form of a monograph at least of 250 pages in length, or of a series of published articles. A successful oral disputation is also required. It usually takes at least four years to complete the degree.

The degree of the Doctor of Laws does not qualify its holder for judicial offices. Instead, the degree of the Master of Laws (Finnish: Oikeustieteen maisteri) (Swedish: Juris magister) is the requirement for the membership of the Finnish Bar Association and for judicial offices. As the doctoral programs for the doctoral degree are, in principle, open for the holders of all master's degrees, the possession of the degree of the Doctor of Laws is not a guarantee for the possession of the Master of Laws -degree. However, it is very seldom that someone who has not graduated in law graduates for a doctor of law.

France

In France, the Doctor of Law degree (doctorat en droit) is a PhD. The PhD in law is required to teach at the university level as a maître de conférences (lecturer). To become Professor of Law, holders of a PhD in law have yet to pass an additional competitive exam: the agrégation de droit. Only the first year (master 1) of the master's degree in law is necessary to pass the bar exam.

Germany

The Doctor of Laws (Doktor der Rechte) is the terminal degree in law, abbreviated as Dr. iur. (Doctor iuris) or Dr. jur. (Doctor juris). The terminology varies: while most universities refer to the degree as Doctor of Laws (Doktor der Rechte (pl.), e.g. Munich, Münster, Berlin (HU), Cologne, Tübingen, Göttingen), some others refer to it either as Doctor of Jurisprudence (Doktor der Rechtswissenschaft, e.g. Heidelberg, Hamburg) or Doctor of Law (Doktor des Rechts (sg.), e.g. Berlin (FU)). It is conferred based on a thesis consisting of a suitable body of original academic research, and an oral examination (Rigorosum or Disputation). The thesis must have been published as a book or - less common - as a series of articles in a peer reviewed law journal before the degree can be formally conferred. Admission usually requires the grade of "Fully Satisfactory" (approximately top quintile of class) in the student's first Staatsexamen (the Master's level first professional degree). Having successfully passed the second Staatsexamen (the German equivalent to the bar exam) is not required.

The Doctor of Both Laws (Doktor beider Rechte), awarded as Dr. iur. utr. (Doctor iuris utriusque, conferred e.g. in Würzburg) is rare, since it means considering both Civil Law and Canonical Law. A doctorate solely in the latter area is the degree of Dr. iur. can. (Doctor iuris canonici).

Approximately ten percent of German law graduates hold a doctoral degree. However, the Doctor of Laws is still only the first step to tenure at German law schools. Despite the initiative to establish a junior professorship with tenure option after five to seven years, and special professorships specializing in teaching (Lehrprofessur), to become a university professor of law a habilitation (de iure not an academic degree) is still mandatory at most German law schools.

Italy

In Italy, the title of "Magister Doctor of Law" (Dottore magistrale in Giurisprudenza) is the title given to students who complete the five-year Laurea magistrale degree.

Despite the adoption of the Bologna process, in Italy law remains a field that retains the traditional Italian system.

Once a prospective lawyer has been awarded the Magister Doctor of Law and worked 18 months as a trainee lawyer, he or she is required to pass a state bar examination in order to be licensed to practice as an attorney at law (Avvocato). Previously, dottore in giurisprudenza was the title given to the students that completed the old (four-year) course of studies in law. After the five-year degree, it is possible to enroll in a Ph.D. course in a specific field of law ("Dottorato"), and the title obtained is "Dottore di ricerca" (Ph.D.).

Malta

In Malta, the European Union's smallest member state, the LL.D. is a doctorate-level academic degree in law requiring at least three years of post-graduate full-time study at the University of Malta,[17] Malta's national university. At least three years of previous law study are required for entry. Students are required to complete coursework in a number of core areas of law, as well as to submit a thesis which is to be "an original work on the approved subject or other contribution to the knowledge showing that he/she has carried out sufficient research therein".[18] It confers the title of Doctor, which in Malta is rigorously used to address a holder of the degree. The LL.D. is one of the requirements for admission to the profession of advocate in Malta (an advocate, as opposed to a legal procurator, has rights of representation in superior courts).

In Malta, practising lawyers are of three designations – notaries, legal procurators and advocates. The Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree is an undergraduate degree that of itself is not sufficient for admission into any of the legal professions. A one-year full-time taught post-graduate diploma of Notary Public (N.P.) is required after the LL.B. for admission to the profession of notary public, while a taught post-graduate diploma of Legal Procurator (L.P.) is required for admission to the profession of legal procurator. A legal procurator is a lawyer in Malta that has rights of audience in the lower courts, a profession that was existent in Malta as early, and even prior to 1553.[19] All three professions also require members to be holders of a warrant issued by the President of Malta, obtainable after a minimum of one year of work experience in that profession, and examination. It is not possible for a Maltese lawyer to hold a warrant in more than one of the professions at a time.

Notable holders of the LL.D. degree include Dr. Ugo Mifsud Bonnici (former President of Malta), Prof. Guido de Marco (former President of the United Nations General Assembly and former President of Malta), Dr. George Borg Olivier (first post-independence Prime Minister of Malta), Dr. Edward Fenech Adami (former Prime Minister and former President of Malta) and Dr. Lawrence Gonzi (former Prime Minister of Malta).

As of 2014 changes to the law course resulted from the implementation of the Bologna Process, will remove the Doctorate of Laws (LLD) title and replace it with Master of Laws (LLM). This means that prospective lawyers will not be honored with a doctorate degree and can no longer use the title "Dr". This was met by some contempt from prospective Law students mainly because the title "Dr" is seen to be of higher esteem in Maltese society. Students of other disciplines, however, welcomed the change. The program had always been in essence only a master's degree and was therefore viewed as discriminatory, especially by medical students.[20]

South Africa

See: Legal education in South Africa; List of law schools in South Africa; Bachelor of Laws#South Africa; Master of Laws#South Africa.

In South Africa the doctorate in law is offered as a research doctorate of at least two years duration,[21] in various specialised areas of law.[22] In general, South African universities offer either the PhD[23][24] or the LLD,[25][26][27] with no significant difference between these. (At UCT, UKZN and Wits, the PhD is the research doctorate, while the LLD is the higher doctorate;[28][29][30] SU and UWC offer the LLD to law graduates, and the PhD to other graduates researching a legal-related topic).[31][32] In order to obtain the degree, the student will complete a thesis under the guidance of a supervisor, after completion of a module in research methodology, the submission of a research proposal and an oral examination. The thesis will demonstrate evidence of in-depth independent research and understanding of the topic, and constitute an original scientific contribution. Admission is usually on the basis of an LLM, and in some cases an LLB.

Sweden

In Sweden, the Doctor of Laws (LLD) is the highest academic degree in law. It is a research degree, which combines 240 credit hours (or equivalent of four full-time years of work). Candidates have the option to complete a dissertation or a monograph of a series of published articles. Although not required to practice law, the LLD is a prerequisite for an academic career.

United Kingdom

In the UK, the degree of Doctor of Laws is a higher doctorate, ranking above the Ph.D., awarded upon submission of a portfolio of advanced research. It is also often awarded honoris causa to public figures (typically those associated with politics or the law) whom the university wishes to honour. In most British universities, the degree is styled "Doctor of Laws" and abbreviated LL. D.; however, some universities award instead the degree of Doctor of Civil Law, abbreviated DCL.

In former years, Doctors of Law were a distinct form of lawyer who were empowered to act as advocates in civil law courts. The Doctors had their own Society called Doctors' Commons, but following reforms in the nineteenth century their exclusive rights of audience were shared with barristers and the last Doctor of Law died in 1912. Due to the possession of a Doctorate, the Doctors of Law had precedence equal to that of a Serjeant-at-Law and for this reason the convention remains that advocates holding junior doctorates (such as Doctors of Philosophy) should not be addressed as "doctor" in an English court.[33]

In 1953, a case was brought under long-dormant law in the High Court of Chivalry. The opening arguments in that case were by George Drewry Squibb who argued, to the satisfaction of the court, that since the modern class of Doctors of Laws were no longer trained as advocates, their role must necessarily be performed by barristers.[34] This was because Victorian reforms, which had unified the other classes of court attorney into the single profession of Barrister, had overlooked the Doctors of Law.

United States

In the United States, the most common Doctor of Law degree is the Juris Doctor (or Doctor of Jurisprudence), abbreviated as J.D. It is the professional degree for lawyers, having replaced the Bachelor of Laws in the 20th century after law schools began to require a Bachelor's degree before admission to a J.D. program to study law for three years. A research dissertation is not required for the J.D., but the American Bar Association issued a Council Statement stating that the J.D. should be considered equivalent to the Ph.D. for educational employment purposes.[35] In recent years, some universities also have developed other new interdisciplinary professional doctorates that may combine law and other specialized or applied fields. One example of this is Northeastern University's Doctor of Law and Policy (D.L.P.) degree.[36]

Additionally, other universities award a higher postdoctoral research degree in law, the Doctor of Juridical Science (or Scientiae Juridicae Doctor), abbreviated as S.J.D. or D.J.S. Applicants for S.J.D. programs must first earn a J.D., and some programs require both a J.D. and an LL.M. before admission.[37][38] Similar to the Ph.D., the S.J.D. is a research doctorate and has been described as the "highest degree in law" by the University of Virginia,[39] as well as the "terminal degree in law" by Indiana University[40] and Harvard Law School.[41] It has also been called the "most advanced law degree" by Yale Law School,[42] Georgetown Law,[43] New York University,[44] and Stanford University.[45] The University of Connecticut School of Law explains that this specific degree is "intended for individuals who have demonstrated evidence of superior scholarly potential."[46]

The National Association of Legal Professionals states that the S.J.D./D.J.S. is "the most advanced or terminal law degree that would follow the earning of the LL.M. and J.D. degrees."[47] It typically requires three to five years to complete, and requires an advanced study in law as a scientific discipline and a dissertation, which serves as an original contribution to the scholarly field of law.[38][48][49]

As with most other countries, in the United States the Legum Doctor (LL.D.), also colloquially known in English as Doctorate of Laws, is granted only as an honorary degree.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ National Commission of University Accreditation: Doctorate Engine Seeker Archived July 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "National Law of Higher Education" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  3. ^ Belford, Terrence. "Why Change To A JD Degree?". Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 20 June 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  4. ^ "Osgoode Law School "Dean Patrick Monahan on the Growing Number of Canadian Law Schools Switching from the LLB to JD Degree Designation"". yorku.ca. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Become A Juris Doctor". University of Saskatchewan Law School. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  6. ^ "Graduate Studies in Law". Llmlld.uottawa.ca. Archived from the original on 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  7. ^ "Présentation - Faculté de droit - Université de Montréal". Droit.umontreal.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-05-04. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  8. ^ "Index des programmes - Faculté de droit | Université Laval". Ulaval.ca. Archived from the original on 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  9. ^ "UQAM | Doctorat en droit | Université du Québec à Montréal". Programmes.uqam.ca. Archived from the original on 2010-09-26. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  10. ^ "PhD - Faculty of Law - University of Alberta". lawschool.ualberta.ca. Archived from the original on 2012-11-10. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
  11. ^ "UBC Faculty of Law - Doctorate (Ph.D.) Program". Law.ubc.ca. Archived from the original on 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  12. ^ "Graduate Programs in Law (LLM, PhD)". Dalhousie University. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  13. ^ [1] Archived November 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "University of Toronto - Faculty of Law: Prospective Students". Law.utoronto.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  15. ^ "Doctor of civil law (D.C.L.) program". archive.org. 19 December 2007. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  16. ^ "September senate". York University. 10 October 2002. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  17. ^ "Faculty of Laws - Faculty of Laws - University of Malta". Home.um.edu.mt. 2009-07-16. Archived from the original on 2009-01-23. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  18. ^ "Faculty of Laws - Faculty of Laws - University of Malta". Home.um.edu.mt. 2009-07-16. Archived from the original on 2009-01-23. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  19. ^ [2] Archived April 17, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Law students want to retain 'Dr' title". MaltaToday.com.mt. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27.
  21. ^ Faculty of Law. "Doctor of Laws". uj.ac.za. Archived from the original on 2012-04-18.
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-23. Retrieved 2012-04-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "- Wits University". wits.ac.za. Archived from the original on 2012-04-20.
  24. ^ Rhodes University. "Rhodes University". ru.ac.za. Archived from the original on 2012-04-14.
  25. ^ "Error". sun.ac.za. Archived from the original on 2012-11-27.
  26. ^ [3]
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-23. Retrieved 2012-04-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-05-19. Retrieved 2012-07-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2012-02-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ http://www.wits.ac.za/files/gr264_189955001326275256.pdf
  31. ^ "Nagraads / Postgraduate - Universiteit Stellenbosch Fakulteit Regsgeleerdheid - University of Stellenbosch Faculty of Law". blogs.sun.ac.za. Archived from the original on 21 January 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2012-04-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ Jowitt's Dictionary of English Law, Entry "Doctor of Law"
  34. ^ Squibb, G.D. The High Court of Chivalry. Oxford University Press, London. ISBN 0-19-825140-8
  35. ^ "Council Statement by the American Bar Association" (PDF). ABA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  36. ^ "Doctor of Law and Policy | Northeastern College of Professional Studies". cps.northeastern.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  37. ^ "Doctor of Juridical Science Degree". Law.gwu.edu. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  38. ^ a b "Georgetown Law – Doctor of Juridical Science (Admissions)". Law.georgetown.edu. 21 September 2011. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  39. ^ "LL.M. and S.J.D. Programs, Graduate Studies in Law". Law.virginia.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-06-03. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  40. ^ "S.J.D. Degree". Indylaw.indiana.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-08-25. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  41. ^ "S.J.D. Courses & Academics". Law.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  42. ^ "Yale Law School | Contact the Graduate Programs Office". Law.yale.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-10-28. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  43. ^ The George Washington University. "SJD - The George Washington University". Gwu.edu. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  44. ^ "NYU Law - LL.M. & J.S.D.: J.S.D. Program". Law.nyu.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-10-11. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  45. ^ Stanford Law School. "Doctor of Science of Law (JSD) | Stanford Law School". Law.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  46. ^ "Doctor of Laws (S.J.D.) | UConn School of Law". www.law.uconn.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  47. ^ "The Association for Legal Career Professionals | Working Glossary". NALP. Archived from the original on 2010-09-28. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  48. ^ "Doctor of Juridical Science (SJD) Requirements". Law.duke.edu. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  49. ^ "Tulane Law School Prospective Students". Law.tulane.edu. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
Alexander Vladimirovich Yakovenko

Alexander Vladimirovich Yakovenko (Russian: Алекса́ндр Влади́мирович Якове́нко, born October 21, 1954 in Homel) has served as the Ambassador of Russia to the United Kingdom since January 2011. He is a former Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia. While working at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Moscow, he was in charge of multilateral diplomacy (UN, UNESCO and other international organizations, economic and humanitarian cooperation, human rights, environmental cooperation, climate change, education, culture and sport issues). A graduate of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations in 1976, he later gained a Doctor of Law degree. Yakovenko holds the diplomatic rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and speaks Russian, English and French.

Ashok Desai

Ashok H. Desai is a Senior Advocate practicing in the Supreme Court of India. He held office as the Attorney General for India from 9 July 1996 to 6 May 1998 . Earlier, he was the Solicitor General of India from 18 December 1989 to 2 December 1990 . He was awarded the Padma Bhushan award and the Law Luminary Award in 2001. He was awarded Degree of Doctor of Law (Honoris Causa) in "recognition of his contribution to the field of law and jurisprudence" by the North Orissa University on 14 September 2009.

August Victor Paul Blüthgen

August Victor Paul Blüthgen (25 July 1880 in Mühlhausen, Thüringen – 2 September 1967 in Naumburg) was a German entomologist who specialised in Hymenoptera.

He was a Doctor of Law Jurist and court adviser. Blüthgen described very many new species of Aculeata (bees and wasps).

Aurelia Frick

Aurelia Frick (born 19 September 1975) is a Liechtensteiner politician who serves as the current Minister of Foreign Affairs, Education and Culture.

Frick is a Doctor of law.

Doctor of Humane Letters

The degree of Doctor of Humane Letters (Latin: Litterarum humanarum doctor; D.H.L.; or L.H.D.) is almost always conferred as an honorary degree, usually to those students who have distinguished themselves in areas other than science, government, literature or religion, which are awarded degrees of Doctor of Science, Doctor of Law, Doctor of Letters, or Doctor of Divinity, respectively.

Doctor of Humane Letters degrees should not be confused with earned academic degrees awarded on the basis of research, such as Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Science or Doctor of Theology, nor earned professional doctorates such as Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Doctor of Podiatric Medicine, Juris Doctor, Doctor of Optometry etc.

Doğu Perinçek

Doğu Perinçek (born 17 June 1942) is a Turkish politician and doctor of law who has been chairman of the left-wing nationalist Patriotic Party (Turkish: Vatan Partisi) since 2015.

Jorge Illueca

Jorge Enrique Illueca Sibauste ( September 17, 1918 – May 3, 2012) was a Panamanian politician and diplomat who served as President of Panama in 1984.Illueca was born in Panama City, Panama. He attended the University of Panama, Harvard University and the University of Chicago (Doctor of Law, 1955). He became one of the most important lawyers in his country, taught as a professor at the University of Panama, and by the 1970s had begun his diplomatic career, at first working at the United Nations on international law issues. He served as Ambassador of Panama to the United Nations from 1976 to 1981, and as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Panama from 1981 to 1983. In 1982 he was elected Vice President of Panama, and served as President for a few months in 1984 following the president's resignation until new elections in which he did not run. Also during this time, he was president of the UN General Assembly from 1983 to 1984. He served as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague from 1974-1990 and as a member of the United Nations International Law Commission three times (1982-1986, 1987-1991 and 1997-2001). He continued to work for the United Nations, particularly on environmental issues.

He was known to be an outspoken opponent of the US Army's School of the Americas, which he called "the biggest base for destabilization in Latin America.”

During the remarkable life of Dr. Illueca, time was made for his family; a family that certainly grew to be very large. His first daughter, Irene, had one son (Daniel King) through her first marriage. She remarried and later adopted 2 of her grandchildren (Christian and Skyla). His eldest son Jorge Jr had 3 children from his first marriage (David, Jorge Jr Jr and Angelica.) And later on five more came along from his second marriage (Helena, Emilia, Cecilia, Christa, and Eliza)

José María Castro Madriz

José María Castro Madriz (1 September 1818 – 4 April 1892) was a Costa Rican lawyer, academic, diplomat, and politician. He served twice as President of Costa Rica, from 1847 to 1849, and from 1866 to 1868. On both occasions he was prevented from completing his term of office by military coups. During his first administration, on 31 August 1848, he formally declared Costa Rica an independent republic, definitively severing Costa Rica's ties to the moribund Federal Republic of Central America.

Castro was born in San José and educated at the University of León in Nicaragua, where he graduated as bachelor of philosophy and doctor of law. He occupied many public offices throughout his life, both before and after serving as President. He was the rector of the national University (which he had helped to create) for sixteen years, and served several administrations as cabinet minister and ambassador. He also presided over the judiciary (as chief judge of the Supreme Court of Justice from 1860 to 1866 and from 1870 to 1873) and the legislature (as president of the Congress of Deputies in 1844-1845 and of the fourth Constitutional Convention in 1859), making him the only other Costa Rican besides Ricardo Jiménez to have headed all three branches of the government.

An active Freemason, Castro was consistently critical of the political influence of the Roman Catholic Church. He was also a strong defender of freedom of the press at a time when many Costa Rican governments practiced widespread censorship. His constitutional reform of 1848, however, established the most restricted suffrage that ever existed in independent Costa Rica. As president his lack of a committed political base made him an easy target for overthrow by the military. As the minister of foreign affairs, education, justice, public aid, and religious affairs, Castro was the most influential figure in the government of his brother-in-law, President Próspero Fernández (1882–1885), and he was largely responsible for the anti-clerical legislation adopted by that government.

He was married to Pacífica Fernández, who designed the 1848 version of the Costa Rican flag. His daughter Cristina Fernández Castro married Minor C. Keith in 1883. Their grandson, Rafael Yglesias, served as President of Costa Rica from 1894 to 1902.

Inaugurated at age 29, he was the youngest person to ever serve as President of Costa Rica.

Juan Luis Sanfuentes

Juan Luis Sanfuentes Andonaegui, GCTE (American Spanish: [xwan lwis saɱˈfwentes]; December 27, 1858 – July 16, 1930) was President of Chile between 1915 and 1920.

Sanfuentes was the son of writer and politician Salvador Sanfuentes Torres and Matilde Andonaegui. Orphaned at an early age and raised by his older brother, Enrique Salvador Sanfuentes, he trained as a lawyer at the University of Chile. He graduated with a Doctor of Law in 1879. He married Ana Echazarreta (ca. 1865 - 1927) in 1885, and the couple would have five children.Rising to the position of Minister of Finance under Federico Errázuriz Echaurren in 1901, Sanfuentes served as President of the Senate of Chile from 1906 through 1909.

The Chilean presidential election of 1915 developed into a bitterly contest between Sanfuentes —a coalition candidate of the Liberal Democratic Party and the Conservative Party— and Javier Ángel Figueroa —supported by the Liberal Alliance parties. Sanfuentes beat Figueroa by a single vote, among allegations of fraud and electoral intervention. The National Congress was called to confirm the result.

Through World War I Chile remained neutral. While the conflict lasted, domestic industry had one of its biggest booms, with the national industry growing 53% in those four years. But the end of the war led to a crisis of the nitrate industry, which resulted in a wave of social unrest. Sanfuentes' hard line against striking coal miners and trade unionists in the final year of his presidency was a key factor in the rise of his liberal reformer successor.After office Sanfuentes retired from public life, devoting himself to family life with his wife in his estate, Camarico.

Juris Doctor

The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, Canada, the United States, and some other common law countries. It has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, and a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada (in all three jurisdictions the same as other professional degrees such as M.D. or D.D.S., the degrees required to be a practicing physician or dentist, respectively).The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree (such as the Dottore in Giurisprudenza in Italy and the Juris Utriusque Doctor in Germany and central Europe). Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers. It involves a three-year program in most jurisdictions.To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J.D. degree must pass a bar examination. The state of Wisconsin, however, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, and in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called "diploma privilege"—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements. In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts commonly known as "federal courts". Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court.

Karol Karski

Karol Karski (born May 13, 1966 in Warsaw) is a Polish politician, former Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland. Doctor of Law. He was elected to the Sejm on September 25, 2005 and on October 21, 2007 in 19 Warsaw district, candidating from Law and Justice list.

Laura Mulvey

Laura Mulvey (born 15 August 1941) is a British feminist film theorist. She was educated at St Hilda's College, Oxford. She is currently professor of film and media studies at Birkbeck, University of London. She worked at the British Film Institute for many years before taking up her current position.

During the 2008–09 academic year, Mulvey was the Mary Cornille Distinguished Visiting Professor in the Humanities at Wellesley College. Mulvey has been awarded three honorary degrees: in 2006 a Doctor of Letters from the University of East Anglia; in 2009 a Doctor of Law from Concordia University; in 2012 a Bloomsday Doctor of Literature from University College Dublin.

Legum Doctor

Legum Doctor (Latin: "teacher of the laws") (LL.D.; Doctor of Laws in English) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law, or an honorary doctorate, depending on the jurisdiction. The double "L" in the abbreviation refers to the early practice in the University of Cambridge to teach both canon law and civil law (Doctor of both laws), with the double "L" itself indicating the plural. This contrasts with the practice of the University of Oxford, where the degree that survived from the Middle Ages is the DCL or Doctor of Civil Law (only).

List of Prime Ministers of the Netherlands by education

This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Netherlands by higher education since 20th century. Of the twenty-three Prime Ministers since 1901 eight had a doctorate and ten served either as a full professor or a visiting professor. Four Cort van der Linden, Gerbrandy, Beel and Van Agt where legal scholars.

List of University of Calcutta honorary degree recipients

This is a list of honorary degree recipients from the University of Calcutta.

M. Cherif Bassiouni

Mahmoud Cherif Bassiouni (9 December 1937 – 25 September 2017) was an Emeritus Professor of Law at DePaul University where he taught from 1964 to 2012. He served in numerous United Nations positions and served as the consultant to the US Department of State and Justice on many projects. He was a founding member of the International Human Rights Law Institute at DePaul University which was established in 1990. He served as president from 1990 to 1997 and then as president emeritus. Bassiouni is often referred to by the media as “the Godfather of International Criminal Law” and a “war crimes expert.” As such, he served on the Steering Committee for The Crimes Against Humanity Initiative, which was launched to study the need for a comprehensive convention on the prevention and punishment of crimes against humanity, and draft a proposed treaty. He spearheaded the drafting of the proposed convention, which as of 2014 is being debated at the International Law Commission.

In 2010, Bassiouni donated his personal papers to the DePaul University Special Collections and Archives, where his materials are open to researchers.

Roy A. Taylor

Roy Arthur Taylor (January 31, 1910 – November 28, 1995) was a U.S. Representative from North Carolina.

Born in Vader, Washington, Taylor graduated from Asheville-Biltmore College, Asheville, North Carolina, 1929.

He graduated from Maryville College, Maryville, Tennessee, 1931.

J.D., Asheville University Law School, Asheville, North Carolina, 1936.

He was a lawyer in private practice.

He was in the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946.

He served as member of the North Carolina general assembly from 1947 to 1949 and 1951 to 1953.

Taylor was elected as a Democrat to the Eighty-sixth Congress, by special election, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of United States Representative David M. Hall. He was reelected to eight succeeding Congresses and served from June 25, 1960 to January 3, 1977. He was not a candidate for reelection to the Ninety-fifth Congress in 1976.

In 1986, he received an honorary Doctor of Law from the University of North Carolina at AshevilleHe died on November 28, 1995 in Black Mountain, North Carolina, and was interred in Mountain View Memorial Gardens in the same town.

Russell W. Meyer Jr.

Russell W. "Russ" Meyer Jr. (born 1932 in Davenport, Iowa, United States) is the Chairman Emeritus and former Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Cessna Aircraft Company. He was awarded the Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy, the Collier Trophy on two separate occasions (once jointly with Cessna), and the Meritorious Service Award from the National Business Aircraft Association (NBAA). In 2009, he became inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame.

Meyer graduated from Yale University with a B.A. degree in 1954 and was awarded a Doctor of Law degree from Harvard Law School in 1961.

He was a jet pilot in the U.S. Air Force from 1955-1958 and served with the Marine Corps Reserves from 1958-1961.

Between 1961 and 1966, Meyer was an attorney with Arter & Hadden in Cleveland, Ohio. He was President and CEO of the Grumman American Aviation Corporation from 1966 to 1974, and joined Cessna in 1974 as an Executive Vice President, recruited by long-time Cessna President Dwane Wallace. Meyer was elected the company's CEO in 1975 by Wallace and the rest of the Board of Directors, and would serve in that role from 1975 to 2000 and again from June 2002 to 2004, succeeded by Jack J. Pelton.

He conceived the Citation Special Olympics Airlift in 1986, which uses Cessna Citation Jets to transport thousands of disabled athletes to the National Special Olympics. That same year, he and Cessna were awarded the Collier Trophy for the worldwide safety record of the Cessna Citation fleet of business jets. Ten years later, in 1996, under his leadership, the Collier Trophy was again awarded to Cessna for developing the Citation X, the first commercial aircraft to achieve a cruising speed of Mach .92, making it the fastest business jet in the world. Meyer also helped lead the passage of the 1994 General Aviation Revitalization Act, and was involved in various programs throughout his career that aimed at growing and strengthening the aviation industry.

He was a close and longtime friend of legendary golfer, pilot and Cessna owner Arnold Palmer.

Sambhunath Banerjee

Sambhunath Banerjee was a Bengali Indian scholar of law, and a judge of the Calcutta High Court, who served as the Vice Chancellor of the University of Calcutta.He was educated at the renowned Scottish Church College in Calcutta, and at the University of Calcutta.He would serve as the Vice Chancellor of the University of Calcutta from 11 May 1950 – 11 April 1954.He was awarded an honorary Doctor of Law by the University of Calcutta on 26 December 1952.

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