Dock landing ship

A dock landing ship (also called landing ship, dock or LSD) is an amphibious warfare ship with a well dock to transport and launch landing craft and amphibious vehicles.[1] Some ships with well decks, such as the Soviet Ivan Rogov class, also have bow doors to enable them to deliver vehicles directly onto a beach (like a tank landing ship). Modern dock landing ships also operate helicopters.

A ship with a well deck (docking well) can transfer cargo to landing craft in rougher seas than a ship that has to use cranes or a stern ramp.[2] The US Navy hull classification symbol for a ship with a well deck depends on its facilities for aircraft – a (modern) LSD has a helicopter deck, an LPD also has a hangar, and an LHD or LHA has a full-length flight deck.[2]

History

The LSD (US Navy hull classification for landing ship, dock) came as a result of a British requirement during the Second World War for a vessel that could carry large landing craft across the seas at speed.

The predecessor of all modern LSDs is Shinshū Maru of the Imperial Japanese Army, which could launch her infantry landing craft using an internal rail system and a stern ramp. She entered service in 1935 and saw combat in China and during the initial phase of Japanese offenses during 1942.

The first LSD of the Royal Navy came from a design by Sir Roland Baker who had designed the British Landing Craft, Tank. It was an answer to the problem of launching small craft rapidly. The "Landing Ship Stern Chute", which was a converted train ferry, was an early attempt. Thirteen Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM) could be launched from these ships down the chute. The Landing Ship Gantry was a converted tanker with a crane to transfer its cargo of landing craft from deck to sea – 15 LCM in a little over half an hour.[3]

The design was developed and built in the US for the US Navy and the Royal Navy. The LSD could carry 36 LCM at 16 knots (30 km/h). It took one and a half hours for the dock to be flooded down and two and half to pump it out. When flooded they could also be used as docks for repairs to small craft.

AAVs preparing to debark USS Gunston Hall (LSD 44)
Amphibious vehicles inside a US LSD

Vessels of the LSD hull classification

In the United States Navy, two related groups of vessels classified as LSDs are in service as of 2011, the Whidbey Island and Harpers Ferry classes, mainly used to carry hovercraft (LCACs), operate helicopters, and carry Marines.[4]

The British Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) operates three Bay-class landing ships based on the Dutch-Spanish Enforcer design in support of the Royal Navy's operations, while a fourth ship of the class – previously in RFA service – is now operated by the Royal Australian Navy.

Former US LSDs include the Ashland class, Casa Grande class, Thomaston class and Anchorage class.

LSD classes

In service

Country Class In service Commissioned Length Beam Draft Displacement (mt) Note
 Australia Choules 1 2011 176.6 m (579 ft) 26.4 m (87 ft) 5.8 m (19 ft) 17,810 Ex-RFA Largs Bay (L3006) sold to Royal Australian Navy in April 2011, renamed HMAS Choules (L-100). HMAS Choules starboard bow
 Brazil Ceará 1 1989 160 m (520 ft) 26.0 m (85.3 ft) 5.94 m (19.5 ft) 11,989 In reserve, ex-USS Hermitage (LSD-34) loaned to Brazilian Navy in 1989, renamed Ceará (G30), sold to Brazilian Navy in 2001. USS Thomaston;10122801
 Taiwan Hsu Hai 1 2000 169 m (554 ft) 26.0 m (85.3 ft) 6.1 m (20 ft) 14,225 Ex-USS Pensacola (LSD-38) sold to Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy in 2000, renamed ROCS Hsu Hai (LSD-193). US Navy 030117-N-2069B-002 USS Anchorage (LSD 36) departs San Diego Bay
 Russia Ivan Gren 1 2016 120 m (390 ft) 16.0 m (52.5 ft) 6,600 A second one building Ivan Gren landing ship (1)
 United Kingdom Bay 3 2007 176.6 m (579 ft) 26.4 m (87 ft) 5.8 m (19 ft) 17,810 RFA Lyme Bay in Plymouth Sound
 United States Whidbey Island 8 1985 186 m (610 ft) 26.0 m (85.3 ft) 5.94 m (19.5 ft) 16,100 US Navy 050117-F-4884R-015 he amphibious dock landing ship USS Fort McHenry (LSD 43) makes a wide turn prior to conducting helicopter operations off the coast of the island of Sumatra, Indonesia
Harpers Ferry 4 1995 185.80 m (609.6 ft) 26.0 m (85.3 ft) 5.94 m (19.5 ft) 19,600 US Navy 071007-N-4014G-055 Dock landing ship USS Carter Hall (LSD 50) approaches Military Sealift Command fleet replenishment oiler USNS Tippecanoe (T-AO 199) for an underway replenishment

Decommissioned

Country Class In service Commissioned Length Beam Draft Displacement (mt) Note
 Argentina Cándido de Lasala 1 1970–1981 139.5 m (458 ft) 22.0 m (72.2 ft) 4.83 m (15.8 ft) 7,930 Ex-USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5) sold to Argentina in 1970 and renamed ARA Cándido de Lasala (Q-43), scrapped after 1981. ARACandidodeLasalaQ43
 Brazil Rio de Janeiro 1 1990–2012 160 m (520 ft) 26.0 m (85.3 ft) 5.94 m (19.5 ft) 11,989 Ex-USS Alamo (LSD-33) loaned to Brazilian Navy in 1990, renamed Rio de Janeiro (G31). NDD Rio de Janeiro (G-31)
 Taiwan Chung Cheng 1 1977–1985 139.5 m (458 ft) 22.0 m (72.2 ft) 4.83 m (15.8 ft) 7,930 Ex-USS White Marsh (LSD-8) loaned to the ROC Navy in 1960 and renamed ROCS Chung Cheng (LSD-191), scrapped 1985.
Chung Cheng 1 1984–2012 139.5 m (458 ft) 22.0 m (72.2 ft) 4.83 m (15.8 ft) 7,930 Ex-USS Comstock (LSD-19) sold for scrapping on 17 October 1984 by MARAD, salvage by ROC Navy and commissioned in 1984, renamed ROCS Chung Cheng (LSD-191). USS Comstock (LSD-19) underway off Korea 1951
 Soviet Union Ivan Rogov 3 1978–2002 157 m (515 ft) 23.8 m (78 ft) 6.7 m (22 ft) 14,060 Ivan Rogov and Aleksandr Nikolayev are now being preserved; Mitrofan Moskalenko was being auctioned off for scrapping in 2012.[5] DoD-Ivan Rogov-DN-SN-85-07169 50pct
 United States Ashland 8 1943–1969 139.5 m (458 ft) 22.0 m (72.2 ft) 4.83 m (15.8 ft) 7,930 Ex-USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5) sold to Argentina and scrapped after 1981 and Ex-USS White Marsh (LSD-8) sold to Taiwan and scrapped 1985; rest scrapped from 1968 to 1970. USS Lindenwald (LSD-6) underway in Hampton Roads 1965
Casa Grande 13 1944–1970 139.5 m (458 ft) 22.0 m (72.2 ft) 4.83 m (15.8 ft) 7,930 Ex-USS Shadwell (LSD-15) is only ship in the class still exist and it is still in use as a test and training platform in the development of fire models and other damage and control systems, most others scrapped or sunk as target. USS Comstock (LSD-19) underway off Korea 1951
Thomaston 7 1954–1990 160 m (520 ft) 26.0 m (85.3 ft) 5.94 m (19.5 ft) 11,989 Ex-USS Alamo (LSD-33) loaned to Brazilian Navy (now decommissioned) and ex-USS Hermitage (LSD-34) loaned (now in reserve) and late sold to Brazilian Navy. USS Thomaston;10122801
Anchorage 5 1969–2003 169 m (554 ft) 26.0 m (85.3 ft) 6.1 m (20 ft) 14,225 Ex-USS Pensacola (LSD-38) sold to Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy and only active ship with all others scrapped or sunk as target. US Navy 030117-N-2069B-002 USS Anchorage (LSD 36) departs San Diego Bay

See also

References

  1. ^ "Mother of Minesweepers". Popular Mechanics: 97–104, see drawings pp. 98–99. February 1952.
  2. ^ a b "World Wide Landing Ship Dock/Landing Platform Dock". Retrieved 2012-05-17.
  3. ^ Brown 2006, p. 145
  4. ^ Petty, Dan. "The US Navy -- Fact File: Dock Landing Ship - LSD". Navy.mil. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  5. ^ "Barentsobserver". Barentsobserver.com. Retrieved 27 October 2018.

Cited literature

  • Brown, D. K. (November 2006). Nelson to Vanguard. Annapolis, Maryland: US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-602-X.

External links

Action of 3 June 2007

The Action of 3 June 2007 occurred after a United States Navy dock landing ship attacked pirates hijacking a freighter.

Anchorage-class dock landing ship

The Anchorage-class dock landing ships were a series of five dock landing ships (LSD) constructed and commissioned by the United States Navy between 1965 and 1972. US Navy decommissioned all five of them by 2003. They are succeeded by Whidbey Island-class LSDs and Harpers Ferry-class LSDs.

Ashland-class dock landing ship

The Ashland-class dock landing ship were the first of their type and were built during World War II. A Landing Ship, Dock (hull classification LSD) is a form of auxiliary warship designed to support amphibious operations.

Bay-class landing ship

The Bay class is a ship class of four dock landing ships built for the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) during the 2000s. They are based on the Dutch-Spanish Royal Schelde Enforcer design and intended as a replacement for the Round Table-class logistics ships. Two ships each were ordered from Swan Hunter and BAE Systems Naval Ships. Construction work started in 2002, but saw major delays and cost overruns, particularly at Swan Hunter's shipyard. In mid-2006, Swan Hunter was stripped of work, and the incomplete second ship was towed to BAE's shipyard for completion. All four ships, Largs Bay, Lyme Bay, Mounts Bay, and Cardigan Bay had entered service by 2007.

Since entering service, the Bay-class ships have been used for amphibious operations, training of the Iraqi Navy in the Persian Gulf, counter-drug deployments in the Caribbean, and relief operations following the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In 2010, Largs Bay was removed from service as part of the Strategic Defence and Security Review. She was sold to the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) in 2011, who operate her as HMAS Choules.

Casa Grande-class dock landing ship

The Casa Grande class was a class of dock landing ships used by the Royal Navy and the United States Navy during the Second World War. Nineteen ships were planned, but two, USS Fort Snelling and USS Point Defiance were cancelled before being completed.

Greek ship Nafkratousa

At least three ships of the Hellenic Navy have borne the name Nafkratousa (Greek: Ναυκρατούσα, "She who rules the sea with her ships"):

Greek destroyer Nafkratousa a Thyella-class destroyer launched in 1906 and lost in 1921.

Greek dock landing ship Nafkratousa (1953) a Casa Grande-class dock landing ship launched in 1943 as HMS Battleaxe but renamed HMS Eastway before completion, returned to US control in 1946 and transferred to Greece in 1953. She was scrapped after 1972.

Greek dock landing ship Nafkratousa (1971) a Casa Grande-class dock landing ship launched in 1945 as USS Fort Mandan transferred to Greece in 1971 and renamed. She was scrapped in 2001.

Harpers Ferry-class dock landing ship

The Harpers Ferry class of the United States Navy is a class of dock landing ships completed in the early 1990s. Modified from the Whidbey Island class, the design sacrifices landing craft capacity for more cargo space, making it closer to an amphibious transport dock type, but was not designated as such. Externally, the two classes can be distinguished by the positions of weapons: The Harpers Ferry class has the Phalanx CIWS mounted forward, and the RAM launcher on top of the bridge, while the Whidbey Island has the opposite arrangement.

As of 2009, all ships of the class are scheduled to undergo a midlife upgrade to ensure they remain in service through 2038. The ships will be upgraded each year through 2013, and the last ship will be modernized in 2014. Ships homeported on the East Coast will undergo upgrades at Metro Machine Corp., and ships based on the West Coast will receive upgrades at General Dynamics National Steel and Shipbuilding Company in San Diego.Major elements of the upgrade package include diesel engine improvements, fuel and maintenance savings systems, engineering control systems, increased air conditioning/chill water capacity, and replacement of air compressors. The ships also replaced steam systems with all-electric functionality that will decrease maintenance.

Harpers Ferry (disambiguation)

Harpers Ferry is the name of several places in the United States of America:

Harpers Ferry, Iowa, a city in Allamakee County, Iowa

Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, a town in Jefferson County, West Virginia

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry (1859)

Harpers Ferry Armory, second federal armory (construction begun 1799) and site of John Brown's slave revolt of 1859

Harpers Ferry National Historical Park

The Battle of Harpers Ferry (September 12–15, 1862), a battle in the American Civil War that took place around what is now Harpers Ferry, West VirginiaHarpers Ferry may also refer to:

Harpers Ferry class dock landing ship, a ship class in the United States Navy

USS Harpers Ferry (LSD-49), a Harpers Ferry class dock landing ship of the United States Navy, commissioned in 1995

Harpers Ferry, a music venue and nightclub in Boston

List of ship launches in 1954

The list of ship launches in 1954 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1954.

MV Danica White

The Danish-owned cargo ship MV Danica White was hijacked and maneuvered into Somali waters on 1 June 2007. On 3 June 2007, USS Carter Hall, a Harpers Ferry-class dock landing ship engaged the pirates, firing machine-gun bursts at the skiffs in tow behind the Danish ship, but failed to stop them. Following 83 days in captivity, the crew of five and the ship were released after the owner, H. Folmer & Co, paid a ransom of 723,000 United States dollars, which was negotiated down from $1.5 million.

Thomaston-class dock landing ship

The Thomaston class was a class of eight dock landing ships built for the United States Navy in the 1950s.

The class is named after a town of Thomaston, Maine, which was the home of General Henry Knox, the first Secretary of War to serve under the United States Constitution.

USS Anchorage (LSD-36)

USS Anchorage (LSD-36) was the lead ship of the Anchorage-class dock landing ship of the United States Navy. In the ship's 34 years of service, she completed 19 deployments in the western Pacific and became the most decorated dock landing ship on the west coast.

USS Belle Grove

USS Belle Grove (LSD-2) was an Ashland-class dock landing ship of the United States Navy, named in honor of Belle Grove Plantation, the birthplace of President James Madison (1751–1836) in Port Conway, Virginia.

Belle Grove was laid down on 27 October 1942 by the Moore Dry Dock Company, Oakland, California; launched on 17 February 1943, sponsored by Mrs. George M. Lowry; and commissioned at Oakland on 9 August 1943, Lieutenant Commander Morris Seavey, USNR, in command.

USS Fort Mandan (LSD-21)

USS Fort Mandan (LSD-21) was a Casa Grande-class dock landing ship of the United States Navy, named in honor of Fort Mandan, the encampment at which the Lewis and Clark Expedition wintered in 1804–1805, in what is now North Dakota.

USS Pearl Harbor

USS Pearl Harbor (LSD 52) is a Harpers Ferry-class dock landing ship of the United States Navy. She was named for Pearl Harbor, where World War II began for the United States.

Pearl Harbor was laid down on 27 January 1995, by the Avondale Shipyards, New Orleans, La.; launched on 24 February 1996; and commissioned on 30 May 1998.

As of September 06, 2018, Pearl Harbor is homeported to NS San Diego, California, and assigned to Commander Amphibious Squadron 1 (COMPHIBRON 1).

USS Pensacola (LSD-38)

USS Pensacola (LSD-38) was a Anchorage-class dock landing ship of the United States Navy. She was the fourth Navy ship to be named for the naval town of Pensacola, Florida. She was built at Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts and commissioned in 1971.

USS Point Defiance (LSD-31)

USS Point Defiance (LSD-31) was a Thomaston-class dock landing ship of the United States Navy. She was named for a location in Pierce County, Washington, the site of a military reservation established by the U.S. Government in 1866. She was the second ship assigned that name, but the construction of the Casa Grande-class dock landing ship Point Defiance (LSD-23) was canceled on 17 August 1945.

Point Defiance (LSD–31) was laid down on 23 November 1953 by Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp., Pascagoula, Miss.; launched on 28 September 1954, sponsored by Mrs. Arthur D. Struble; and commissioned on 31 March 1955, Commander Oscar B. Parker in command.

USS Whetstone (LSD-27)

USS Whetstone (LSD-27) was a Casa Grande-class dock landing ship of the United States Navy.

She was named in honor of Whetstone Point, at end of peninsula between the old Basin (today's Inner Harbor) of downtown Baltimore (and old Baltimore Town). The peninsula which also later contained the residential communities of South Baltimore, Federal Hill and Locust Point is bordered by the |Northwest Branch (on the north side) and the Middle and Ferry (now Southern) Branches (to the south) on the Patapsco River, which is also Baltimore Harbor. Location of Revolutionary War fortifications of Fort Whetstone from the 1770s and the previous site of later Fort McHenry reconstructed beginning in 1798 was named for James McHenry, third Secretary of War under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. The star-shaped fort which defended Baltimore, Maryland from British assault with a two-day bombardment in 12–14 September 1814, during the War of 1812. The poem "Defence of Fort McHenry" when set to music inspired the national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner" written as a poem by Francis Scott Key from an off-shore truce ship downriver.

USS Whetstone was laid down on 7 April 1945 at the Boston Navy Yard; launched on 18 July 1945, sponsored by Mrs. Worthington S. Bitler, the wife of Captain W. S. Bitler on duty at the Boston Navy Yard; and commissioned on 12 February 1946, Commander G. R. Keating in command.

Whidbey Island-class dock landing ship

The Whidbey Island-class dock landing ship is a dock landing ship of the United States Navy. Introduced to fleet service in 1985, this class of ship features a large well deck for the transport of United States Marine Corps (USMC) vehicles and a large flight deck for the landing of helicopters or V-22 Ospreys. The well deck was designed to hold four LCAC hovercraft, five if the vehicle ramp is raised, for landing Marines. Recent deployments have instead filled the well deck with a combination of LCU(s), AAVs, Tanks, LARCs and other USMC vehicles and gear. The Whidbey Island class of ship also uniquely benefits from multiple cranes and a shallow draft that further make it ideal for participating in amphibious operations.

As of 2009, all ships of the class are scheduled to undergo a midlife upgrade over the next five years to ensure that they remain in service through to 2038. The ships will be upgraded each year through 2013, and the last ship will be modernized in 2014. Ships homeported on the East Coast will undergo upgrades at Metro Machine Corp., while those on the West Coast will receive upgrades at General Dynamics National Steel and Shipbuilding Company in San Diego.Major elements of the upgrade package include diesel engine improvements, fuel and maintenance savings systems, engineering control systems, increased air conditioning and chill water capacity, and replacement of air compressors. The ships also replaced steam systems with all-electric functionality that will decrease maintenance effort and expense.

Aircraft carriers
Battleships
Cruisers
Escort
Transport
Patrol craft
Fast attack craft
Mine warfare
Command and support
Submarines
Miscellaneous

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.