Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.[2]

Roman - Garland Sarcophagus - Walters 2329
Asiatic garland sarcophagus, the predominant type during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian (Walters Art Museum),[1] dated between 150 and 180, in Dokimeion marble, so probably made in Phrygia and then shipped to Rome. The gable-roof lid exemplifies the garland tradition common on ash altars and chests. It also has several incomplete parts on its four sides, suggesting the work was interrupted or it was needed on short notice.


This city, as appears from its coins – which bear the epigraph Δημος or Ιερα Συνκλητος Δοκιμεων Μακεδονεν – where the inhabitants are called Macedonians, may have been founded by Antigonos Dokimos.[3] The city's name in Greek is Romanized as Dokimeion, Dokimia Kome, Dokimaion, and later Dokimion.

Strabo places Docimium somewhere about Synnada: he calls it a village, and says that there is there a quarry of Synnadic stone, as the Romans call it, but the people of the country call it Docimites and Docimaea; the quarry at first yielded only small pieces of the stone, but owing to the later efforts of the Romans large columns of one piece are taken out, which in variety come near the Alabastrites, so that, though the transport to the sea of such weights is troublesome, still both columns and slabs were brought to Rome of wondrous size and beauty. The red colors which streaked the white marble taken from the city's holy mountain were attributed to the drops of blood from the dying god Attis.[4] The word Docimaea (Δοκιμαίαν) in this passage of Strabo appears to be corrupt. It should be either Δοκιμαῖον or Δοκιμέα.

Strabo says that the plain of Synnada is about 60 stadia long, and beyond it is Docimium. We may, however, infer that he supposed Docimium to be not far from the limit of the plain. The Table makes it 32 M. P. between Synnada and Docimium, and Docimium is on the road from Synnada to Dorylaeum; but the number is certainly erroneous. The exact site of Docimium was a matter of some dispute until recently; it is now fixed at the modern Turkish town İscehisar, in Afyonkarahisar Province.[5]

Episcopal see

On this site have been found many Christian inscriptions, later than Constantine.

Docimium was a suffragan of Synnada in Phrygia Salutaris.

Six or seven bishops are known, from 344 to 879 (Lequien, Oriens Christianus, I, 853); another bishop is mentioned in an inscription.

Docimium is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[6]


  • PD-icon.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Docimium". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
  1. ^ Davies, "Before Sarcophagi," in Life, Death and Representation, pp. 21, 28ff.
  2. ^ Steph. B. s. v. Σύνναδα.
  3. ^ Smith raises doubt whether the coins are genuine.
  4. ^ Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, p41
  5. ^ Richard Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, (ISBN 0-691-03169-X), Map 62 & notes.
  6. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 882

Coordinates: 38°52′N 30°45′E / 38.867°N 30.750°E


Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838. It was situated on the Byzantine military road from Constantinople to Cilicia. Its ruins and höyük ('mound, tumulus') are located under and around the modern village of Hisarköy, 13 kilometers east of the district center, Emirdağ, Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey.Amorium is the Latinized version of its original Greek name Amorion (Greek: Ἀμόριον). Arab/Islamic sources refer to the city as ʿAmmūriye. Under Ottoman rule the site, which never regained importance, was called Hergen Kale or Hergen Kaleh.


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Cidyessus (Κιδύησσος) was a city of some importance, west of Ammonia in west-central Phrygia, in the territory of the Setchanli Ova, or Mouse Plain; this large and fertile valley projects far into Phrygia Salutaris, but the city was in Phrygia Pacatiana.Its site has been determined by an inscription to be modern Küçükhüyük in Turkey, west of Afyonkarahisar. The old native name may have been Kydessos, though it is Kidyessos on its coins.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.


Antigonos Dokimos, commonly shortened and Latinized as Docimus (in Greek Δόκιμoς; lived 4th century BC), was one of the officers in the Macedonian army.

After the death of Alexander the Great (323 BC) he supported the party of Perdiccas.

After the death of Perdiccas (321 BC) he united with Attalus and Alcetas, and was taken prisoner together with the former when their combined forces were defeated by Antigonus in Pisidia, 320 BC. The captives were confined in a strong fort, but, during the expedition of Antigonus against Eumenes, they contrived to overpower their guards, and make themselves masters of the fortress (316 BC). Docimus, however, having quit the castle to carry on a negotiation with Stratonice, the wife of Antigonus, was again made prisoner. He appears after this to have entered the service of Antigonus, as we find him in 313 BC sent by that prince with an army to establish the freedom of the Greek cities in Caria. In the campaign preceding the battle of Ipsus (301 BC), he held the strong fortress of Synnada in Phrygia in charge for Antigonus, but was induced to surrender it into the hands of Lysimachus.It is probable that he had been governor of the adjoining Phrygian district for some time: and he had founded there the city called after him Docimium. His name is not mentioned after the fall of Antigonus.


Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.


Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Pavonazzo marble

Pavonazzetto marble also known as Docimaean marble or Synnadic marble, is a white marble originally from Docimium, or modern Iscehisar, Turkey. The name derives from the Italian word for peacock (pavone). "In natural stone trade, Pavonazzo is often simply called a Marble." It is one of the many varieties of Carrara marble, distinguished by black/gray-veined white marble. Also referred to as "pavonazzetto", and distinguished as:

Various red and purplish marbles and breccias.

A marble, used by the ancient Romans, characterized by very irregular veins of dark red with bluish and yellowish tints.The marble has been used in Rome since the Augustan age, when large-scale quarrying began at Docimium, and columns of it were used in the House of Augustus, as well as in the Temple of Mars Ultor, which also had pavonazzo floor tiles in the cella. Pavonazzetto statues of kneeling Phrygian barbarians existed in the Basilica Aemilia and Horti Sallustiani. Giant statue groups carved from Docimaean marble were discovered at Tiberius's Villa in Sperlonga. Pavonazzetto was not widely or extensively used before the Roman period; there is no evidence of it in circulation before the last two decades B.C.

Later it was used in Rome in Trajan's Markets and for the Memoria Petri, the tomb of Saint Peter and internationally in the influential Baroque Revival-style historic buildings the Church of St. Ignatius Loyola, in New York City, and Belfast City Hall in Belfast, Northern Ireland.


Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).


Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.


Zenodotion (Ancient Greek: Ζηνοδότιον), or Zenodotium or Zenodotia, was a city in Mesopotamia that was destroyed in the 1st century BCE.

Zenodotion was a polis of Osroene near Nicephorium (modern Raqqa, in Syria), though we do not know its exact location. It may have been a native Mesopotamian town, a Greek colony, or a colony founded on or adjacent to a native town. The writer Plutarch mentions this city, saying the Greeks called it Zenodotion, implying that its inhabitants might have called it something else. The historian Cassius Dio thought it was a Greek and Macedonian colony.The classical scholar William Woodthorpe Tarn suggested that, like the Phrygian city of Docimium, Zenodotion was a city named after the military officer who first settled it. It is possible that the city was founded by a man in the army of Alexander the Great or Antigonus I Monophthalmus, or a member of the Seleucid Empire, but there is no compelling evidence to show the way here.Plutarch tells the story of the invasion of Marcus Licinius Crassus into the region, and how Zenodotion, ruled by Apollonius, was the only city that offered significant resistance. For this, Crassus sacked and destroyed the city, and sold its inhabitants into slavery. He later dubbed himself Imperator for this feat, which attracted the scorn of his contemporaries, as this was not considered that impressive a victory at all.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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