Docent is a title at some European universities to denote a specific academic appointment within a set structure of academic ranks at or below the full professor rank, similar to a British readership and equal or above the title "associate professor".


Docent is also used at some (mainly German) universities generically for a person who has the right to teach. The term is derived from the Latin word docēns, which is the present active participle of docēre (to teach, to lecture). Becoming a docent is often referred to as Habilitation or Doctor of Science and is an academic evidence that proves that a holder is capable of appointment at the level of associate or full professor. Docent is the highest academic title in several countries and the qualifying criteria are research output that corresponds to 3-5 doctoral dissertations, supervision of PhD students, and concrete evidence of teaching at undergraduate and graduate level.


In the Flemish universities of Belgium docent is the first of four university professor ranks, the others being hoofddocent (head docent), hoogleraar (professor) and gewoon hoogleraar. To be awarded the docent title at the Flemish universities, a candidate has to have a Doctorate. In the French-speaking universities, the word docent is not used in their titles.

Germany, Austria and Switzerland

In Germany, Austria and in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, Dozent or Hochschuldozent denotes an academic appointment at a university or similar institution, at a mid-level ranking of seniority.

The title of Privatdozent is used (with certain conditions) by those who have successfully completed a Habilitation, thereby denoting that its holder has the right to independently teach without being supervised by a professor. In this way, a Privatdozent may for instance hold an appointment as Dozent or Hochschuldozent.

Central and Eastern Europe

In many countries, with academic traditions that stem from German-speaking countries, "docent" is an academic appointment below that of a full professor. This is the situation in Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. Title Docent is equal or even above the title "associate professor" as it is used in Western European countries. In the Czech Republic, a "docent" holder is considered capable to conduct research independently as well as to give lectures.

In Russia, Ukraine and Belarus "docent" is an academic (scientific) title below the professor.

In Poland, the title of docent used to be mandatory in order to become a professor (i.e., full professor). This is no longer a requirement, and this title nearly vanished in the last 20 years. Currently, this title may be given to a person on non-scientist duty (teacher/instructor). Only a person on scientist duty may apply for the title of professor, therefore docent is the highest title for teachers and instructors.

In countries such as Lithuania, Bulgaria,[1] "docent" is used as an academic title equivalent to associate professor in German-speaking countries.

In most of former Yugoslav countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia, the system of academic ranks is similar to that of North America. The academic rank of docent corresponds to assistant or associate professor.

In Armenia, the title of Docent -equivalent to Associate professor- is awarded to either a Candidate of Sciences or a Doctor of Sciences before becoming a full Professor.

Northern Europe

In Denmark and Norway, docent is traditionally a title ranking between associate professor and professor, similar to a readership in the United Kingdom. Following reforms in 2003, the Norwegian docent position is considered equivalent in rank to that of professor, with teaching qualifications weighted more heavily relative to research qualifications than in professorial appointments.[2]

In Finland, Sweden, Estonia and Latvia docent (Finnish dosentti, Swedish docent, Estonian dotsent, Latvian docents) is an academic title conferred to a person fulfilling requirements similar to German Privatdozent. Such persons are usually expected to give lectures on their specialties if their professional activities permit this. Most docents are employed at the university where they are docents, but usually in a different position (often with the title Senior Lecturer; universitetslektor). The Scandinavian title docent as used in e.g. Sweden is often translated into English as Reader to avoid confusion with foreign uses of the term docent. In Finland, the Docents' Union of Finland and the Finnish Ministry of Education recommend the term adjunct professor in English,[3][4] while the term used by the University of Helsinki is Title of Docent.[5]


In Sweden, there used to be both stipendiary (docentstipendiat) and non-stipendiary (oavlönad docent) docent positions. A stipendiary docent both held the docent title (for life), and benefited from a stipend that paid for his or her salary at the university for up to six years. The non-stipendiary alternative was solely an academic title (also for life). Today, most universities only confer a non-stipendiary docent title. The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Chalmers university of technology still maintains the stipendiary. The title is in most cases awarded to people employed as assistant professor/Lecturer (universitetslektor) with a distinguished international reputation after a rigorous review of their research. Docent translates as Associate professor, First Lecturer or Reader/Senior Lecturer.

The title of docent is the second highest grade in the Swedish academic system, the highest being (full) professor. A docentship should be regarded as an educational title not connected with the employment pyramid as such. This is rather an assurance of the level of expertise, to enable the person to advance further in his/her academic career. A docent qualification is required of all head doctoral student supervisors. For conferment of the title, there is a requirement that the researcher has a good overview of his/her research area and has demonstrated both the ability to formulate research problems and to independently carry through research programs. It is a requirement that the researcher should be able to lead research projects. The researcher must have substantial scientific research experience and be well published in scientific journals.


In Finland, Docent is solely an academic title (Finnish: dosentti, Swedish: docent) awarded by a university. It can either be awarded for life or for stipulated period of time depending on the choice of the unit that is conferring it. In addition to teaching, docents are involved in research and supervising post-graduate students. To be awarded the docent title, a candidate has to have a doctor’s degree or have corresponding scientific competence and, in addition, have acquired advanced scientific skills as well as educational skills.[6] While traditionally a docenture used to be a formal position without a salary, the 2009 change in legislation [7] changed it to a title only. The title of Docent in Finland is also called Adjunct Professor. A docent may have another ordinary job at the university (e.g. a lecturer) or work elsewhere full-time. The rank of a docent entitles scientists to be principal investigators, lead research groups and act as the supervisors of doctoral students.


Traditional use in the universities until 1985

In Norway, the title docent (Norwegian: dosent) was traditionally used for positions immediately below full professors and above those holding the title førsteamanuensis (corresponding to associate professor in the US and senior lecturer in the Commonwealth) until 1985. The requirements were the same as for full university professors, but until then, each department usually only had one professor and other academics with similar qualifications were appointed as docents. Hence, docents could be seen as professors without chair (professor extraordinarius). The title was comparable to reader or associate professor in many Commonwealth countries and professor extraordinarius in continental Europe. All docents were lifted to full professor status in 1985, when the title was abolished at the universities.[8]

College Docent and (Teaching) Docent

The title docent remained in use in the rural colleges (Norwegian: distriktshøgskoler), in the form of College Docent (Norwegian: høgskoledosent), which is a position focused on teaching, and ranked below professors. Today, only a handful of people still hold the title College Docent. In the 1990s, the College Docents received the right to apply for promotion to professor. In 2003, the position Teaching Docent (Norwegian: undervisningsdosent) was introduced. The title was changed to just Docent (Norwegian: dosent) in 2006, although it is not a successor of the earlier Docent position as used in the universities prior to 1985. The position is similar to College Docent and focused on teaching activities rather than research. Both the titles College Docent and (Teaching) Docent are almost exclusively used in the colleges, and usually not used in the universities. Teaching Docent is ranked within the state pay grade system as equivalent to the position of Professor, but promotion to Teaching Docent is based on a different set of merits, with more emphasis on teaching qualifications relative to research merits than in professorial appointments. Persons holding a permanent position as senior teaching fellow (Norwegian: førstelektor) at a university or university college may apply for promotion to Teaching Docent.[9] After the 2006 changes there are three parallel academic career ladders in Norway, one focused on both research and teaching, one focused only on research and one focused on teaching.[10]

Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands

In Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands, docente (Portuguese and Spanish) and docent (Dutch) are a synonym for "teacher" as well as "professor", and are widely used across all academic ranks (i.e. high school, undergraduate, etc...).

In the specific context of academia/university, in Spain, an academic with a 'docent' level is who got the accreditation for 'profesor titular de universidad' by the 'Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación' (ANECA). This is the equivalent to 'associate professor' in UK or 'Dozent' in Germany. The following level evaluated by ANECA is 'catedrático de universidad', that is 'university professor', according to European standards.

South Africa

In South Africa, the Afrikaans word dosent refers to any full-time university lecturer, independent of rank.


In Turkey, doçent is an academic appointment equivalent to an associate professor, ranking between instructor doctor and professor.[11] A doçent candidate has to have a doctor’s degree; pass written, oral examinations and also submit a docent thesis. The title of docent is mandatory in order to become a professor (i.e. full professor). In recent years there is no longer need for a docent thesis, rather a candidate must provide evidence of a number of journal papers, or a research-level book on his field with a detail equivalent to journal article.


  2. ^ "Forskrift om ansettelse og opprykk i undervisnings- og forskerstillinger" [Regulations on employment and promotion in teaching and research positions]. Lovdata (in Norwegian). Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  3. ^
  4. ^ "MOT". Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  5. ^ "The title of docent - University of Helsinki". Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  6. ^ Oy, Edita Publishing. "FINLEX ® - Ajantasainen lainsäädäntö: Kumottu säädös Yliopistoasetus (kumoutunut) 115/1998". Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  7. ^ Oy, Edita Publishing. "FINLEX ® - Ajantasainen lainsäädäntö: Yliopistolaki 558/2009". Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  8. ^ Dosent, in Store Norske Leksikon, Vol. 4, 2005
  9. ^ Forskrift om ansettelse og opprykk i undervisnings- og forskerstillinger (Regulations concerning appointment and promotion to teaching and research posts, Ministry of Education and Research 9 February 2006), accessed March 14, 2014.
  10. ^ Forskrift om ansettelse og opprykk i undervisnings- og forskerstillinger,, February 20, 2006 (accessed August 26, 2014).
  11. ^ Büyük Larousse Sözlük ve Ansiklopedisi 1986 "Doçent: Üniversite öğretim üyeliğinde yardımcı doçent ile profesör arasında yer alan akademik unvan."
Academic ranks in Russia

Academic ranks in Russia (also called scientific ranks) are the conferred titles, indicating relative importance and power of professors, researchers, and administrative personnel in Russian academia and scientific institutions. The rank “certifies” the demonstrated ability of an individual to function in the specific academic position(s).

Academic ranks in Serbia

Academic ranks in Serbia are the titles, relative importance and power of professors, researchers, and administrative personnel held in academia.

Academic ranks in the Czech Republic and in Slovakia

Academic ranks in the Czech Republic and in Slovakia are the titles, relative importance and power of professors, researchers, and administrative personnel held in academia.

Adjunct professor

Adjunct professor (adjunct lecturer, adjunct instructor, adjunct faculty or contingent academic labor collectively) is a type of academic appointment in higher education.

In the United States, an adjunct is a non-tenure-track faculty, though it can also be a scholar or teacher whose primary employer is not the school or department with which they have adjunct status.

In Australia, the term adjunct is reserved for academics and researchers from outside the university who have a close association with the university, e.g. through supervision of PhD students, recognised by an honorary title reflective of their rank and standing (adjunct lecturer, senior lecturer, associate professor or professor).

In Canada, adjunct professors are often nominated in recognition of active involvement with the appointing institution, while they are employed by government, industry, a profession or another institution . The position course lecturer, rather than adjunct, is used if the appointment is strictly to teach one or more courses, contrasting with US usage of the title for all instructors.

In Portugal the designation professor adjunto imply a stable full-time employment in a polytechnic university.

In countries such as Argentina and Brazil, a similar designation, professor adjunto, does imply stable full-time employment.

In parts of Spain, profesor adjunto is a non-tenured position.

In Hungary, there exists a similar term adjunktus, as well as adiunkt in Poland, meaning assistant professor.

In Bangladesh, private universities follow the title adjunct professor or adjunct associate professor to imply non-tenure faculty members.

In Thailand, adjunct (assistant/associate) professors are considered "non-regular officers".

In Pakistan, adjunct (assistant/associate) professors are also considered as non-regular faculty members and usually posts are given to Pakistani overseas scientists under a faculty development program.

In Finland, the Docents' Union of Finland and the Finnish Ministry of Education recommend the term adjunct professor in English as a translation of the title of docent. A docentship should be regarded as an educational title not connected with the employment pyramid as such, rather an assurance of the level of expertise, to enable the person to advance further in his/her academic career. The rank of a docent entitles scientists to be principal investigators, lead research groups and act as the supervisors of doctoral students.

Chinese Cultural Garden

The Chinese Cultural Garden occupies 6 acres (24,000 m2) of Overfelt Gardens park in San Jose, California. The addition of the Chinese Cultural Garden to Overfelt is primarily the work of Chinese immigrant Frank Lowe, his wife Pauline (who serves as park docent), and Dr. Chen Li-Fu of Taiwan.

Docendo discimus

Docendo discimus, (Latin "by teaching, we learn") is a Latin proverb.

Perhaps derived from Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BC – 65 AD), who says in his Letters to Lucilius, Book I, letter 7, section 8: Homines dum docent discunt. "Men learn while they teach."

Gentlemen of Fortune

Gentlemen of Fortune (Russian: Джентльмены удачи, romanized: Dzhentlmeny udachi) is a 1971 Soviet crime comedy film, filmed at Mosfilm and directed by Aleksandr Sery. The stars of the film include famous Soviet actors such as Savely Kramarov, Yevgeny Leonov, Georgy Vitsin, and Radner Muratov.

The film was the leader of Soviet distribution in 1972 having 65.02 million viewers.

Jussi Niinistö

Jussi Niinistö (born October 27, 1970 in Helsinki) is a Finnish politician and the current Minister of Defence. Since 2011, he has been a member of Finnish Parliament, representing the Finns Party 2011–2017 and Blue Reform since 2017. By occupation he is a military historian, a docent of Finnish history in the University of Helsinki and a docent of military history in the Finnish National Defence University. In 2013 he was elected as the first vice-chairman of the True Finns, but lost his seat in 2017.Niinistö was a member of the municipal council of Nurmijärvi 2009–2015 and the chairman of the Finns Party deputy group of the council 2009–2014. In August 2015, Niinistö moved to Helsinki and left the municipal council. In the 2017 municipal elections Niinistö was elected to the City Council of Helsinki.On 13 June 2017, Niinistö and 19 others left the Finns Party parliamentary group to found the New Alternative parliamentary group, which would later became the Blue Reform party. He took part in the 2019 parliamentary election as a candidate of the Blue Reform, but was not elected.Jussi Niinistö is not related to President Sauli Niinistö nor his nephew, Green MP Ville Niinistö, and their family names have different origins.


In typography, letter-spacing, also referred to as tracking by typographers working with pre-WYSIWYG digital systems, refers to an optically consistent degree of increase (or sometimes decrease) of space between letters to affect visual density in a line or block of text.

Letter-spacing should not be confused with kerning. Letter-spacing refers to a uniform adjustment to the spacing of a word or block of text affecting its density and texture. Kerning is a spacing adjustment of one or more specific pairs of adjacent characters that, because of the relationship of their respective shapes, would appear to be badly spaced if left un-adjusted. An example might be a capital V next to a capital A, which need to be brought closer together.

In its original meaning with metal type, a kern meant having a letter stick out beyond the metal slug it was attached to, or cutting off part of the body of the slug to allow (other similarly-trimmed) letters to overlap. So a kern in that sense could only bring letters closer together (negative spacing), though it was possible to add space between letters. Digital kerning can go in either direction. Tracking can similarly go in either direction, though with metal type one could only adjust groups of letters further apart (positive spacing).

Letter-spacing adjustments are frequently used in news design. The speed with which pages must be built on deadline does not usually leave time to rewrite paragraphs that end in split words or that create orphans or widows. Letter-spacing is increased or decreased by modest (usually unnoticeable) amounts to fix these unattractive situations.

List of Latin phrases (M)

This page lists English translations of notable Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before the rise of ancient Rome.

This list covers the letter M. See List of Latin phrases for the main list.

List of academic ranks

This list of academic ranks identifies the hierarchical ranking structure found amongst scholars and personnel in academia. The lists below refer specifically to colleges and universities throughout the world, although other institutions of higher learning may follow a similar schema.

Museum docent

Museum docent is a title given in the United States of America to persons who serve as guides and educators for the institutions they serve, usually on a voluntary basis. The English word itself is derived from the Latin word docēns, the present active participle of docēre (to teach, to lecture). Cognates of this word are found in several extant Romance Languages and are often associated with university professors or teachers in general. In many cases docents, in addition to their prescribed function as guides, also conduct research utilizing the institution's facilities.

The title "docent" is not widely used outside the United States, with the terms "guide", "facilitator", or "educator" preferred.

Nederlandse Onderwatersport Bond

The Nederlandse Onderwatersport Bond (NOB) is the national governing body for recreational diving and underwater sports in the Netherlands. It was founded in 1962. In 2008 there were 290 scuba diving clubs and schools with a total of 20.000 members. The NOB is a member of CMAS Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. The aim of the NOB is to develop recreational scuba diving in the Netherlands.


Privatdozent (for men) or Privatdozentin (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title similar to Adjunct professor in North America conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualifications that denote an ability to teach (venia legendi) a designated subject at university level. In its current usage, the title indicates that the holder has permission to teach and examine independently without having a position. The title is not necessarily connected to a salaried position, but may entail a nominal obligation to teach.

Reader (academic rank)

The title of reader in the United Kingdom and some universities in the Commonwealth of Nations, for example India, Australia and New Zealand, denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship.

Rolf Nordhagen (physicist)

Rolf Nordhagen (2 August 1927 – 1 July 2013) was a Norwegian physicist and computer scientist.Rolf Nordhagen was born in Bergen, Norway. He was the son of the noted botanist, Rolf Nordhagen (1894– 1979) and the brother of art historian Per Jonas Nordhagen. He took his Ph.D. in Liverpool in 1958, and was a docent in nuclear physics at the University of Oslo from 1970 to 1974. He changed to being the university's director of "EDB" (information technology) from 1974 to 1986 before being hired as a professor of informatics in 1986.Nordhagen was involved in the development and reconstruction of both the Norwegian academic network UNINETT as well as the Nordic university network NORDUnet. Rolf Nordhagen was posthumously honored with admission into the Internet Hall of Fame in 2014.

Rudolf Simek

Rudolf Simek (born 21 February 1954 in Eisenstadt, Burgenland) is an Austrian Germanist and philologist.

Simek studied German literature, philosophy and Catholic theology in the University of Vienna, before becoming a librarian and a docent at the institution. He taught among others in the universities of Edinburgh, Tromsø and Sydney. Since 1995 he has been a Professor of German studies at the University of Bonn. Rudolf Simek is the editor-in-chief of Studia Medievalia Septentrionalia.

On 8 October 2013 Rudolf Simek received an honorary degree at the University of Rzeszów.

Sharp Family Tourism and Education Center

The Sharp Family Tourism and Education Center is the gateway to the visitor’s experience of the Frank Lloyd Wright-designed campus at Florida Southern College (also known as the Florida Southern College Architectural District) in Lakeland, Florida. Designed and built between 1938 and 1958, the Florida Southern College Architectural District is the largest single-site collection of Wright’s work in the world and a National Historic Landmark (2012).The Sharp Family Tourism and Education Center offers a variety of self-guided, docent-led, and group tours of the Wright campus, providing visitors with an engaging, informative experience of this one-of-a-kind collection of the architect’s work that Wright himself proclaimed to be among his best. The Center provides a home for the permanent display of photographs, furniture, and drawings depicting Wright’s relationship with the College. The Center also acts as a home for visiting exhibits on loan from various other Wright sites.

Located at the corner of Johnson Avenue and Frank Lloyd Wright Way in Lakeland, Florida, the Sharp Family Tourism and Education Center is open Sunday through Saturday from 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. (closed on Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, and New Year’s Day). Tour reservations can be made online, by email, or by phone. For more information, visit

SumTotal Systems

SumTotal Systems, Inc. is a software company based in Gainesville, Florida that provides human resource management software and services to private and public sector organizations. The company uses multiple cloud-based channels, including Software as a Service (SaaS), Hosted Subscription, and premises-based licensure. The company has regional offices in the US, Canada, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific region.In September 2014, SumTotal was acquired by SkillSoft, a provider of online learning to corporate training organizations.

North American system
Commonwealth system
Other positions
Levels of academic degree

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