Doab

Doab (English: /ˈdoʊɑːb/) is a term used in South Asia[1] for the "tongue,"[2] or tract[1] of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers. It is similar to an interfluve.[3] In the Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, R. S. McGregor defines it as "(Persian do-āb: a region lying between and reaching to the confluence of two rivers (esp. that between the Ganges and Yamuna)."[4]

Doab
Natural region
View of a canal in the lower Bari Doab of the Punjab Doabs
View of a canal in the lower Bari Doab of the Punjab Doabs
CountrySouth Asia

The Ganges-Yamuna Doab

DoabUnitedProvincesIGI1908
The Doab, United Provinces, 1908 map

The Doab or the Ganges-Yamuna doab designates the flat alluvial tract between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers extending from the Sivalik Hills to the two rivers' confluence at Allahabad. The region has an area of about 23,360 square miles (60,500 square km); it is approximately 500 miles (805 km) in length and 60 miles (97 km) in width.[5]

The British raj divided the Doab into three administrative districts, viz., Upper Doab (Meerut), Middle Doab (Agra) and Lower Doab (Allahabad).[5]

Currently the following states and districts form part of the Ganga Doab:[5]

Upper Doab

Dehradun and Haridwar

Saharanpur, Shamli, Muzaffarnagar, Baghpat, Meerut, Ghaziabad, Hapur, Gautam Buddh Nagar and Bulandshahr

Central or Middle Doab

Etah, Kasganj, Aligarh, Agra, Hathras, Firozabad, Farrukhabad, Kannauj, Mainpuri, Etawah, Auraiya and Mathura. Mathura is in the trans-Yamuna region of Braj.

Lower Doab

Kanpur, Fatehpur, Kaushambi and Allahabad.[6]

The Punjab Doabs

Punjabdoabs1
A map of the Punjab region ca. 1947 showing the different doabs.

Each of the tracts of land lying between the confluent rivers of the Punjab region of Pakistan and India has a distinct name, said to have been coined by Raja Todar Mal, a minister of the Mughal emperor Akbar. The names (except for 'Sindh Sagar') are a combination of the first letters, in the Persian alphabet, of the names of the rivers that bound the Doab. For example, Jech = 'Je'(Jhelum) + 'Ch'(Chenab). The names are (from west to east):

Sindh Sagar Doab

The Sindh Sagar Doab lies between the Indus and Jhelum rivers.

Jech Doabs

The Jech Doab (also Chaj Doab) (small portion of the Jech Doab is Majha[7]) lies between the Jhelum and the Chenab rivers.

Rechna Doabs

The Rechna Doab (considerable portion of the Rechna Doab is Majha[7]) lies between the Chenab and the Ravi rivers.

Bari Doabs

The Bari Doab (considerable portion of the Bari Doab is Majha[7]) lies between the Ravi and the Beas rivers.

Bist Doab

The Bist Doab (or Doaba) - between the Beas and the Sutlej rivers.

Other Doabs

Malwa Doab

The rivers flowing through the Malwa region, covering current states of Madhya Pradesh and parts of north-eastern Rajasthan, also has doab region such as Upper Malwa doab and Lower Malwa doab.

Raichur Doab

The Raichur Doab is the triangular region of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states which lies between the Krishna River and its tributary the Tungabhadra River, named for the town of Raichur.

Khadir, bangar, barani, nali and bagar

Khadir-and-bangar
In any doab, khadir land (green) lies next to a river, while bangar land (olive) has greater elevation and lies further from the river

Since North India and Pakistan are coursed by a multiplicity of Himalayan rivers that divide the plains into doabs (i.e. regions between two rivers), the Indo-Gangetic plains consist of alternating regions of river, khadir and bangar. The regions of the doabs near the rivers consist of low-lying, floodplains, but usually very fertile khadir and the higher-lying land away from the rivers consist of bangar, less prone to flooding but also less fertile on average.[8][9]

Khadir is also called Nali or Naili, specially in northern Haryana the fertile prairie tract between the Ghaggar river and the southern limits of the Saraswati channel depression in that gets flooded during the rains.[10]

Within bangar area, the Barani is any low rain area where the rain-fed dry farming is practiced, which nowadays are dependent on the tubewells for irrigation.[11] Bagar tract, an example of barani land, is the dry sandy tract of land on the border of Rajasthan state adjoining the states of Haryana and Punjab.[11] Nahri is any canal-irrigated land,[10] for example, the Rangoi tract which is an area irrigated by the Rangoi channel/canal made for the purpose of carrying flood waters of Ghagghar river to dry areas.[12][13]

Historically, villages in the doabs have been officially classified as khadir, khadir-bangar (i.e. mixed) or bangar for many centuries and different agricultural tax rates applied based on a tiered land-productivity scale.[14][15]

See also

  • Interamnia, an ancient Latin placename, meaning "between rivers"

Notes

  1. ^ a b doab or duab, n., OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2014, retrieved 24 April 2019 Quote: "Originally and chiefly in South Asia: (the name of) a strip or narrow tract of land between two rivers; spec. (with the) the area between the rivers Ganges and Jumna in northern India."
  2. ^ doab or duab, n., OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2014, retrieved 24 April 2019 Quote: "confluence, land between two rivers, used in India of the tongue of land between the Ganges and Jumna, and of similar tracts in the Punjab, etc., lit. ‘two waters’ "
  3. ^ Doab., Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged., 2013, retrieved 24 April 2019 Quote: " a tract of land between two rivers : interfluve"
  4. ^ McGregor 1993, p. 513.
  5. ^ a b c Ganges-Yamuna Doab, Encyclopedia Britannica.
  6. ^ "Archaeology Of Lower Ganga-Yamuna Doab 2 Volumes".
  7. ^ a b c Kakshi, S.R.; Pathak, Rashmi; Pathak, S.R.Bakshi R. (2007-01-01). Punjab Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7625-738-1. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
  8. ^ Pakistan: Soils, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010, ... khaddar soils. Away from the river, toward the middle of the doabs, older alluvial soils (called bangar) are widely distributed ...
  9. ^ Damage to Yamuna Khadar, Ravi Shankar's Art of Living Responsible: NGT, Khas Khabar. 7 Dec 2017.
  10. ^ a b "The imperial gazeteers of India, 1908", British Raj, page 288.]
  11. ^ a b E. Walter Coward, 1980, "Irrigation and Agricultural Development in Asia: Perspectives from the social sciences", Cornell University press, ISBN 0801498716.
  12. ^ 1987, "gazetteer of India: Hisar District" Archived 1 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine, page 7.
  13. ^ 1987, "Gazeteers of Hisar district, 1987", Government of Haryana, page 162.]
  14. ^ F.C. Channing, Land Revenue Settlement of the Gurgaon District, Government of India, ... The rates here applied were the same as those applied in the Bangar and Khadar circles and the same comparisons hold good ...
  15. ^ Oswald Wood, R. Maconachie, Final report on the settlement of land revenue in the Delhi District, Government of India, 1882, ... The Khadar-Bangar chak lies along the river; 37 villages are purely Khadar and 39 partly Khadar partly Bangar. The villages nearest the river are subject to inundations, but where the water runs off in time, the natural fertility of the ...

References

Aliabad, Doab

Aliabad (Persian: علي اباد‎, also Romanized as ‘Alīābād) is a village in Doab Rural District, in the Central District of Selseleh County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 34, in 5 families.

Deh Sorkheh, Selseleh

Deh Sorkheh (Persian: ده سرخه‎' also known as Deh-e Sorkh) is a village in Doab Rural District, in the Central District of Selseleh County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 76, in 14 families.

Doab, Sahneh

Doab (Persian: دواب‎, also Romanized as Doāb and Dowāb) is a village in Khodabandehlu Rural District, in the Central District of Sahneh County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 53, in 14 families.

Doab-e Bilukher

Doab-e Bilukher (Persian: دواب بيلوخر‎, also Romanized as Doāb Bīlūkher; also known as Doāb) is a village in Margown Rural District, Margown District, Boyer-Ahmad County, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 115, in 21 families.

Doab-e Zali

Doab-e Zali (Persian: دوآب زالي‎, also Romanized as Doāb-e Zālī and Do Āb Zālī; also known as Zālī Do Āb and Zālī-ye Dowāb) is a village in Nurali Rural District, in the Central District of Delfan County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 275, in 50 families.

Doab Rural District (Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province)

Doab Rural District (Persian: دهستان دوآب‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Bazoft District, Kuhrang County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 5,744, in 1,018 families. The rural district has 42 villages.

Doab Rural District (Lorestan Province)

Doab Rural District (Persian: دهستان دوآب‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Central District of Selseleh County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 5,486, in 1,053 families. The rural district has 52 villages.

Doaba

Doaba also known as Bist Doab, is the region of Punjab, India that lies between the Beas River and the Sutlej River. People of this region are given the demonym "Doabia". The dialect of Punjabi spoken in Doaba is called "Doabi". The term "Doaba" or "Doab" is derived from Persian "دو آب" (do āb "two water") meaning "land of two rivers". The river Sutlej separates Doaba from the Malwa region to its south and the river Beas separates Doaba from the Majha region to its north.

Scheduled castes form more than 15% of the population in Doaba. Saini dominate in a significant number of villages in Hoshiarpur, Nawanshahr & Jalandhar districts. Other castes include Jatt, Kamboh etc. This area is also called the NRI Hub of Punjab as a consequence of the migration of a significant percentage of Doabias.The Doaba region is also where historically, much of the Sikh diaspora in western countries such as Canada (especially in the Greater Vancouver area), and the UK traces its roots.

Du Ab District

Du Ab District, Dō Āb District, Du'ab District, Doab District, (Persian: ولسوالی دوآب‎, Pashto: دو آب ولسوالۍ‎ two waters ) is a district of Nuristan Province, in eastern Afghanistan.

Ebrahimabad, Lorestan

Ebrahimabad (Persian: ابراهيم اباد‎, also Romanized as Ebrāhīmābād) is a village in Doab Rural District, in the Central District of Selseleh County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 37, in 8 families.

Heydarabad, Doab

Heydarabad (Persian: حيدرآباد‎, also Romanized as Heydarābād) is a village in Doab Rural District, in the Central District of Selseleh County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.

Hoseynabad, Doab

Hoseynabad (Persian: حسين اباد‎, also Romanized as Ḩoseynābād) is a village in Doab Rural District, in the Central District of Selseleh County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 54, in 13 families.

Karamabad, Doab

Karamabad (Persian: كرم اباد‎, also Romanized as Karamābād; also known as Karīmābād) is a village in Doab Rural District, in the Central District of Selseleh County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 24, in 5 families.

Majha

The Majha (Punjabi: ਮਾਝਾ (Gurmukhi), ماجھا (Shahmukhi); Mājhā) region is recognized as the region that is located at the center of the historical Punjab region, that is northward from the right banks of river Beas, and extends up to river Jhelum at its northmost. People of the Majha region are given the demonym "Mājhi". The Majhi dialect of Punjabi language is the main language of this region, which is also the standard dialect and register of the Punjabi language. The most populous city in the area is Lahore on the Pakistani side and Amritsar on the Indian side of the border.

During the partition of India in 1947, the Majha region of Punjab was split between India and Pakistan when the Indian Punjab and Pakistani Punjab were formed. The Majha region of Indian State of Punjab covers the area between Beas and Ravi rivers, including the area on the north of Sutlej, after the confluence of Beas and Sutlej at Harike in Tarn Taran district, extending up to the Ravi River, which is all part of the Majha region in India. This region contains thirteen districts of the Pakistani province of Punjab, including the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Gujrat, and Sialkot. Four districts of Indian state of Punjab - Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Gurdaspur, and Pathankot.

The people of the Majha region have been historically known for their warrior-like nature. The Majha region is called the "Sword Arm of the Country", due to it contributing disproportionately to the Officer as well as Orderly ranks of the Armies of both India and Pakistan. The Sikh Empire was founded in the Majha region, and so the region is also sometimes referred to as "the cradle of the brave Sikhs."

Pol-e Doab Rural District

Pol-e Doab Rural District (Persian: دهستان پل دوآب‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Zalian District, Shazand County, Markazi Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 27,846, in 7,365 families. The rural district has 35 villages.

Ravi River

The Ravi River (Punjabi: ਰਾਵੀ, Urdu: راوی‎, Hindi: रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region (Punjab means "Five Rivers"). The waters of Ravi are allocated to India under Indus Water Treaty.

Under the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960, the waters of the Ravi and five other rivers are divided between India and Pakistan. Subsequently, the Indus Basin Project has been developed in Pakistan and many inter-basin water transfers, irrigation, hydropower and multipurpose projects have been built in India.

Rezaabad, Doab

Rezaabad (Persian: رضااباد‎, also Romanized as Reẕāābād) is a village in Doab Rural District, in the Central District of Selseleh County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 248, in 55 families.

Soranjeh, Selseleh

Soranjeh (Persian: سرنجه‎, also Romanized as Sarenjeh, Serenjeh, and Sorenjeh; also known as Serenjeh-ye Do Āb and Serenjeh-ye Doāb) is a village in Doab Rural District, in the Central District of Selseleh County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 64, in 12 families.

Zir Taq Doab

Zir Taq Doab (Persian: زيرطاق دوآب‎, also Romanized as Zīr Ţāq Doāb; also known as Zīr Ţāq) is a village in Doab Rural District, in the Central District of Selseleh County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 88, in 16 families.

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