Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev[2] (English: /ˌmɛndəlˈeɪəf/ MEN-dəl-AY-əf;[3] Russian: Дмитрий Иванович Менделеев,[note 1] tr. Dmítriy Ivánovich Mendeléyev, IPA: [ˈdmʲitrʲɪj ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ mʲɪndʲɪˈlʲejɪf] (listen); 8 February 1834 – 2 February 1907 [OS 27 January 1834 – 20 January 1907]) was a Russian chemist and inventor. He formulated the Periodic Law, created a farsighted version of the periodic table of elements, and used it to correct the properties of some already discovered elements and also to predict the properties of eight elements yet to be discovered.

Dmitri Mendeleev
DIMendeleevCab
Dmitri Mendeleev in 1897
Born
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev

8 February 1834
Verkhnie Aremzyani, Tobolsk Governorate, Russian Empire
Died2 February 1907 (aged 72)
Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
NationalityRussian
Alma materSaint Petersburg University
Known forFormulating the Periodic table of chemical elements
Spouse(s)
  • Feozva Nikitichna Leshcheva (1862–1871)
  • Anna Ivanovna Popova (1882)
Awards
Scientific career
FieldsChemistry, physics
Academic advisorsGustav Kirchhoff
Notable students
  • Dmitri Petrovich Konovalov
  • Valery Gemilian
  • Alexander Baykov
Signature
Mendelejew signature

Early life

Mendeleev was born in the village of Verkhnie Aremzyani, near Tobolsk in Siberia, to Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev (1783–1847) and Maria Dmitrievna Mendeleeva (née Kornilieva) (1793–1850).[4][5] His paternal grandfather Pavel Maximovich Sokolov was a Russian Orthodox priest from the Tver region.[6] Ivan, along with his brothers and sisters, obtained new family names while attending the theological seminary.[7] He worked as a school principal and a teacher of fine arts, politics and philosophy at the Tambov and Saratov gymnasiums.[8]

Maria Kornilieva came from a well-known dynasty of Tobolsk merchants, founders of the first Siberian printing house who traced their ancestry to Yakov Korniliev, a 17th-century posad man turned a wealthy merchant.[9][10] In 1889 a local librarian published an article in the Tobolsk newspaper where he claimed that Yakov was a baptized Teleut, an ethnic minority known as "white Kalmyks" at the time.[11] Since no sources were provided and no documented facts of Yakov's life were ever revealed, biographers generally dismiss it as a myth.[12][13] In 1908, shortly after Mendeleev's death, one of his nieces published Family Chronicles. Memories about D. I. Mendeleev where she voiced "a family legend" about Maria's grandfather who married "a Kyrgyz or Tatar beauty whom he loved so much that when she died, he also died from grief".[14] This, however, contradicts the documented family chronicles, and neither of those legends is supported by Mendeleev's autobiography, his daughter's or his wife's memoirs.[5][15][16] Yet some Western scholars still refer to Mendeleev's supposed "Mongol", "Tatar", "Tartarian" or simply "Asian" ancestry as a fact.[17][18][19][20]

Mendeleev was raised as an Orthodox Christian, his mother encouraging him to "patiently search divine and scientific truth".[21] His son would later inform that he departed from the Church and embraced a form of "romanticized deism".[22]

Mendeleev was the youngest of 17 siblings, of whom "only 14 stayed alive to be baptized" according to Mendeleev's brother Pavel, meaning the others died soon after their birth.[8] The exact number of Mendeleev's siblings differs among sources and is still a matter of some historical dispute.[23][24] Unfortunately for the family's financial well being, his father became blind and lost his teaching position. His mother was forced to work and she restarted her family's abandoned glass factory. At the age of 13, after the passing of his father and the destruction of his mother's factory by fire, Mendeleev attended the Gymnasium in Tobolsk.

In 1849, his mother took Mendeleev across Russia from Siberia to Moscow with the aim of getting Mendeleev a higher education. The university in Moscow did not accept him. The mother and son continued to Saint Petersburg to the father's alma mater. The now poor Mendeleev family relocated to Saint Petersburg, where he entered the Main Pedagogical Institute in 1850. After graduation, he contracted tuberculosis, causing him to move to the Crimean Peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in 1855. While there, he became a science master of the 1st Simferopol Gymnasium. In 1857, he returned to Saint Petersburg with fully restored health.

Later life

Dmitri Mendeleev 1890s
Dmitri Mendeleev

Between 1859 and 1861, he worked on the capillarity of liquids and the workings of the spectroscope in Heidelberg. Later in 1861, he published a textbook named Organic Chemistry.[25] This won him the Demidov Prize of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences.[25]

On 4 April 1862 he became engaged to Feozva Nikitichna Leshcheva, and they married on 27 April 1862 at Nikolaev Engineering Institute's church in Saint Petersburg (where he taught).[26]

Mendeleev became a professor at the Saint Petersburg Technological Institute and Saint Petersburg State University in 1864,[25] and 1865, respectively. In 1865 he became Doctor of Science for his dissertation "On the Combinations of Water with Alcohol". He achieved tenure in 1867 at St. Petersburg University and started to teach inorganic chemistry, while succeeding Voskresenskii to this post.[25] and by 1871 he had transformed Saint Petersburg into an internationally recognized center for chemistry research.

In 1876, he became obsessed with Anna Ivanova Popova and began courting her; in 1881 he proposed to her and threatened suicide if she refused. His divorce from Leshcheva was finalized one month after he had married Popova (on 2 April[27]) in early 1882. Even after the divorce, Mendeleev was technically a bigamist; the Russian Orthodox Church required at least seven years before lawful remarriage. His divorce and the surrounding controversy contributed to his failure to be admitted to the Russian Academy of Sciences (despite his international fame by that time). His daughter from his second marriage, Lyubov, became the wife of the famous Russian poet Alexander Blok. His other children were son Vladimir (a sailor, he took part in the notable Eastern journey of Nicholas II) and daughter Olga, from his first marriage to Feozva, and son Ivan and twins from Anna.

Though Mendeleev was widely honored by scientific organizations all over Europe, including (in 1882) the Davy Medal from the Royal Society of London (which later also awarded him the Copley Medal in 1905),[28] he resigned from Saint Petersburg University on 17 August 1890. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1892,[1] and in 1893 he was appointed director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures, a post which he occupied until his death.[29]

Mendeleev also investigated the composition of petroleum, and helped to found the first oil refinery in Russia. He recognized the importance of petroleum as a feedstock for petrochemicals. He is credited with a remark that burning petroleum as a fuel "would be akin to firing up a kitchen stove with bank notes".[30]

In 1905, Mendeleev was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The following year the Nobel Committee for Chemistry recommended to the Swedish Academy to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 1906 to Mendeleev for his discovery of the periodic system. The Chemistry Section of the Swedish Academy supported this recommendation. The Academy was then supposed to approve the Committee's choice, as it has done in almost every case. Unexpectedly, at the full meeting of the Academy, a dissenting member of the Nobel Committee, Peter Klason, proposed the candidacy of Henri Moissan whom he favored. Svante Arrhenius, although not a member of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry, had a great deal of influence in the Academy and also pressed for the rejection of Mendeleev, arguing that the periodic system was too old to acknowledge its discovery in 1906. According to the contemporaries, Arrhenius was motivated by the grudge he held against Mendeleev for his critique of Arrhenius's dissociation theory. After heated arguments, the majority of the Academy chose Moissan by a margin of one vote.[31] The attempts to nominate Mendeleev in 1907 were again frustrated by the absolute opposition of Arrhenius.[32]

In 1907, Mendeleev died at the age of 72 in Saint Petersburg from influenza. His last words were to his physician: "Doctor, you have science, I have faith," which is possibly a Jules Verne quote.[33]

The crater Mendeleev on the Moon, as well as element number 101, the radioactive mendelevium, are named after him.

Periodic table

Mendelejevs periodiska system 1871
Mendeleev's 1871 periodic table
Periodic table monument
Sculpture in honor of Mendeleev and the periodic table, located in Bratislava, Slovakia

In 1863 there were 56 known elements with a new element being discovered at a rate of approximately one per year. Other scientists had previously identified periodicity of elements. John Newlands described a Law of Octaves, noting their periodicity according to relative atomic weight in 1864, publishing it in 1865. His proposal identified the potential for new elements such as germanium. The concept was criticized and his innovation was not recognized by the Society of Chemists until 1887. Another person to propose a periodic table was Lothar Meyer, who published a paper in 1864 describing 28 elements classified by their valence, but with no prediction of new elements.

After becoming a teacher in 1867, Mendeleev wrote the definitive textbook of his time: Principles of Chemistry (two volumes, 1868–1870). It was written as he was preparing a textbook for his course.[25] This is when he made his most important discovery.[25] As he attempted to classify the elements according to their chemical properties, he noticed patterns that led him to postulate his periodic table; he claimed to have envisioned the complete arrangement of the elements in a dream:[34][35][36][37][38]

I saw in a dream a table where all elements fell into place as required. Awakening, I immediately wrote it down on a piece of paper, only in one place did a correction later seem necessary.

— Mendeleev, as quoted by Inostrantzev[39][40]

Unaware of the earlier work on periodic tables going on in the 1860s, he made the following table:

Cl 35.5 K 39 Ca 40
Br 80 Rb 85 Sr 88
I 127 Cs 133 Ba 137

By adding additional elements following this pattern, Mendeleev developed his extended version of the periodic table.[41][42] On 6 March 1869, he made a formal presentation to the Russian Chemical Society, titled The Dependence between the Properties of the Atomic Weights of the Elements, which described elements according to both atomic weight (now called relative atomic mass) and valence.[43][44] This presentation stated that

  1. The elements, if arranged according to their atomic weight, exhibit an apparent periodicity of properties.
  2. Elements which are similar regarding their chemical properties either have similar atomic weights (e.g., Pt, Ir, Os) or have their atomic weights increasing regularly (e.g., K, Rb, Cs).
  3. The arrangement of the elements in groups of elements in the order of their atomic weights corresponds to their so-called valencies, as well as, to some extent, to their distinctive chemical properties; as is apparent among other series in that of Li, Be, B, C, N, O, and F.
  4. The elements which are the most widely diffused have small atomic weights.
  5. The magnitude of the atomic weight determines the character of the element, just as the magnitude of the molecule determines the character of a compound body.
  6. We must expect the discovery of many yet unknown elements – for example, two elements, analogous to aluminum and silicon, whose atomic weights would be between 65 and 75.
  7. The atomic weight of an element may sometimes be amended by a knowledge of those of its contiguous elements. Thus the atomic weight of tellurium must lie between 123 and 126, and cannot be 128. (Tellurium's atomic weight is 127.6, and Mendeleev was incorrect in his assumption that atomic weight must increase with position within a period.)
  8. Certain characteristic properties of elements can be foretold from their atomic weights.

Mendeleev published his periodic table of all known elements and predicted several new elements to complete the table in a Russian-language journal. Only a few months after, Meyer published a virtually identical table in a German-language journal.[45][46] Mendeleev has the distinction of accurately predicting the qualities of what he called ekasilicon, ekaaluminium and ekaboron (germanium, gallium and scandium, respectively).

For his predicted eight elements, he used the prefixes of eka, dvi, and tri (Sanskrit one, two, three) in their naming. Mendeleev questioned some of the currently accepted atomic weights (they could be measured only with a relatively low accuracy at that time), pointing out that they did not correspond to those suggested by his Periodic Law. He noted that tellurium has a higher atomic weight than iodine, but he placed them in the right order, incorrectly predicting that the accepted atomic weights at the time were at fault. He was puzzled about where to put the known lanthanides, and predicted the existence of another row to the table which were the actinides which were some of the heaviest in atomic weight. Some people dismissed Mendeleev for predicting that there would be more elements, but he was proven to be correct when Ga (gallium) and Ge (germanium) were found in 1875 and 1886 respectively, fitting perfectly into the two missing spaces.[47]

By giving Sanskrit names to his "missing" elements, Mendeleev showed his appreciation and debt to the Sanskrit grammarians of ancient India, who had created sophisticated theories of language based on their discovery of the two-dimensional patterns in basic sounds. Mendeleev was a friend and colleague of the Sanskritist Otto von Böhtlingk, who was preparing the second edition of his book on Pāṇini[48] at about this time, and Mendeleev wished to honor Pāṇini with his nomenclature.[49] Noting that there are striking similarities between the periodic table and the introductory Śiva Sūtras in Pāṇini's grammar, Prof. Kiparsky says:

[T]he analogies between the two systems are striking. Just as Panini found that the phonological patterning of sounds in the language is a function of their articulatory properties, so Mendeleev found that the chemical properties of elements are a function of their atomic weights.

Like Panini, Mendeleev arrived at his discovery through a search for the "grammar" of the elements (using what he called the principle of isomorphism, and looking for general formulas to generate the possible chemical compounds).

Just as Panini arranged the sounds in order of increasing phonetic complexity (e.g. with the simple stops k,p... preceding the other stops, and representing all of them in expressions like kU, pU) so Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic weights, and called the first row (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon etc.) "typical (or representative) elements".

Just as Panini broke the phonetic parallelism of sounds when the simplicity of the system required it, e.g. putting the velar to the right of the labial in the nasal row, so Mendeleev gave priority to isomorphism over atomic weights when they conflicted, e.g. putting beryllium in the magnesium family because it patterns with it even though by atomic weight it seemed to belong with nitrogen and phosphorus. In both cases, the periodicities they discovered would later be explained by a theory of the internal structure of the elements.[50]

The original draft made by Mendeleev would be found years later and published under the name Tentative System of Elements.[51]

Dmitri Mendeleev is often referred to as the Father of the Periodic Table. He called his table or matrix, "the Periodic System".[52]

Other achievements

Mendeleev made other important contributions to chemistry. The Russian chemist and science historian Lev Chugaev has characterized him as "a chemist of genius, first-class physicist, a fruitful researcher in the fields of hydrodynamics, meteorology, geology, certain branches of chemical technology (explosives, petroleum, and fuels, for example) and other disciplines adjacent to chemistry and physics, a thorough expert of chemical industry and industry in general, and an original thinker in the field of economy." Mendeleev was one of the founders, in 1869, of the Russian Chemical Society. He worked on the theory and practice of protectionist trade and on agriculture.

In an attempt at a chemical conception of the Aether, he put forward a hypothesis that there existed two inert chemical elements of lesser atomic weight than hydrogen.[29] Of these two proposed elements, he thought the lighter to be an all-penetrating, all-pervasive gas, and the slightly heavier one to be a proposed element, coronium.

Mendeleev devoted much study and made important contributions to the determination of the nature of such indefinite compounds as solutions.

Mendeleyev gold Barry Kent
Mendeleev Medal

In another department of physical chemistry, he investigated the expansion of liquids with heat, and devised a formula similar to Gay-Lussac's law of the uniformity of the expansion of gases, while in 1861 he anticipated Thomas Andrews' conception of the critical temperature of gases by defining the absolute boiling-point of a substance as the temperature at which cohesion and heat of vaporization become equal to zero and the liquid changes to vapor, irrespective of the pressure and volume.[29]

Mendeleev is given credit for the introduction of the metric system to the Russian Empire.

He invented pyrocollodion, a kind of smokeless powder based on nitrocellulose. This work had been commissioned by the Russian Navy, which however did not adopt its use. In 1892 Mendeleev organized its manufacture.

Mendeleev studied petroleum origin and concluded hydrocarbons are abiogenic and form deep within the earth – see Abiogenic petroleum origin. He wrote: "The capital fact to note is that petroleum was born in the depths of the earth, and it is only there that we must seek its origin." (Dmitri Mendeleev, 1877)[53]

Vodka myth

A very popular Russian story is that it was Mendeleev who came up with the 40% standard strength of vodka in 1894, after having been appointed Director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures with the assignment to formulate new state standards for the production of vodka. This story has, for instance, been used in marketing claims by the Russian Standard vodka brand that "In 1894, Dmitri Mendeleev, the greatest scientist in all Russia, received the decree to set the Imperial quality standard for Russian vodka and the 'Russian Standard' was born",[54] or that the vodka is "compliant with the highest quality of Russian vodka approved by the royal government commission headed by Mendeleev in 1894".[55]

While it is true that Mendeleev in 1892 became head of the Archive of Weights and Measures in Saint Petersburg, and evolved it into a government bureau the following year, that institution was never involved in setting any production quality standards, but was issued with standardising Russian trade weights and measuring instruments. Furthermore, the 40% standard strength was already introduced by the Russian government in 1843, when Mendeleev was nine years old.[55]

The basis for the whole story is a popular myth that Mendeleev's 1865 doctoral dissertation "A Discourse on the combination of alcohol and water" contained a statement that 38% is the ideal strength of vodka, and that this number was later rounded to 40% to simplify the calculation of alcohol tax. However, Mendeleev's dissertation was about alcohol concentrations over 70% and he never wrote anything about vodka.[55][56][57]

Commemoration

A number of places and objects are associated with the name and achievements of the scientist.

In Saint Petersburg his name was given to D.I. Mendeleev Institute for Metrology, the National Metrology Institute,[58] dealing with establishing and supporting national and worldwide standards for precise measurements. Next to it there is a monument to him that consists of his sitting statue and a depiction of his periodic table on the wall of the establishment.

In the Twelve Collegia building, now being the centre of Saint Petersburg State University and in Mendeleev's time – Head Pedagogical Institute – there is Dmitry Mendeleev's Memorial Museum Apartment[59] with his archives. The street in front of these is named after him as Mendeleevskaya liniya (Mendeleev Line).

In Moscow, there is the D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia.[60]

After him was also named mendelevium, which is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol Md (formerly Mv) and the atomic number 101. It is a metallic radioactive transuranic element in the actinide series, usually synthesized by bombarding einsteinium with alpha particles.

The newly discovered mineral mendeleevite-Ce, Cs6(Ce22Ca6)(Si70O175)(OH,F)14(H2O)21, was named in Mendeleev's honor in 2010.[61] The related species mendeleevite-Nd, Cs6[(Nd,REE)23Ca7](Si70O175)(OH,F)19(H2O)16, was described in 2015.[62]

A large lunar impact crater Mendeleev that is located on the far side of the Moon, as seen from the Earth, also bears the name of the scientist.

The Russian Academy of Sciences has occasionally awarded a Mendeleev Golden Medal since 1965.[63]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In Mendeleev's day, his name was written Дмитрій Ивановичъ Менделѣевъ.

References

  1. ^ a b "Fellows of the Royal Society". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015.
  2. ^ Also romanized Mendeleyev or Mendeleef
  3. ^ "Mendeleev". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  4. ^ Rao, C N R; Rao, Indumati (2015). Lives and Times of Great Pioneers in Chemistry: (Lavoisier to Sanger). World Scientific. p. 119. ISBN 978-981-4689-07-6.
  5. ^ a b Maria Mendeleeva (1951). D. I. Mendeleev's Archive: Autobiographical Writings. Collection of Documents. Volume 1 // Biographical notes about D. I. Mendeleev (written by me – D. Mendeleev), p. 13. – Leningrad: D. I. Mendeleev's Museum-Archive, 207 pages (in Russian)
  6. ^ Dmitriy Mendeleev: A Short CV, and A Story of Life, mendcomm.org
  7. ^ Удомельские корни Дмитрия Ивановича Менделеева (1834–1907) Archived 8 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, starina.library.tver.ru
  8. ^ a b Maria Mendeleeva (1951). D. I. Mendeleev's Archive: Autobiographical Writings. Collection of Documents. Volume 1 // From a family tree documented in 1880 by brother Pavel Ivanovich, p. 11. Leningrad: D. I. Mendeleev's Museum-Archive, 207 pages (in Russian)
  9. ^ Yuri Mandrika (2004). Tobolsk Governorate Vedomosti: Staff and Authors. Anthology of Tobolsk Journalism of the late XIX – early XX centuries in 2 Books // From the interview with Maria Mendeleeva, born Kornilieva, p. 351. Tumen: Mandr i Ka, 624 pages
  10. ^ Elena Konovalova (2006). A Book of the Tobolsk Governance. 1790–1917. Novosibirsk: State Public Scientific Technological Library, 528 page, p. 15 (in Russian) ISBN 5-94560-116-0
  11. ^ Yuri Mandrika (2004). Tobolsk Governorate Vedomosti: Staff and Authors. Anthology of Tobolsk Journalism of the late XIX – early XX centuries in 2 Books // The Kornilievs, Tobolsk Manufacturers article by Stepan Mameev, p. 314. – Tumen: Mandr i Ka, 624 pages
  12. ^ Eugenie Babaev (2009). "Mendelievia. Part 3" article from the Chemistry and Life – 21st Century journal at the MSU Faculty of Chemistry website (in Russian)
  13. ^ Alexei Storonkin, Roman Dobrotyn (1984). D. I. Mendeleev's Life and Work Chronicles. Leningrad: Nauka, 539 pages, p. 25
  14. ^ Nadezhda Gubkina (1908). Family Chronicles. Memories about D. I. Mendeleev. Saint Petersburg, 252 pages
  15. ^ "Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev comes from indigenous Russian people", p. 5 // Olga Tritogova-Mendeleeva (1947). Mendeleev and His Family. Moscow: Academy of Sciences Publishing House, 104 pages
  16. ^ Anna Mendeleeva (1928). Mendeleev in Life. Moscow: M. and S. Sabashnikov Publishing House, 194 pages
  17. ^ Loren R. Graham, Science in Russia and the Soviet Union: A Short History, Cambridge University Press (1993), p. 45
  18. ^ Isaac Asimov, Asimov on Chemistry, Anchoor Books (1975), p. 101
  19. ^ Leslie Alan Horvitz, Eureka!: Scientific Breakthroughs that Changed the World, John Wiley & Sons (2002), p. 45
  20. ^ Lennard Bickel, The deadly element: the story of uranium, Stein and Day (1979), p. 22
  21. ^ Hiebert, Ray Eldon; Hiebert, Roselyn (1975). Atomic Pioneers: From ancient Greece to the 19th century. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Division of Technical Information. p. 25.
  22. ^ Gordin, Michael D. (2004). A Well-ordered Thing: Dmitrii Mendeleev And The Shadow Of The Periodic Table. Basic Books. pp. 229–230. ISBN 978-0-465-02775-0. Mendeleev seemed to have very few theological commitments. This was not for lack of exposure. His upbringing was actually heavily religious, and his mother – by far the dominating force in his youth – was exceptionally devout. One of his sisters even joined a fanatical religious sect for a time. Despite, or perhaps because of, this background, Mendeleev withheld comment on religious affairs for most of his life, reserving his few words for anti-clerical witticisms ... Mendeleev's son Ivan later vehemently denied claims that his father was devoutly Orthodox: "I have also heard the view of my father's 'church religiosity' – and I must reject this categorically. From his earliest years Father practically split from the church – and if he tolerated certain simple everyday rites, then only as an innocent national tradition, similar to Easter cakes, which he didn't consider worth fighting against." ... Mendeleev's opposition to traditional Orthodoxy was not due to either atheism or a scientific materialism. Rather, he held to a form of romanticized deism.
  23. ^ Johnson, George (3 January 2006). "The Nitpicking of the Masses vs. the Authority of the Experts". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  24. ^ When the Princeton historian of science Michael Gordin reviewed this article as part of an analysis of the accuracy of Wikipedia for the 14 December 2005 issue of Nature, he cited as one of Wikipedia's errors that "They say Mendeleev is the 14th child. He is the 14th surviving child of 17 total. 14 is right out." However in a January 2006 article in The New York Times, it was noted that in Gordin's own 2004 biography of Mendeleev, he also had the Russian chemist listed as the 17th child, and quoted Gordin's response to this as being: "That's curious. I believe that is a typographical error in my book. Mendeleyev was the final child, that is certain, and the number the reliable sources have is 13." Gordin's book specifically says that Mendeleev's mother bore her husband "seventeen children, of whom eight survived to young adulthood", with Mendeleev being the youngest. See: Johnson, George (3 January 2006). "The Nitpicking of the Masses vs. the Authority of the Experts". The New York Times. and Gordin, Michael (22 December 2005). "Supplementary information to accompany Nature news article "Internet encyclopaedias go head to head" (Nature 438, 900–901; 2005)" (PDF). Blogs.Nature.com. p. 178 – via 2004.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Heilbron 2003, p. 509.
  26. ^ "Семья Д.И.Менделеева". Rustest.spb.ru. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
  27. ^ "Менделеев обвенчался за взятку". Gazeta.ua. 10 April 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
  28. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  29. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mendeléeff, Dmitri Ivanovich" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 115.
  30. ^ John W. Moore; Conrad L. Stanitski; Peter C. Jurs (2007). Chemistry: The Molecular Science, Volume 1. ISBN 978-0-495-11598-4. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
  31. ^ Gribbin, J (2002). The Scientists: A History of Science Told Through the Lives of Its Greatest Inventors. New York: Random House. p. 378. Bibcode:2003shst.book.....G. ISBN 978-0-8129-6788-3.
  32. ^ Friedman, Robert M. (2001). The politics of excellence: behind the Nobel Prize in science. New York: Times Books. pp. 32–34. ISBN 978-0-7167-3103-0.
  33. ^ Last and Near-Last Words of the Famous, Infamous and Those In-Between By Joseph W. Lewis Jr. M.D.
  34. ^ John B. Arden (1998). "Science, Theology and Consciousness", Praeger Frederick A. p. 59: The initial expression of the commonly used chemical periodic table was reportedly envisioned in a dream. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev claimed to have had a dream in which he envisioned a table in which all the chemical elements were arranged according to their atomic weight.
  35. ^ John Kotz, Paul Treichel, Gabriela Weaver (2005). "Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity," Cengage Learning. p. 333
  36. ^ Gerard I. Nierenberg (1986). "The art of creative thinking", Simon & Schuster, p. 201: Dmitri Mendeleev's solution for the arrangement of the elements that came to him in a dream.
  37. ^ Helen Palmer (1998). "Inner Knowing: Consciousness, Creativity, Insight, and Intuition". J.P. Tarcher/Putnam. p. 113: The sewing machine, for instance, invented by Elias Howe, was developed from material appearing in a dream, as was Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic table of elements
  38. ^ Simon S. Godfrey (2003). Dreams & Reality. Trafford Publishing. Chapter 2.: "The Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907), described a dream in which he saw the periodic table of elements in its complete form." ISBN 1-4120-1143-4
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  40. ^ Myron E. Sharpe, (1967). "Soviet Psychology". Volume 5, p. 30.
  41. ^ "A brief history of the development of the period table", wou.edu
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  48. ^ Otto Böhtlingk, Panini's Grammatik: Herausgegeben, Ubersetzt, Erlautert und MIT Verschiedenen Indices Versehe. St. Petersburg, 1839–40.
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Further reading

  • Gordin, Michael (2004). A Well-Ordered Thing: Dmitrii Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-02775-0.
  • Heilbron, John L. (2003). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-974376-6.
  • Mendeleev, Dmitry Ivanovich; Jensen, William B. (2005). Mendeleev on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869–1905. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-44571-7.
  • Strathern, Paul (2001). Mendeleyev's Dream: The Quest For the Elements. New York: St Martins Press. ISBN 978-0-241-14065-9.
  • Mendeleev, Dmitrii Ivanovich (1901). Principles of Chemistry. New York: Collier.
  • "Mendeléeff, Dmitri IvanovichMITRI (1834–1907)". The Encyclopaedia Britannica; A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. XVIII (Medal to Mumps ) (11th ed.). Cambridge, England and New York: At the University Press. 1911. p. 115. Retrieved 5 October 2018 – via Internet Archive.

External links

Aleksandr Voskresensky

Aleksandr Abramovich Voskresensky (Russian: Александр Абрамович Воскресенский; 25 November 1808 – 21 January 1880) was a Russian chemist who served as rector of Saint Petersburg Imperial University in 1861–1863 and 1865–1867. Dmitri Mendeleev regarded him as a "grandfather of Russian chemistry". One of his major scientific achievements is the discovery of theobromine, the major alkaloid of cacao beans.

Anna Volkova

Anna Feodorovna Volkova (Russian: Анна Федоровна Волкова, d. 1876), was a Russian chemist working predominantly with amides. During the late 1860s, she was educated in chemistry through public lectures at St. Petersburg University. She was the first woman to graduate as a chemist (1870), the first woman member of the Russian Chemical Society, the first Russian woman to publish a chemical work, and regarded as the first woman at all to publish her own chemical research from a modern chemical laboratory.From 1869, she worked in the laboratory of Alexander Nikolayevich Engelhardt. She led practical courses for female students in St. Petersburg under the tutelage of Dmitri Mendeleev. In 1870, she was the first chemist to prepare pure orthotoluenesulfonic acid and its acid chloride and amide. She was also the first to prepare paratricresol phosphate, a component of a now-important plasticizer, from para-cresol.One of the craters of Venus is named after her.

D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia

D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia is a public university based in Moscow, Russia. It is the largest higher educational institution and research center of chemistry and chemical engineering in Russia, and one of the largest in the world.

The university was founded in 1898 as a technical college, based on a popular proposal by professors from the Imperial Moscow Technical School to specially train “Chemical and Mechanical Engineer Assistants” approved by the Moscow City Duma on February 9, 1880, to commemorate the 25th Anniversary of the Tsar Alexander II's reign. The college was later named in honor of Dmitri Mendeleev and was extensively expanded during the Soviet era, receiving the Order of Lenin and Order of the Red Banner of Labor awards. In 1992, the Russian government awarded the college the status of university, and in 2014, D. Mendeleev University was given the ranking D by accrediting agency Expert RA and listed as one of the best higher education institutions in the Commonwealth of Independent States.D. Mendeleev University operates several campuses in Moscow and a branch in the nearby city of Novomoskovsk, Tula Oblast. The university's main campus is located at Miusskaya Square in the Tverskoy District of the Central Administrative Okrug in Moscow.

Dmitry Mendeleev's Memorial Museum Apartment

Dmitry Mendeleev's Memorial Museum Apartment is a museum apartment of the Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev, who is famous for establishing the Periodic law of arranging chemical elements by their atomic masses, which allowed the prediction of properties of elements (i.e. simple substances) yet to be discovered.

It is located in the Twelve Collegia building, now being the centre of Saint Petersburg State University and in Mendeleev's time - Head Pedagogical Institute with his archives. The street in front of these is named after him as Mendeleevskaya liniya (Mendeleev Line). For security reasons access into the building in general is allowed mostly to authorized persons, such as students and staff of the University. All entrants are to present to the guards their identification documents.

Gallium

Gallium is a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium is a soft, silvery blue metal at standard temperature and pressure; however in its liquid state it becomes silvery white. If too much force is applied Gallium may fracture conchoidally. It is in group 13 of the periodic table, and thus has similarities to the other metals of the group, aluminium, indium, and thallium. Gallium does not occur as a free element in nature, but as gallium(III) compounds in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Elemental gallium is a liquid at temperatures greater than 29.76 °C (85.57 °F), above room temperature, but below the normal human body temperature of 37 °C (99 °F). Hence, the metal will melt in a person's hands.

The melting point of gallium is used as a temperature reference point. Gallium alloys are used in thermometers as a non-toxic and environmentally friendly alternative to mercury, and can withstand higher temperatures than mercury. The alloy galinstan (70% gallium, 21.5% indium, and 10% tin) has an even lower melting point of −19 °C (−2 °F), well below the freezing point of water.

Since its discovery in 1875, gallium has been used to make alloys with low melting points. It is also used in semiconductors as a dopant in semiconductor substrates.

Gallium is predominantly used in electronics. Gallium arsenide, the primary chemical compound of gallium in electronics, is used in microwave circuits, high-speed switching circuits, and infrared circuits. Semiconducting gallium nitride and indium gallium nitride produce blue and violet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and diode lasers. Gallium is also used in the production of artificial gadolinium gallium garnet for jewelry. Gallium is considered a technology-critical element.

Gallium has no known natural role in biology. Gallium(III) behaves in a similar manner to ferric salts in biological systems and has been used in some medical applications, including pharmaceuticals and radiopharmaceuticals.

Germanium

Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and tin. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature.

Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table, and called the element ekasilicon. Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite. Although the new element somewhat resembled arsenic and antimony in appearance, the combining ratios in compounds agreed with Mendeleev's predictions for a relative of silicon. Winkler named the element after his country, Germany. Today, germanium is mined primarily from sphalerite (the primary ore of zinc), though germanium is also recovered commercially from silver, lead, and copper ores.

Elemental germanium is used as a semiconductor in transistors and various other electronic devices. Historically, the first decade of semiconductor electronics was based entirely on germanium. Presently, the major end uses are fibre-optic systems, infrared optics, solar cell applications, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Germanium compounds are also used for polymerization catalysts and have most recently found use in the production of nanowires. This element forms a large number of organogermanium compounds, such as tetraethylgermanium, useful in organometallic chemistry. Germanium is considered a technology-critical element.

Germanium is not thought to be an essential element for any living organism. Some complex organic germanium compounds are being investigated as possible pharmaceuticals, though none have yet proven successful. Similar to silicon and aluminium, natural germanium compounds tend to be insoluble in water and thus have little oral toxicity. However, synthetic soluble germanium salts are nephrotoxic, and synthetic chemically reactive germanium compounds with halogens and hydrogen are irritants and toxins.

Gnomium

Gnomium was the proposed name for a new element similar to nickel and cobalt. Gerhard Krüss and F. W. Schmidt thought that existence of this element would solve an apparent problem in the periodic table.Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer were the first to arrange elements in a periodic table ordered by atomic weight, thereby revealing periodic patterns of chemical and physical properties. The use of atomic weight in the ordering — the concept of atomic number not yet having been established — resulted in several problems, one being a discrepancy in the iron group elements.

Ordered by atomic weight, the sequence would be:

iron (55.845) — nickel (58.6934) — cobalt (58.9331)

But arrayed by chemical properties, especially the highest possible oxidation numbers, the sequence would be:

iron (+6) — cobalt (+5) — nickel (+4)

It was initially believed that this problem was due to inadequate measurement of atomic weights, but after several years those of cobalt and nickel were established more precisely and the contradiction remained. In 1892, Krüss and Schmidt proposed to solve it by postulating a new element, very similar to and nearly inseparable from cobalt, but with a higher atomic weight, so that its mixture with cobalt would be heavier than nickel. That proposed element was named gnomium.

However, attempts to isolate gnomium proved fruitless.

It was the introduction of the concept of atomic number, and the re-ordering of the periodic table by atomic number, that resolved this and related problems and obviated the hypotheses for gnomium:

iron (26) — cobalt (27) — nickel (28)

Hafnium

Hafnium is a chemical element with the symbol Hf and atomic number 72. A lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in many zirconium minerals. Its existence was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, though it was not identified until 1923, by Coster and Hevesy, making it the last stable element to be discovered. Hafnium is named after Hafnia, the Latin name for Copenhagen, where it was discovered.Hafnium is used in filaments and electrodes. Some semiconductor fabrication processes use its oxide for integrated circuits at 45 nm and smaller feature lengths. Some superalloys used for special applications contain hafnium in combination with niobium, titanium, or tungsten.

Hafnium's large neutron capture cross-section makes it a good material for neutron absorption in control rods in nuclear power plants, but at the same time requires that it be removed from the neutron-transparent corrosion-resistant zirconium alloys used in nuclear reactors.

History of the periodic table

The periodic table is an arrangement of the chemical elements, which are organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations and recurring chemical properties. Elements are presented in order of increasing atomic number. The standard form of the table consists of a grid with rows called periods and columns called groups.

The history of the periodic table reflects over two centuries of growth in the understanding of chemical properties, with major contributions made by Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, John Newlands, Julius Lothar Meyer, Dmitri Mendeleev, and Glenn T. Seaborg.

Mendeleev's predicted elements

Dmitri Mendeleev published a periodic table of the chemical elements in 1869 based on properties that appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest. When Mendeleev proposed his periodic table, he noted gaps in the table and predicted that as-then-unknown elements existed with properties appropriate to fill those gaps. He named them eka-boron, eka-aluminium and eka-silicon, with respective atomic masses of 44, 68, and 72.

Mendeleev (crater)

Mendeleev is a large lunar impact crater that is located on the far side of the Moon, as seen from the Earth. The southern rim of this walled plain just crosses the lunar equator. Intruding into the eastern rim of Mendeleev is the crater Schuster. Nearly on the opposite side, the smaller Hartmann intrudes into west-southwestern rim.

The crater is named after the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. Even after formal naming in 1961 by the IAU, the crater was known as Basin IX until the early 1970s.

Mendeleevbreen

Mendeleevbreen is a glacier in Sørkapp Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It has a length of about eight kilometers, originating from the glaciers Austjøkulen and Fredfonna, and debouching into the bay of Brepollen at the southern side of Hornsund. The glacier is named after Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev.

Mendelevium

Mendelevium is a synthetic element with the symbol Md (formerly Mv) and atomic number 101. A metallic radioactive transuranic element in the actinide series, it is the first element that currently cannot be produced in macroscopic quantities through neutron bombardment of lighter elements. It is the third-to-last actinide and the ninth transuranic element. It can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. A total of sixteen mendelevium isotopes are known, the most stable being 258Md with a half-life of 51 days; nevertheless, the shorter-lived 256Md (half-life 1.17 hours) is most commonly used in chemistry because it can be produced on a larger scale.

Mendelevium was discovered by bombarding einsteinium with alpha particles in 1955, the same method still used to produce it today. It was named after Dmitri Mendeleev, father of the periodic table of the chemical elements. Using available microgram quantities of the isotope einsteinium-253, over a million mendelevium atoms may be produced each hour. The chemistry of mendelevium is typical for the late actinides, with a preponderance of the +3 oxidation state but also an accessible +2 oxidation state. Owing to the small amounts of produced mendelevium and all of its isotopes having relatively short half-lives, there are currently no uses for it outside basic scientific research.

Mendeleyev (disambiguation)

Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907) was a Russian chemist.

Mendeleyev (masculine) or Mendeleyeva (feminine or masculine genitive) may also refer to:

Mendeleev (crater), a crater on the far side of the Moon

Mendeleev Ridge, a ridge under the Arctic Ocean

Mendeleevbreen, glacier in Svalbard

Mendeleyev Glacier, a glacier in Antarctica

Mendeleyeva, a stratovolcano in the Kuril Islands, Russia

Mendeleyev Glacier

Mendeleyev Glacier (71°55′S 14°33′E) is a glacier, 10 nautical miles (19 km) long, draining northeast through the northern outcrops of the Payer Mountains, in Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. It was mapped from air photos and surveys by the Soviet Antarctic Expedition, 1960–61, and named after Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev, whose surname may also be transliterated as "Mendeleyev".

Mendeleyevskaya

Mendeleyevskaya (Russian: Менделе́евская, pronunciation ) is a Moscow Metro station on the Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line. It is located in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow.

It was opened on 31 December 1988. The station was designed by Nina Aleshina and Natalya Samoilova on the theme of Dmitri Mendeleev and his works.Its depth is 48.5 meters (159 ft). The transfer to the Novoslobodskaya station of the Koltsevaya Line is available.

A stray dog named Malchik lived at the station, and after his murder a statue was placed in the station.

Pyrocollodion

Pyrocollodion is a smokeless powder invented by Dmitri Mendeleev.

Rhenium

Rhenium is a chemical element with the symbol Re and atomic number 75. It is a silvery-gray, heavy, third-row transition metal in group 7 of the periodic table. With an estimated average concentration of 1 part per billion (ppb), rhenium is one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust. Rhenium has the third-highest melting point and second-highest boiling point of any element at 5903 K. Rhenium resembles manganese and technetium chemically and is mainly obtained as a by-product of the extraction and refinement of molybdenum and copper ores. Rhenium shows in its compounds a wide variety of oxidation states ranging from −1 to +7.

Discovered in 1908, rhenium was the second-last stable element to be discovered. It was named after the river Rhine in Europe.

Nickel-based superalloys of rhenium are used in the combustion chambers, turbine blades, and exhaust nozzles of jet engines. These alloys contain up to 6% rhenium, making jet engine construction the largest single use for the element. The second-most important use is as a catalyst: rhenium is an excellent catalyst for hydrogenation and isomerization, and is used for example in catalytic reforming of naphtha for use in gasoline (rheniforming process). Because of the low availability relative to demand, rhenium is expensive, with price reaching an all-time high in 2008/2009 US$10,600 per kilogram (US$4,800 per pound). Due to increases in rhenium recycling and a drop in demand for rhenium in catalysts, the price of rhenium has dropped to US$2,844 per kilogram (US$1,290 per pound) as of July 2018.

Suraxanı (town)

Suraxanı or Surakhani (Azerbaijani: Suraxanı; Russian: Сураханы) is a town in the eastern part of Azerbaijan, administrative center of Surakhani Rayon of Baku agglomeration. It is located in the Absheron peninsula, at an altitude of 12 meters above sea level, 30 km to the north-east from Baku.

A name of the city is translated as “warm house” from the Tat language. From times immemorial outskirts of Surakhani were famed for abundance of oil wells. The first oil refinery in the world was built in Surakhani on the initiative of Vasiliy Kokorev, in 1857. Dmitri Mendeleev worked in this refinery as a consultant. In 1879, Baku-Sabunchu railway branch, which significantly facilitated transportation of oil, passed through Surakhani and in 1926, the first line of electric trains in the USSR passed through Surakhani.

Periodic table forms
Sets of elements
Elements
History
See also
Recipients of the Copley Medal (1901–1950)

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