Diyarbakır (Arabic: ديار بكر, Syriac: ܐܡܝܕܐ, translit. Amida, Armenian: Dikranagerd, Kurdish: Amed) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey. Situated on the banks of the Tigris River, it is the administrative capital of the Diyarbakır Province. It is the second largest city in Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region, after Gaziantep.
Diyarbakır is considered the un-proclaimed capital of so-called Turkish Kurdistan also known as Bakur which means north in Kurdish. As such, it has been a focal point for conflict between Turkey's government and various Kurdish insurgent groups.
Top left: Ali Pasha Mosque, Top right: Nebi Mosque, 2nd: Seyrangeha Park, 3rd left: Dört Ayaklı Minare Mosque, 3rd upper right: Deriyê Çiyê, 3rd lower right: On Gözlü Bridge (or Silvan Bridge), over Tigris River, Bottom left: Diyarbakır City Wall, Bottom right: Gazi Köşkü (Veterans Pavilion)
Location of Diyarbakır within Turkey
|• Mayor||Cumali Atilla (State-appointed caretaker)|
|Elevation||675 m (2,215 ft)|
|• Metropolitan municipality||930,266|
Kurdish: Majority 
Assyrian: Several thousands
|Time zone||UTC+3 (FET)|
The name Diyarbakır (Arabic: دیار بکر, Diyaru Bakr, which means the Land of Bakir; Armenian: Տիգրանակերտ, Tigranakert; Ancient Greek: Άμιδα, Amida; Ottoman Turkish: دیاربکر, Diyâr-ı Bekr; Syriac: ܐܡܝܕ) is inscribed as Amed on the sheath of a sword from the Assyrian period, and the same name was used in other contemporary Syriac and Arabic works. The Romans and Byzantines called the city Amida. Another medieval use of the term as Amit is found in Empire of Trebizond official documents in 1358. Among the Artukid and Akkoyunlu it was known as "Black Amid" (Kara Amid) for the dark color of its walls, while in the Zafername, or eulogies in praise of military victories, it is called "Black Fortress" (Kara Kale). In the Book of Dede Korkut and some other Turkish works it appears as Kara Hamid.
Following the Arab conquests in the seventh century, the Arab Bakr tribe settled in this region, which became known as the Diyar Bakr ("landholdings of the Bakr tribe", in Arabic: ديار بكر, Diyar Bakr). In 1937, Atatürk visited Diyarbekir and, after expressing uncertainty on the exact etymology of the city, ordered that it be renamed "Diyarbakır", which means "land of copper" in Turkish after the abundant resources of copper around the city.
The earliest reference to the city comes from Assyrian records which identify it as being the capital of the Aramean kingdom of Bit-Zamani (c. 1300 BC). In the ninth century BC, the city joined a rebellion against the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III. The city was later reduced to being a province of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
From 189 BCE to 384 CE, the region to the east and south of present Diyarbakır came under the rule of the Hellenistic kingdom of Corduene.
Later, the Romans colonized the city and named it Amida, after the earlier name Amid. During the Roman rule, the first city walls were constructed in 297. Later, the greater walls were built as per the command of the Roman emperor Constantius II. The Romans were succeeded by the Muslim Arabs. It was the leader of the Arab Bekr tribe, Bekr Bin Vail, who named the city Diyar Bakr, meaning "the country of Bakr", i.e. Arabs.
After a few centuries, Diyarbakır came under the Ottoman Empire and earned the status of the capital of a large province. The city became the base of army troops who guarded the region against Persian invasion. Diyarbakır faced turbulence in the 20th century, particularly with the onset of World War I. The majority of the city's Assyrian and Armenian population were massacred and deported during the Assyrian Genocide & Armenian Genocide in 1915. In 1925, armed Kurdish groups rose in the Sheikh Said rebellion against the newly established secular government of the Republic of Turkey with the aim to revive the Islamic caliphate and sultanate, but were defeated by Turkish forces.
The area around Diyarbakır has been inhabited by humans from the stone age with tools from that period having been discovered in the nearby Hilar cave complex. The pre-pottery neolithic B settlement of Çayönü dates to over 10,000 years ago and its excavated remains are on display at the Diyarbakır Museum. Another important site is Girikihaciyan Tumulus in Eğil.
The first major civilization to establish themselves in the region of what is now Diyarbakır were the Hurrian kingdom of the Mitanni. The city was first mentioned by Assyrian texts as the capital of a Semitic kingdom. It was then ruled by a succession of nearly every polity that controlled Upper Mesopotamia, including the Arameans, Assyrians, Urartu, Armenians, Achaemenid Persians, Medes, Seleucids, and Parthians. The Roman Republic gained control of the city in 66 BC, by which stage it was named "Amida". In 359, Shapur II of Persia captured Amida after a siege of 73 days which is vividly described by the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus.
Syriac Christianity took hold in the region between the 1st and 4th centuries AD, particularly amongst the Assyrians of the city. The earliest documented bishop of Amida was Simeon of the Assyrian Church of the East, who took part in the First Council of Nicaea in 325, on behalf of the Assyrians. Maras was at the First Council of Constantinople in 381. In the next century, Saint Acacius of Amida (who died in 425, and is included in the Roman Martyrology) was noted for having sold the church's gold and silver vessels to ransom and assist Persian prisoners of war.
Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II (408–450) divided the Roman province of Mesopotamia into two, and made Amida the capital of Mesopotamia Prima, and thereby also the metropolitan see for all the province's bishoprics. A 6th-century Notitia Episcopatuum indicates as suffragans of Amida the sees of Martyropolis, Ingila, Belabitene, Arsamosata, Sophene, Kitharis, Cefa, and Zeugma. The Annuario Pontificio adds Bethzabda and Dadima.
The names of several of the successors of Acacius are known, but their orthodoxy is unclear. The last whose orthodoxy is certain is Cyriacus, a participant in the Second Council of Constantinople (553). Many bishops of the Byzantine Empire fled in the face of the Persian invasion of the early 7th century, with a resultant spread of the Jacobite Church, Michael the Syrian gives a list of Jacobite bishops of Amida down to the 13th century.
At some stage, Amida became a see of the Armenian Christians. The bishops who held the see in 1650 and 1681 were in communion with the Holy See, and in 1727 Peter Derboghossian sent his profession of faith to Rome. He was succeeded by two more Catholic Armenians, Eugenius and Ioannes of Smyrna, the latter of whom died in Constantinople in 1785. After a long vacancy, three more bishops followed. The diocese had some 5,000 Armenian Catholics in 1903, but it lost most of its population in the Armenian Genocide. The last diocesan bishop of the see, Andreas Elias Celebian, was killed with some 600 of his faithful in the summer of 1915.
An eparchy for the local members of the Syriac Catholic Church was established in 1862. Ignatius Philip I Arkus, who was its first bishop, was elected patriarch in 1866, he kept the governance of the see of Amida, which he exercised through a patriarchal vicar. The eparchy was united to that of Mardin in 1888. Persecution in Turkey during the First World War brought an end to the existence of both these Syrian residential sees.
However, in 1966 a Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy with jurisdiction over all Chaldean Catholic Turks was revived in Diyarbakır, with the city being as episcopal see and location of the diocesan main Cathedral.
As of 2015, there are two Chaldean Churches, and three Armenian churches in at least periodic operation. Three other churches are in ruins, all Armenian: one outside Sur district, one in it, and one in the citadel that is now part of a museum complex.
No longer a residential bishopric until 1966 (Chaldean rite), Amida is today listed by the Catholic Church as a multiple titular see, separately for the Latin Roman Rite and two Eastern Catholic particular churches sui iuris.
Amida of the Romans was suppressed in 1970, having had many archiepiscopal incumbents with in singular episcopal exception :
The diocese of Amida, in 1650, was suppressed in 1972 and immediately nominally restored as Armenian Catholic (Armenian Rite and language) titular bishopric of the lowest (episcopal) rank, Amida of the Armenians.
So far, it has had the following incumbents, of the fitting episcopal rank with an archiepiscopal exception:
Established in 1963 as Titular archbishopric of the highest (Metropolitan) rank, Amida of the Syriacs.
It is vacant since decades, having had the following incumbent of Metropolitan rank;
In 639, the city was captured by the Muslim conquests, and introduced the religion of Islam. The city passed under Umayyad and then Abbasid control, but with the progressive fragmentation of the Abbasid Caliphate from the late 9th century, it periodically came under the rule of autonomous dynasties. Isa ibn al-Shaykh al-Shaybani and his descendants ruled the city and the wider Diyar Bakr from 871 until 899, when Caliph al-Mu'tadid restored Abbasid control, but the area soon passed to another local dynasty, the Hamdanids. The latter were displaced by the Buyids in 978, who were in turn followed by the Marwanids a few years later. The Marwanids ruled until after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, when the city came under the rule of the Mardin branch of the Oghuz Turks and then the Anatolian beylik of the Artuqids. The whole area was then disputed between the Ilkhanate and Ayyubid dynasties for a century, after which it was taken over by the competing Turkic federations of the Kara Koyunlu (the Black Sheep) first and then the Aq Qoyunlu until the rise of the Persian Safavids, who naturally took over the city and the wider region.
During Ottoman rule, the government began to assert its authority in the region in the early 19th century. Concerned with independent-mindedness of Kurdish principalities, Ottomans sought to curb their influence and bring them under the control of the central government in Constantinople. However, removal from power of these hereditary principalities led to more instability in the region from the 1840s onwards. In their place, sufi sheiks and religious orders rose to prominence and spread their influence throughout the region. One of the prominent Sufi leaders was Shaikh Ubaidalla Nahri, who began a revolt in the region between Lakes Van and Urmia. The area under his control covered both Ottoman and Qajar territories. Shaikh Ubaidalla is regarded as one of the earliest leaders who pursued modern nationalist ideas among Kurds. In a letter to a British Vice-Consul, he declared: the Kurdish nation is a people apart... we want our affairs to be in our hands'.' The breakup of the Ottoman Empire after its defeat in the First World War led to its dismemberment and establishment of the present-day political boundaries, dividing the Kurdish-inhabited regions between several newly created states. The establishment and enforcement of the new borders had profound effects for the Kurds, who had to abandon their traditional nomadism for village life and settled farming.
Between the early 16th century and mid-to late 17th century the city and the much wider Eastern Anatolia region (comprising Eastern Anatolia and Southeastern Anatolia) was being heavily competed between the rivalling Safavids and the Ottoman Turks, being passed on numerous times between the two archrivals. When it was firstly conquered by the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century by the campaigns of Bıyıklı Mehmet Paşa under the rule of Sultan Selim I following the Battle of Chaldiran, they established an eyelet with its centre in Diyarbakır. The Ottoman eyelet of Diyarbakır corresponded to Turkey's southeastern provinces today, a rectangular area between the Lake Urmia to Palu and from the southern shores of Lake Van to Cizre and the beginnings of the Syrian desert, although its borders saw some changes over time. The city was an important military base for controlling this region and at the same time a thriving city noted for its craftsmen, producing glass and metalwork. For example, the doors of Mevlana's tomb in Konya were made in Diyarbakır, as were the gold and silver decorated doors of the tomb of Imam-i Azam Ebu Hanife in Baghdad. Ottoman rule was confirmed by the Peace of Amasya of 1555 which followed after the Ottoman–Safavid War (1532–1555). However, a recapture of the city followed by Safavid Persia, ruled by shah Abbas I, during the Ottoman-Safavid War (1603–1618). Diyarbakır was retaken by the Safavids once again in 1623-1624, during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–1639).
In 1895 an estimated 25,000 Armenians and Assyrians were massacred in Diyarbakır vilayet, including the city. At the turn of the 19th century, the Christian population of the city was mainly made up of Armenians and Syriac Orthodox Christians. The city was also a site of ethnic cleansing of Armenians and Assyrians in 1915; nearly 150,000 were deported from the city.
In the reorganization of the provinces, Diyarbakır was made administrative capital of the Diyarbakır Province. During the 1980s and 1990s, at the peak of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) insurgency, the population of the city grew dramatically as villagers from remote areas where fighting was serious left or were forced to leave for the relative security of the city. After the cessation of hostilities between the PKK and the Turkish army, a large degree of normality returned to the city, with the Turkish government declaring an end to the 15-year period of emergency rule on 30 November 2002. Diyarbakır grew from a population of 30,000 in the 1930s to 65,000 by 1956, to 140,000 by 1970, to 400,000 by 1990, and eventually swelled to about 1.5 million by 1997.
The 41-year-old American-Turkish Pirinçlik Air Force Base near Diyarbakır, known as NATO's frontier post for monitoring the former Soviet Union and the Middle East, closed on 30 September 1997. This closure was the result of the general drawdown of US bases in Europe and the improvement in space surveillance technology. The base housed sensitive electronic intelligence-gathering systems that monitored the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Russia.
According to a November 2006 survey by the Sur Municipality, one of Diyarbakır's metropolitan municipalities, 72% of the inhabitants of the municipality use Kurdish most often in their daily speech, followed by Turkish, with small minorities of Assyrians, Armenians and Yezidis still resident. After World War II, as the Kurdish population moved to urban centres, Diyarbakir gradually became predominantly Kurdish.
Diyarbakır has been the victim of terror attacks in recent years. In 2008, a car bomb exploded in the city, killing five people, a blast for which nobody claimed responsibility. In 2015, a political rally of the People's Democratic Party was targeted by ISIL, killing four people and injuring over 100. And in 2016, two separate attacks in February and March, each killing six people.
In the 2014 local elections, Gültan Kışanak and Fırat Anlı of the Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) were elected co-mayors of Diyarbakır. However, on 25 October 2016, both were detained by Turkish authorities "on thinly supported charges of being a member of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)". The Turkish government ordered a general internet blackout after the arrest. Nevertheless, on 26 October, several thousand demonstrators at Diyarbakir city hall demanded the mayors’ release. Some days later, the Turkish government appointed an unelected state trustee as the mayor. In November, public prosecutors demanded a 230-year prison sentence for Kışanak.
In January 2017, the Turkish government appointed unelected state trustee ordered the removal of the Assyrian sculpture of a mythological winged bull from the townhall, which had been erected by the BDP mayors to commemorate the Assyrian history of the town and its still resident Assyrian minority.
Historically, Diyarbakır produced wheat and sesame. They would preserve the wheat in warehouses, with coverings of straw and twigs from licorice trees. This system would allow the wheat to be preserved for up to ten years. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Diyarbakır exported raisins, almonds, and apricots to Europe. Angora goats were raised, and wool and mohair was exported from Diyarbakır. Merchants would also come from Egypt, Istanbul, and Syria, to purchase goats and sheep. Honey was also produced, but not so much exported, but used by locals. Sericulture was observed in the area, too.
Prior to World War I, Diyarbakır had an active copper industry, with six mines. Three were active, with two being owned by locals and the third being owned by the Turkish government. Tenorite was the primary type of copper mined. It was mined by hand by Kurds. A large portion of the ore was exported to England. The region also produced iron, gypsum, coal, chalk, lime, jet, and quartz, but primarily for local use.
At the turn of the 19th century, the Christian population of the city was mainly made up of Armenians and Assyrians. The Assyrian presence dates to antiquity, while Armenians had inhabited the town since the 8th century. There was also a small Jewish community in the city.
The city is about 76% Kurdish speaking 
Some jewelry making and other craftwork continues today although the fame of the Diyarbakır's craftsmen has long passed. Folk dancing to the drum and zurna (pipe) are a part of weddings and celebrations in the area.
Diyarbakır is known for rich dishes of lamb which use spices such as black pepper, sumac and coriander; rice, bulgur and butter. The most famous specialty dish from Diyarbakır is Meftune which is made up of lamb meat and vegetable laced with garlic and sumac. Another known dish is Kaburga Dolması which is a baked lamb's ribs stuffed with rice and many spices. Diyarbakır is also famous for its watermelons which are exported internationally; one of the largest events in the city is the annually held Watermelon Festival.
Diyarbakır is surrounded by an almost intact, dramatic set of high walls of black basalt forming a 5.5 km (3.4 mi) circle around the old city. There are four gates into the old city and 82 watch-towers on the walls, which were built in antiquity, restored and extended by the Roman emperor Constantius II in 349.
Diyarbakır has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa). Summer are very hot and very dry, due to its location on the Mesopotamian plain which is subject to hot winds from the deserts of Syria and Iraq to the south. The highest recorded temperature was 46.2 °C (112.64 °F) on 21 July 1937. Winters are cold and wet and with frosty nights. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two. The lowest recorded temperature was −24.2 °C (−10.12 °F) on 11 January 1933.
|Climate data for Diyarbakır (1960–2012)|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||1.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||68.0
|Average rainy days||12.2||11.8||11.8||12.0||8.9||2.9||0.5||0.3||1.2||6.1||8.0||11.5||87.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||75||72||67||65||59||43||31||31||35||51||69||75||56|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||120.9||134.4||173.6||207.0||300.7||366.0||387.5||362.7||297.0||229.4||162.0||117.8||2,859|
|Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü |
|Source #2: Weatherbase|
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Diyarbakir is often called the unofficial capital of Turkish Kurdistan. Its Kurdish name is Amed.
Diyarbakir's Kurdish name is “Amed.”
Amed is the ancient name given to Diyarbakır in the Kurdish language.
As some have noted, Turkey's road to the EU lies through Diyarbakir, the unofficial capital of Turkish Kurdistan.
The unofficial capital of North Kurdistan (Turkish Kurdistan) is Diyarbakir in Turkish, but Amed in Kurdish.
This chapter explores these questions through an analysis of pro-Kurdish parties1 and their social footing in the city of Diyarbakır, one of the largest cities in Turkey's mostly Kurdish southeast and often viewed as the unofficial capital of the country's Kurdish region.
It began in Diyarbakir, the unofficial capital of Turkish Kurdistan,
The city that later generations of Armenians would call Dikranagerd was actually ancient Amid or Amida (now Diyarbekir or Diyarbakır), a great walled city with seventy-two towers...
It was thus only in recent times that Diyarbakır, the unofficial capital of Turkey's Kurdish area, became a predominantly Kurdish town.
Aetius: A Greek from Amida (in Mesopotamia), who wrote on philosophy in the mid- sixth century AD in Alexandria.
Aetius of Amida, who lived in the sixth century A.D. and was the first Greek physician who was a Christian, had a chapter on aneurysms in his book on surgery.
The Ahmet Arif Literature Museum Library (Turkish: Ahmet Arif Edebiyat Müze Kütüphanesi) is a literary museum and archive dedicated to Turkish literature and named after the poet Ahmet Arif (1927–1991). Located in Diyarbakır, Turkey, the museum was established by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and opened on June 1, 2011.The museum is housed in a historical house of typical-Diyarbakır architecture called the Hacı Halid Konağı (literally Hajji Halid Mansion), which is more than 120 years old. It is situated in Camii Kebir neighborhood of Sur district next to the Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı Museum. The 6-room building with stoa facing the center is designed in quadratic form surrounding a large courtyard. It covers an area of 360 m2 (3,900 sq ft) including the courtyard. The building is considered to have served as home of Ahmet Arif. The restoration of the building for this purpose cost 93,000 while another 75,000 were spent for its decoration and furnishing.The museum is dedicated to the life and works of Ahmet Arif, some of whose personal belonging are on display. In addition, photographs of notable authors from southeastern Anatolia are exhibited. The library accommodates more than 2,000 books and 60 periodicals, including books on history and literature. At the museum library, discussions on various authors, poetry performances and writing workshops are held. By nine months of the year, visitors are able to read their books under the huge walnut tree in the courtyard in the center of the building.The museum library in Diyarbakır is part of a network of same kind of institutions, which are established across the country, and named after notable writers native to the region.Amed S.K.
Amed SK, formerly Diyarbakır Büyükşehir Belediyespor, is a Turkish sports club based in Diyarbakır, Turkey. The football club plays in the TFF Second League. It is the football club of Diyarbakır Metropolitan Municipality.
In October 2014, they changed their name to Amedspor without official approval, and have been fined by the Turkish Football Federation.In early 2016, Amedspor pulled off an upset win over Bursaspor to make it into the Turkish Cup. After this victory their fans were banned from the following match against Fenerbahçe by the Turkish Football Federation. The TFF also suspended their midfielder Deniz Naki an unprecedented 12 games and the police raided the club's offices taking their computers on suspicion that a politically controversial tweet might possibly have originated from there. The club is appealing these heavy handed measures and if their appeal fails with the TFF they will likely take that appeal to the UEFA.
According to a interview which the german newspaper Die Zeit held with their representatives, the club has some difficulties for being seen as a symbol of Kurdish identity by the Turkish Football Federation and Turkish authorities. Flags in Kurdish language are banned to be shown in the stadiums and since December 2015 the fans of Amedspor are banned to watch the away games in the regular season. After the ban about 500 fans went to watch their team without showing the colors of their team, but as they showed their emotions for their team when it scored a goal, they had trouble with the fans from the opposite team and the police and they had to leave before the end of the match. Currently (February 2019) they were banned to watch away games since 64 games. Also merchandise articles of the fans are also often seized by the police. Amedspor also has a Women Football Team, and a Women Volleyball Team.Devegeçidi Dam
Devegeçidi Dam is one of the 22 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey, Diyarbakır. It is near Diyarbakır on a branch of the Tigris river. It was constructed for irrigation purposes between 1965 and 1972.Dicle Dam
Dicle Dam is one of the 21 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey. These facilities are located within the provincial territory of Diyarbakır, at a distance of 50 kilometres to Diyarbakır city centre. More specifically, the dam and the hydroelectric power plant are located at a distance of 800 metres from the point of junction of the streams of Maden Stream and Dibni to form the Tigris, and 22 kilometres downstream of the Kralkızı Dam. Construction works were started in 1986 and the dam was completed in 1997. The dam has an installed hydroelectric capacity of 110 MW and is designed to ultimately irrigate 128,080 hectares. In 2001 a water transmission line and a water treatment plant were commissioned that provided about 85% of the drinking water for the city of Diyarbakir in 2010.Dicle University
Dicle University (Turkish: Dicle Üniversitesi, Kurdish: Zanîngeha Dîcleyê), is a public university located in Diyarbakır, Turkey, on the eastern side of the Tigris (Turkish: Dicle) river. The university is one of the oldest and largest higher education institutions in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.
Built on a twenty-seven-thousand-acre area in the eastern side of the historical city of Diyarbakır, Dicle University takes its name from the river which splits the university from the city. Apart from its main campus in Diyarbakır, the university has vocational schools in Ergani, Çermik, Çüngüş, Bismil, and Silvan.Diyarbakır Airport
Diyarbakır Airport (IATA: DIY, ICAO: LTCC) is a military airbase and public airport located in Diyarbakır, Turkey.Diyarbakır Archaeological Museum
Diyarbakır Archaeological Museum is an archaeological museum in Diyarbakır, Turkey.Diyarbakır Province
Diyarbakır Province (Turkish: Diyarbakır ili, Kurdish: Parêzgeha Amed) is a province in southeastern Turkey. The province covers an area of 15,355 km² and its population is 1,528,958. The provincial capital is the city of Diyarbakır.
It has been home to many civilisations and the surrounding area including itself is home to many Mesolithic era stone carvings and artifacts. The province has been ruled by the Akkadians, Hurrians, Mittani, Medes, Hittites, Armenians, Neo-Babylonians, Achaemenids, Greeks, Romans, Parthia, Byzantium, Sassanids, Arabs, Seljuk Empire, Mongol Empire, Safavid dynasty, Marwanids, and Ayyubids.
The majority of the province's population today is Kurdish.Diyarbakırspor
Diyarbakırspor, currently known as Diyarbekirspor, is a professional football club located in the city of Diyarbakır in Turkey. Formed in 1968, Diyarbakırspor are nicknamed Diyar (Land). The club colours are red and green, and they play their home matches at Diyarbakır Stadium.
Historically, Diyarbakırspor hold the distinction of being the second club in the world to earn double promotion (with Nottingham Forest being the first). Domestically, they have finished runners-up for the 1.Lig (Second Division) once, in 1976–77, and have finished third place twice, in 1980–81 and 1985–1986.Diyarbekir Vilayet
The Vilayet of Diyâr-ı Bekr (Ottoman Turkish: ولايت ديار بكر, Vilâyet-i Diyarbakır) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, wholly located within what is now modern Turkey. The vilayet extended south from Palu on the Euphrates to Mardin and Nusaybin on the edge of the Mesopotamian plain. After the establishment of Republic of Turkey in 1923, the region was incorporated into the newly created state.
At the beginning of the 20th century, it reportedly had an area of 18,074 square miles (46,810 km2), while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 (published in 1908) gave the population as 471,462. The accuracy of the population figures ranges from "approximate" to "merely conjectural" depending on the region from which they were gathered.Great Mosque of Diyarbakır
The Great Mosque of Diyarbakır (Turkish: Cami-i Kebîr), Turkish: Diyarbakır Ulu Camii, Kurdish: Mizgefta Mezin a Amedê) is the former St. Thomas Christian Church, one of the oldest churches in history. The mosque is considered by some to be the fifth holiest site in Islam.
It can accommodate up to 5,000 worshippers and is famous for hosting four different Islamic traditions.Göksu Dam
Göksu Dam is a dam on Göksu Stream south of Diyarbakır city in Turkey. Constructed between 1987 and 1991, the development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works. The primary purpose of the dam is irrigation and it supplies water to 3,582 ha (8,850 acres).Karakaya Dam
The Karakaya Dam is one of the 21 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey, built on the Euphrates River and completed in 1987. The hydroelectric dam generates power with six units of 300 MW, totalling the installed capacity to 1,800 MW.Kralkızı Dam
Kralkızı Dam is one of the 21 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey in Batman. The hydroelectric power plant has a total installed power capacity of 94 MW. The dam was constructed between 1985 and 1997.
These facilities are located on the Maden Stream, one of the important tributaries of the Tigris River, at a distance of 81 kilometres to Diyarbakır and 6 kilometres to the township of Dicle.Silvan, Diyarbakır
Silvan (Turkish: Silvan, Ottoman Turkish: ميا فارقين Meyafarikîn, Arabic: ميافارقين, Meiafarakin or Mayyafariqin; Armenian: Նփրկերտ, Np'rkert; Greek: Mαρτυρόπολις, Martyropolis; Kurdish: Farqîn; Syriac: ܡܝܦܪܩܝܛ, Mayperqiṭ) is a city and district in the Diyarbakır Province of Turkey. Its population is 41,451.St. Giragos Armenian Church
The Church of St. Giragos (St. Cyriacus) is an Armenian Apostolic church in Diyarbakır, Turkey. Although out of use, it has recently been renovated in part as a sign of reconciliation with the Christian community. It was reopened on 23 October 2011 as "Turkey’s first church to be revived as a permanent place of worship" and also houses an Armenian museum – the first of its kind in Anatolia. It was heavily damaged during armed clashes between the Kurdistan Workers' Party and the Turkish Armed Forces in February 2016, along with the rest of the historic Sur district of Diyarbakir.
It was seen as one of the largest and most important Armenian churches in the Middle East, with seven altars. It was closed during the Armenian Genocide in 1915–1916, and was returned to the local Armenian community in 1960, although due to emigration in the 1970s and 1980s the local Armenian community was much diminished. According to some art historians, the church is the largest in the Middle East. The complex sprawls over 3,200 square meters and includes priests' houses, chapels and a school. The church was seized by the Imperial German Army in 1913 and served as their local headquarters during World War I until 1918, when it was converted into a fabric warehouse.Ayık also said St. Giragos had several unique architectural features. "Churches normally have one altar but St. Giragos has seven altars. Its original roof was covered with the earth from around the region. We will do it again. The earth has been stripped of seeds to prevent the growth of plants. It should also be vented regularly, every year. The chairman, whose family is originally from the southeastern province, said the church was handed over to the foundation by the General Directorate of Foundations in the 1950s and continued providing church services until the early 1990s." After the founding of the Turkish Republic in 1923, it was used as a state warehouse for canvas and fabrics, and then, despite sporadic efforts by the dwindling Armenian community in Diyarbakır, it had been left to deteriorate and decay until 2009, when a few Armenians born in Diyarbakır but living in Istanbul, formed a Foundation Board under the auspices of the Armenian Istanbul Patriarchate, with the goal of reconstructing the church, as well as to start a legal process to reclaim title to the significant land holdings originally belonging to the church.
The church attracts hundreds of people per day; according to Gafur Turkay of the Surp Giragos Foundation, "Many of them are Islamised Armenians like me."On 26 March 2016 the Turkish government confiscated St. Giragos, under Article 27 of the Expropriation Law. Neighbouring Syriac, Chaldean and Protestant churches were also expropriated as part of the same decision, which comprised the expropriation of some 6,300 plots of land in Diyarbakir's Sur (walled town) district, about 80% of the property in that district. The Diyarbakir Bar Association released a statement saying "this decision violates the property right and is also against Turkish Constitutional Law, Expropriation Law, and European Convention on Human Rights".Tushhan
Tushhan (also Tushan, or Tušhan) is a Kurdish village known as (Kurdish: Behramki) or (Kurdish: Tepe-i Barava) by residents and It was an ancient city that Assyrian have ruled for some time in Mesopotamia. It was a provincial capital in the upper Tigris river valley, on the south bank and inhabited since the Mitanni period, and mainly during the Neo-Assyrian period during the Iron Age.
It is now believed to be located at the site of the modern Ziyaret Tepe (Kurdish: Tepa Barava), Diyarbakır Province, Turkey.Ziya Gökalp Museum
Ziya Gökalp Museum (Turkish: Ziya Gökalp Müzesi) is a house museum dedicated to Ziya Gökalp in Diyarbakır, Turkey.
The museum is located in the historic Sur district of Diyarbakır at 37°54′41″N 40°14′03″E. It is close to Grand Mosque and the Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı Museum.
Ziya Gökalp (1876–1924) was one of the most important intellectuals and spokesmen of the Turkish nationalist movement. The museum building is the house, where he was born and grew up in. The building was constructed in 1808. In 1953, the house was bought by the Ministry of Culture, and it was opened as a house museum on 23 March 1956.The building has a ground floor and an upper floor. The basalt-stone house is composed of three sections around a courtyard. Unlike other Diyarbakır historical houses, the house pool is placed in the iwan rather than in the courtyard.Çayönü
Çayönü Tepesi is a Neolithic settlement in southeastern Turkey inhabited around 7200 to 6600 BC. It is located forty kilometres north-west of Diyarbakır, at the foot of the Taurus mountains. It lies near the Boğazçay, a tributary of the upper Tigris River and the Bestakot, an intermittent stream.