The Dixie Highway was a United States automobile highway, first planned in 1914 to connect the US Midwest with the Southern United States. It was part of the National Auto Trail system, and grew out of an earlier Miami to Montreal highway. The final result is better understood as a network of connected paved roads, rather than one single highway. It was constructed and expanded from 1915 to 1929.
The Dixie Highway was inspired by the example of the slightly earlier Lincoln Highway, the first road across the United States. The prime booster of both projects was promoter and businessman Carl G. Fisher. It was overseen by the Dixie Highway Association, and funded by a group of individuals, businesses, local governments, and states. In the early years the U.S. federal government played little role, but from the early 1920s on it provided increasing funding, until 1927, when the Dixie Highway Association was disbanded and the highway was taken over as part of the U.S. Route system, with some portions becoming state roads.
The route was marked by a red stripe with the white letters "DH", usually with a white stripe above and below. The logo was commonly painted on utility poles.
|Length||5,786 mi (9,312 km)|
|North end||Chicago, IL|
|South end||Miami, FL|
|North end||Sault Ste. Marie, MI|
|South end||Miami, FL|
|North end||Macon, GA|
|South end||Jacksonville, FL|
|States||Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, South Carolina, Florida|
The Dixie Highway, an idea of Carl G. Fisher of the Lincoln Highway Association, was organized in early December 1914 in Chattanooga. On April 3, 1915, governors of the interested states met at Chattanooga, and each selected two commissioners to lay out the route from Chicago to Miami. On May 22, 1915, the commission decided on a split route in order to serve more communities. The route left Chicago to the south via Danville, Illinois and turned east to Indianapolis, where it split. The west branch headed south through Tennessee via Louisville and Nashville to Chattanooga, Tennessee, while the east route went east from Indianapolis to Dayton, Ohio before turning south via Cincinnati; Lexington, Kentucky; and Knoxville, Tennessee; to Chattanooga. Two alternate routes were included between Chattanooga and Atlanta, and again between Atlanta and Macon, Georgia. Finally, between Macon and Jacksonville, Florida, the west route went south to Tallahassee, Florida before turning east, while the east route had yet to be defined in detail. From Jacksonville, the route followed the east coast south to Miami along the John Anderson Highway. The commission voted to invite Michigan and to extend a branch of the east route from Dayton north to Detroit via Toledo, as well as to study a loop around Lake Michigan and a western route between Tallahassee and Miami.
Within a week, Michigan agreed to construct a loop around the Lower Peninsula, passing via South Bend, Mackinaw City, Detroit, and Toledo. Detroit became the northern end of the eastern division, with the old route to Indianapolis becoming a connecting link. In early April 1916, the commission approved the route between Macon and Jacksonville via Savannah, Georgia, and designated the more direct route via Waycross, Georgia as the central division. At the urging of locals, the eastern division was realigned to a more direct path northwest from Milledgeville, Georgia to Atlanta over the "Old Capitol Route", bypassing Macon, and the old eastern division via McDonough, Jackson, and Macon was removed from the system in early July 1916. By early 1917, the western division had been modified in Florida to go southeast from Tallahassee via Kissimmee and Bartow to the eastern division at Jupiter; the old Tallahassee–Jacksonville route became another connection. The Carolina division, connecting to the eastern division at Knoxville, Tennessee and Waynesboro, Georgia, was approved in mid-May 1918. By mid-1919, a short piece on Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan became part of the eastern division of the highway, which was extended north from Detroit to Mackinaw City and across the Straits of Mackinac.
The Western route connected Chicago, Illinois and Miami, Florida via Danville in Illinois; Indianapolis and Bedford in Indiana; Louisville, Elizabethtown, and Bowling Green in Kentucky; Nashville and Chattanooga in Tennessee; Atlanta, Macon, and Albany in Georgia; and Tallahassee, Gainesville, Orlando, Arcadia, and Naples in Florida.
Except for realignments made since the 1920s, the western route is now Illinois Route 1 and U.S. Route 136 to Indianapolis, Indiana State Road 37 and U.S. Route 150 to Louisville, U.S. Route 31W, U.S. Route 68, and U.S. Route 431 to Nashville, and U.S. Route 41, U.S. Route 231, U.S. Route 41A, and U.S. Route 41 to Chattanooga. At Chattanooga, the western and eastern routes intersected; the western took a longer route along U.S. Route 27 to Rome and then returned to U.S. Route 41 at Cartersville via U.S. Route 411. At Atlanta, the eastern route split off toward Madison, Georgia, with the western continuing to Macon along the present U.S. Route 41; then Georgia State Route 49, U.S. Route 19, and U.S. Route 319 to Tallahassee; U.S. Route 27 and U.S. Route 441 to Orlando; and U.S. Route 17 and U.S. Route 41 (over the Tamiami Trail) to Miami.
The Eastern route connected Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan with Miami, Florida, running via Saginaw and Detroit in Michigan; Toledo, Bowling Green, Dayton, and Cincinnati in Ohio; Lexington in Kentucky; Knoxville and Chattanooga in Tennessee; Atlanta and Savannah in Georgia; and Jacksonville and West Palm Beach in Florida.
In Michigan's Upper Peninsula, the highway followed what is now M-129 from Sault Ste. Marie to Pickford and then west to follow a short portion of former U.S. Route 2, replaced by Mackinaw Trail. It crossed the Straits of Mackinac and then used what is now U.S. Route 23 and old U.S. Route 10 to Detroit. Currently it still exists in Michigan as the name of a secondary road from Saginaw southeast to the county line (as an alternate route to Flint), from southeast Flint to northwest Pontiac, and from Flat Rock southwest to Monroe ending at the state line. A short section of the Dixie Highway in northwest lower Michigan running north from Eastport in Antrim County to the village of Norwood in Charlevoix County is named Old Dixie Highway—U.S. Route 31 parallels this road to the east. In Ohio, it was old U.S. Route 25 to Cincinnati, current U.S. Route 25 and U.S. Route 25W to Knoxville, and U.S. Route 70 and U.S. Route 27 to Chattanooga. The eastern division took a more direct route than the western between Chattanooga and Atlanta, following the modern U.S. Route 41 all the way, but it followed a more circuitous path south of Atlanta. Traffic left Atlanta to the east on U.S. Route 278, following U.S. Route 441, Georgia State Route 24, a short section of U.S. Route 301, and Georgia State Route 21 to Savannah. There, the route turned south along the coast via U.S. Route 17 to Jacksonville and U.S. Route 1 to Miami. It is today (2016) a major street in towns and cities along the Florida East Coast.
The Central route was a short cutoff between the western division at Macon, Georgia, and the eastern route at Jacksonville, Florida, forming a shorter route to Miami than the western on its own; it followed U.S. Route 41, U.S. Route 341, U.S. Route 129, Georgia State Route 32, and U.S. Route 1.
The Carolina route cut the distance between Knoxville and Waynesboro, Georgia, on the eastern route. It is now U.S. Route 25W and U.S. Route 25, and passes through Asheville, Greenville, and Augusta on its way to the eastern route and Savannah.
Dixie Highway-Hastings, Espanola and Bunnell Road
|Location||Flagler and St. Johns counties, Florida, USA|
|Nearest city||Hastings and Espanola|
|Area||72.7 acres (29.4 ha)|
|Architect||Wilson, James Y.; McCrary Engineering Company|
|NRHP reference #||05000311|
|Added to NRHP||April 20, 2005|
Much of the eastern route—and all the Carolina route—became U.S. Highway 25. Then the primary eastern route (Knoxville to Macon) was largely paralleled and in some sections replaced by Interstate 75, which runs from Miami, Florida, to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. Large portions of the former US 25 in western Ohio ultimately ended up in 1963 (after Interstate 75's completion in that area) as County Road 25A, or alternatively, as Dixie Road. A four-lane portion runs between Cygnet and Toledo, through Bowling Green, as Ohio State Route 25. In Michigan, M-25 from Port Huron to Bay City incorporates the segment of old US 25 that Interstates 75 and 94 did not supplant as a through route. The eastern portion from Jacksonville, Florida south was largely replaced with U.S. Route 1.
The portion of the western route from Nashville, Tennessee north to Louisville, Kentucky is now U.S. Highway 31W. In most of the cities it traverses in Kentucky, it is still referred to as "Dixie Highway" or "Dixie Avenue". The western route generally follows the present-day route of US 150, IN 37 and IN 67 from Louisville to Indianapolis. From Nashville to Indianapolis, the route parallels Interstate 65. Portions of this stretch were originally parts of the Louisville and Nashville Turnpike, which began construction in the 1830s.
The name "Dixie Highway" persists in various locations along its route where the main flow of long-distance traffic has been rerouted to more modern highways and the old Dixie Highway remains as a local road. In some south Florida cities, Dixie Highway (or sometimes Old Dixie Highway) parallels "Federal Highway" (U.S. Route 1), sometimes just a block away. In Tennessee, the name lives on in Dixie Lee Junction (where Dixie Highway and Lee Highway intersected). In western North Carolina, seven bronze plaques on granite pillars were placed by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in the late 1920s to mark the route (which today follows US 25) of the Dixie Highway and honor General Robert E. Lee. These markers can be found in the towns of Hot Springs, Marshall, Asheville, Fletcher, and Hendersonville, and on the South Carolina and Tennessee state lines; an eighth monument of identical type can be found on US 25 in downtown Greenville, South Carolina. Two additional monuments can be found in Franklin, Ohio at the intersection of the Old Dixie Highway and Hamilton-Middletown Road, and near Bradfordville, Florida on US 319. The name Dixie Highway is also still commonly used in portions of Michigan's Lower Peninsula, such as in the Waterford area, where it is a major thoroughfare known as US 24.
Dixie Highway retains its name running south from Chicago through the towns of Posen, Harvey, and Homewood to the town of Chicago Heights. Here it joins Illinois Route 1, which runs contiguous with the old Dixie Highway's original course.
In Indiana, the only portion of the Highway that retains its name is located in southwestern Bedford. Indiana State Road 37 in southern Indiana and US 31 in northern Indiana were once part of the Dixie Highway system. A detailed 1915 map of the Dixie Highway route through Indiana and other states was generated by the National Highways Association. At least a portion of the Dixie Highway in Indiana was paved with brick, although some portions used continuous concrete (meaning no expansion joints). The state has not forgotten the crucial part that entrepreneur and native son Carl G. Fisher played in the development of the Dixie Highway nor the importance of the Dixie Highway itself.
In some cities and towns, Dixie Highway is the north–south axis of the street numbering system. The extension of development westward means that the northwest and southwest quadrants of the grid defined in this manner are generally much larger than the northeast and southeast ones which are constrained by the Atlantic Ocean. Also, the route of Dixie Highway generally parallels the coast, often running diagonally instead of straight north and south, causing irregularities in the numbering system.
The Dixie Highway-Hastings, Espanola and Bunnell Road (also known as County Road 13 or the Old Brick Road) is a historic section of Old Dixie Highway in Florida. It is located roughly between Espanola (in Flagler County) and CR 204 southeast of Hastings near Flagler Estates (in St. Johns County). This is one of the few extant portions of the original brick Dixie Highway left in Florida. On April 20, 2005, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places. Maitland, Florida is also home to a brick section of the Dixie Highway stretching around Lake Lily.
Bethany is a neighborhood of Louisville, Kentucky located on Dixie Highway (US 31W) by Bethany Cemetery.Carl G. Fisher
Carl Graham Fisher (January 12, 1874 – July 15, 1939) was an American entrepreneur. Despite severe astigmatism, he became actively involved in auto racing. He was a seemingly tireless pioneer and promoter of the automotive industry and highway construction, and of real estate development in Florida. He is widely regarded as a promotional genius.Despite family financial strains and a disability, in the late 19th century he became a bicycle enthusiast and opened a modest bicycle shop with a brother. He became involved in bicycle racing, as well as many activities related to the emerging American auto industry. In 1904, Carl Fisher and his friend James A. Allison bought an interest in the U.S. patent to manufacture acetylene headlights, a precursor to electric models which became common about ten years later. Soon Fisher's firm supplied nearly every headlamp used on automobiles in the United States as manufacturing plants were built all over the country to supply the demand. The headlight patent made him rich as an automotive parts supplier when he and Allison sold their company, Prest-O-Lite, to Union Carbide in 1913 for $9 million (equivalent of approximately $230 million in 2018).Fisher operated in Indianapolis what is believed to be the first automobile dealership in the United States, and also worked at developing an automobile racetrack locally. After being injured in stunts himself, and following a safety debacle at the new Indianapolis Motor Speedway, of which he was a principal, he helped develop paved racetracks and public roadways. Improvements he implemented at the speedway led to its nickname, "The Brickyard."
In 1912, Fisher conceived and helped develop the Lincoln Highway, the first road for the automobile across the entire United States of America. A convoy trip a few years later by the U.S. Army along Fisher's Lincoln Highway was a major influence upon then Lt. Col. Dwight D. Eisenhower years later in championing the Interstate Highway System during his presidency in the 1950s.
Carl Fisher followed the east-west Lincoln Highway in 1914 with the conception of the north-south Dixie Highway, which led from Michigan to Miami. Under his leadership, the initial portion was completed within a single year, and he led an automobile caravan to Florida from Indiana.
At the south end of the Dixie Highway in Miami, Florida, Fisher, with the assistance of his partners John Graham McKay and Thomas Walkling, became involved in the successful real estate development of the new resort city of Miami Beach, built on a largely unpopulated barrier island and reached by the new Collins Bridge across Biscayne Bay directly at the terminus of the Dixie Highway. Fisher was one of the best known and active promoters of the Florida land boom of the 1920s. By 1926, he was worth an estimated $100 million, and redirected his promotional efforts when the Florida real estate market bubble burst after 1925. His final major project, cut short by the Great Depression, was a "Miami Beach of the north" at Montauk, located at the eastern tip of Long Island, New York.
His fortune was lost in the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression in the United States which followed shortly thereafter. He found himself living in a small cottage in Miami Beach, doing minor work for old friends. Nevertheless, years after his fortune had been lost, at the end of his career, he took on one more project, albeit more modest than many of his past ventures, and built the famous Caribbean Club on Key Largo, intended as a "poor man's retreat."
Although he had lost his fortune and late in life considered himself a failure, Fisher is widely regarded as a decidedly successful man in the long view of his life. He was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1971. In a 1998 study judged by a panel of 56 historians, writers, and others, Carl G. Fisher was named one of the Fifty Most Influential People in the history of the State of Florida by The Ledger newspaper. PBS labeled him "Mr. Miami Beach." Just south of Miami Beach, Fisher Island (which he once owned, and is named for him), became one of the wealthiest and most exclusive residential areas in the United States.County Road 854
County Road 854 (CR 854), locally known as Ives Dairy Road, Dan Marino Boulevard, and Honey Hill Drive, is the unsigned designation for an east–west commuter road spanning 8.7 miles (14.0 km) across northern Miami-Dade County encompasses sections of North 199th Street, North 202nd Street, North 203rd Street, and North 205th Terrace. Its western terminus is an intersection with Red Road/Northwest 57th Avenue (SR 823) near Miami Lakes and Carol City; the eastern terminus is an intersection with Biscayne Boulevard (US 1/SR 5 in Aventura, a half block east of an overpass over West Dixie Highway that once served as part of the Dixie Highway and US 1.Dixie Highway (Broward–Palm Beach)
Dixie Highway in Palm Beach and Broward counties carries two segments of the State Road 811 (SR 811) designation by Florida Department of Transportation, as well as the local County Road 811 (CR 811) in southeast Florida. The entire road comprises a section of the Dixie Highway, a National Auto Trail which eventually became a former routing of U.S. Route 1 after the route was shifted east to Federal Highway. One segment of SR 811 is in Broward County and the other is in Palm Beach County, Florida. The segments of SR 811 are supplemented by three shorter segments of CR 811, one of which is unsigned.Drayton Plains, Michigan
Drayton Plains is an unincorporated community in Waterford Township, Michigan, United States.
Drayton Plains was never incorporated as a municipality.
It is located on Dixie Highway near the west end of Loon Lake.Florida State Road 5
State Road 5 (SR 5) is a mostly-unsigned state highway in the state of Florida. It is mainly signed as US 1 from its south end in Key West, Florida to Jacksonville, Florida, and US 17 from Jacksonville to the Georgia state line at the Saint Marys River. US 1 is SR 15 northwest from Jacksonville.
However, from northern Lantana through Lake Worth to Belvedere Road in West Palm Beach, SR 5 is separate from US 1, which runs to the west on the older but wider Dixie Highway. Here, SR 5 runs along a road named Olive Avenue.Florida State Road 909
State Road 909 (SR 909) is a 3.77-mile-long (6.07 km) state highway in northern Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. It runs along West Dixie Highway, the original alignment of the Dixie Highway, from the east end of Gratigny Drive (SR 924/Northeast 119th Street) in North Miami northeast to North Miami Beach Boulevard (SR 826/Northeast 163rd Street) in North Miami Beach, just across the Florida East Coast Railway from Biscayne Boulevard (US 1-SR 5). State Road 909 is actually in two pieces as motorists traveling the route in North Miami encounter signs on North Miami Boulevard (SR 922/Northeast 125th Street) saying "TO 909" and "To W Dixie Hwy" and guiding them along a two-block "detour" to the other section.Florida State Road 989
State Road 989 (SR 989), locally known as Allapattah Road and Southwest 112th Avenue, is a 3.0-mile-long (4.8 km) north–south four lane undivided highway in southern Miami-Dade County, Florida between the Homestead Air Reserve Base and Cutler Bay. SR 989 begins at an interchange with the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike and ends at an intersection with the Dixie Highway (US 1).Illinois Route 1
Illinois Route 1 (IL 1) is a state highway in the U.S. state of Illinois. Running parallel to the Indiana border, it is also the longest state road, starting on the south side of Chicago as Halsted Street at an intersection with Interstate 57, south to a free ferry crossing to Kentucky at Cave-in-Rock on the Ohio River. This is a distance of 325.59 miles (523.99 km).Johnsontown, Louisville
Johnsontown is a neighborhood of Louisville, Kentucky located along Dixie Highway (US 31W) and Johnsontown Road.Orell, Louisville
Orell is a neighborhood of Louisville, Kentucky centered along Dixie Highway (US 31W) and Orell Road.Thirty Miles West
Thirty Miles West is the fourteenth studio album by American country music artist Alan Jackson. It was released on June 5, 2012 and is Jackson's first album on his own Alan's Country Records in a joint venture with EMI Nashville. The album includes the singles "Long Way to Go," "So You Don't Have to Love Me Anymore" and "You Go Your Way."The album's title refers to a song about a stretch of the Dixie Highway near Jackson's hometown of Newnan, Georgia. The song, "Dixie Highway," is a duet with Zac Brown.U.S. Route 1 in Florida
U.S. Highway 1 (US 1) in Florida runs 545 miles (877 km) along the state's east coast– from Key West to its crossing of the St. Marys River into Georgia north of Boulogne –and south of Folkston. US 1 was designated through Florida when the United States Numbered Highway System was established in 1926. The road is maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT).
From its national southern terminus in Key West, US 1 carries the Overseas Highway– the Keys main highway –north to the mainland, entering South Florida. From South Florida to Jacksonville, US 1 runs close to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean and the Intracoastal Waterway, generally east of Interstate 95 (I-95) and west of State Road A1A (SR A1A), running roughly parallel with both roads. North of Jacksonville, US 1 curves inland towards the St. Mary's River as it enters Georgia.
As is the case with all Florida roads with national designations, the entirety of US 1 has a hidden FDOT designation:
SR 5 from Whitehead Street / Fleming Street in Key West to US 1 Alternate/US 17 in Jacksonville with one exception:
SR 805 from Federal Highway (SR 5 north) in Lantana to Belvedere Road in West Palm Beach;
SR 115 from US 1 Alt./US 17 in Jacksonville to the junction with I-95/SR 15 south/SR 115 north via the Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway.
SR 15 from the I-95 interchange in Jacksonville to the Georgia state line near Boulogne.Among other designations, US 1 is a designated Blue Star Memorial Highway along its entire route through the state. Markers are placed at various locations, including one in Rockledge and Fort Lauderdale.U.S. Route 24
U.S. Route 24 (US 24) is one of the original United States highways of 1926. It originally ran from Pontiac, Michigan, in the east to Kansas City, Missouri, in the west. Today, the highway's northern terminus is in Independence Township, Michigan, at an intersection with I-75 and its western terminus is near Minturn, Colorado at an intersection with I-70. The highway transitions from north–south to east–west signage in Toledo, Ohio.U.S. Route 24 in Michigan
US Highway 24 (US 24) is a United States Numbered Highway that runs from Minturn, Colorado, to Independence Township, Michigan. In Michigan, it is also known as Telegraph Road and runs for 79.828 miles (128.471 km) as a major north–south state trunkline highway from Bedford Township at the Ohio state line through Metro Detroit. The highway runs through three counties in southeastern Michigan, Monroe, Wayne and Oakland, as it parallels the Lake Erie shoreline and bypasses Metro Detroit on the west. Telegraph Road connects several suburbs together and passes through the western edge of Detroit before it terminates northwest of Clarkston at an interchange with Interstate 75 (I-75).
The northern part of the highway follows a section of an old Indian trail called the Saginaw Trail that connected Detroit with points further north. The southern sections in the Downriver area south to Monroe parallel telegraph lines from the mid-19th century. These lines gave the road its name. Later this road was added to the state highway system in the early 20th century. It was upgraded and extended during the 1920s to serve as a western bypass of Detroit. The US 24 designation was applied to the highway on November 11, 1926, when the United States Numbered Highway System was inaugurated. Since that time, an alternate route, Alternate US Highway 24 (Alt. US 24) was designated between the state line and the Gibraltar area; this highway later became part of I-75. In the 1970s, the northernmost section gained the US 10 designation when that highway was rerouted. That overlap was eliminated in 1986, and US 24 was extended north to Clarkston to replace a segment of US 10. At the same time, a business loop in Pontiac was redesignated for US 24 in addition to its connector routes it has.U.S. Route 31W
U.S. Route 31W (US 31W) is the westernmost of two parallel routes for U.S. Route 31 from Nashville, Tennessee to Louisville, Kentucky. At one time, it split with U.S. Route 31E at Sellersburg, Indiana, crossing into nearby Louisville via the Kentucky & Indiana Terminal Bridge. Tennessee State Route 41 (SR 41) is its unsigned companion route in Tennessee.Valley Village, Louisville
Valley Village is a neighborhood of Louisville, Kentucky west of Dixie Highway (US 31W) and north of Bowen Avenue.Vizcaya station
Vizcaya station is a station on the Metrorail rapid transit service station in The Roads neighborhood of Miami, Florida, United States. The station is located near the intersection of Southwest First Avenue and 32nd Road, at the southern terminus of I-95 at South Dixie Highway (US 1) and two blocks southeast of Coral Way. The station opened to service May 20, 1984, featuring a pedestrian bridge over the US 1/I-95 junction for access to the Vizcaya Museum and Gardens, Patricia and Phillip Frost Museum of Science, and residences east of Dixie Highway.Waverly Hills, Louisville
Waverly Hills is a neighborhood in Southwestern Louisville, Kentucky which is centered at Dixie Highway (US 31W) and Pages Lane. It is located in a hilly section of the city, which is part of the larger Knobs Region which extends into southeastern Kentucky. Its boundaries are roughly Stonestreet Road and 3rd Street Road to the south, Dixie Highway to the west, St Andrews Church Road to the north, and Auburndale to the east.
Until the 1990s, the area remained largely rural and heavily forested, but has since been developed with many upscale subdivisions, and is now the most affluent area of Louisville's South End, with a median family income of over $101,499 and over 30% of inhabitants having a bachelor's degree or higher. Development has been most intense along Arnoldtown Road.
It is named after the site of the former Waverly Hills Sanatorium. The area is also home to Waverly Hills Park.