Divine grace

Divine grace is a theological term present in many religions. It has been defined as the divine influence which operates in humans to regenerate and sanctify, to inspire virtuous impulses, and to impart strength to endure trial and resist temptation;[1] and as an individual virtue or excellence of divine origin.[2]

Christianity

Grace in Christianity is the free and unmerited favour of God as manifested in the salvation of sinners and the bestowing of blessings.[3] Common Christian teaching is that grace is unmerited mercy (favor) that God gave to humanity by sending his Son, Jesus Christ, to die on a cross, thus securing man's eternal salvation from sin. Bill Gothard, an American conservative Christian, has suggested "God's grace gives us the desire and the power to do his will."[4]

Within Christianity, there are differing concepts of how grace is attained. In particular, Catholics and Reformed Protestants understand the attainment of grace in substantially different ways. It has been described as "the watershed that divides Catholicism from Protestantism, Calvinism from Arminianism, modern liberalism from conservatism".[5] Catholic doctrine teaches that God has imparted Divine Grace upon humanity and uses the vehicle of sacraments, which are carried out in faith,[6] as a primary and effective means to facilitate the reception of his grace.[7] For Catholics, sacraments (carried out in faith) are the incarnational or tangible vehicle through which God's grace becomes personally and existentially received.[8] Reformed Protestants, generally, do not share this sacramental view on the transmittal of grace,[9] but instead favor a less institutionalized mechanism. For example, in the Catholic Church, the primary initiation into a state of grace is granted by God through baptism (in faith)[10] instead of by a simple prayer of faith (sinner's prayer); although, Catholics would not deny the possible efficacy of even a simple prayer for God's grace to flow (Baptism by desire[11][12]).

In another example, for Catholics, the sacrament of reconciliation (in faith) is the primary means of transmitting grace after a mortal sin has been committed.[13] Many graces are historically associated to the prayer of the holy Rosary; also, the tradition held by Dominicans reports of the fifteen rosary promises made by the Blessed Virgin Mary to Saint Dominic and Alan de Rupe in favour of Christians who faithfully pray the Rosary.

Scriptural usage

In the New Testament, the word translated as grace is the Greek word charis (/ˈkeɪrɪs/; Ancient Greek: χάρις), for which Strong's Concordance gives this definition: "Graciousness (as gratifying), of manner or act (abstract or concrete; literal, figurative or spiritual; especially the divine influence upon the heart, and its reflection in the life; including gratitude)".[14][15] A Greek word that is related to charis is charisma (gracious gift). Both these words originated from another Greek word chairo (to rejoice, be glad, delighted).[16]

In the Old Testament, the Hebrew term used is chen[17][18] (חֵן‬), which is defined in Strong's as "favor, grace or charm; grace is the moral quality of kindness, displaying a favorable disposition".[19] In the King James translation, chen is translated as "grace" 38 times, "favour" 26 times, twice as "gracious",[20] once as "pleasant",[21] and once as "precious".[22]

Hinduism

Hindu devotional or bhakti literature available throughout India and Nepal is replete with references to grace (kripa) as the ultimate key required for spiritual self-realization.[23] Some, such as the ancient sage Vasistha, in his classical work Yoga Vasistha, considered it to be the only way to transcend the bondage of lifetimes of karma.[24] One Hindu philosopher, Madhvacharya, held that grace was not a gift from God, but rather must be earned.[25]

Islam

Umar Sulayman al-Ashqar, dean of the Faculty of Islamic Law at Zarqa Private University in Zarqa, Jordan, wrote that "Paradise is something of immense value; a person cannot earn it by virtue of his deeds alone, but by the Grace and Mercy of Allah."[26] This stance is supported by hadith: according to Abu Huraira, prophet Muhammad once said that "None amongst you can get into Paradise by virtue of his deeds alone ... not even I, but that Allah should wrap me in his grace and mercy."[27]

See also

References

  1. ^ OED, 2nd ed.: grace(n), 11b
  2. ^ OED, 2nd ed.: grace(n), 11e
  3. ^ OED, 2nd ed.: grace(n), 11a
  4. ^ Gothard, Bill. "Grace and Faith". Archived from the original on 2012-07-21.
  5. ^ Charles C. Ryrie, The Grace of God (Chicago: Moody Press, 1963), pp. 10-11.
  6. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church No. 1127. Vatican City-State. Celebrated worthily in faith, the sacraments confer the grace that they signify.
  7. ^ http://www.saintaquinas.com/Justification_by_Grace. html
  8. ^ Edward Schillebeeckx, Christ, the Sacrament of Encounter with God (Rowman & Littlefield, 1963), Foreword pp. 16
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-11-24. Retrieved 2010-12-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church No. 1992. Vatican City-State. Justification is conferred in Baptism, the sacrament of faith.
  11. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church No. 1260. Vatican City-State.
  12. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church No. 1281. Vatican City-State. ... those who ... seek God sincerely and strive to fulfill his will, are saved even if they have not been baptized.
  13. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church No. 1446. The Vatican. Christ instituted the sacrament of Penance for all sinful members of his Church: above all for those who, since Baptism, have fallen into grave sin, and have thus lost their baptismal grace and wounded ecclesial communion. It is to them that the sacrament of Penance offers a new possibility to convert and to recover the grace of justification. The Fathers of the Church present this sacrament as "the second plank [of salvation] after the shipwreck which is the loss of grace."
  14. ^ "Strong's Greek: 5485. χάρις (charis) -- grace, kindness". strongsnumbers.com.
  15. ^ Strong (2001) Grk entry number 5485 (p. 1653)
  16. ^ Strong (2001) Grk entry numbers 5486 and 5463
  17. ^ Blue Letter Bible entry for Strongs Hebrew term 2580, Blue Letter Bible institute, retrieved 2011-01-01
  18. ^ "Chen - Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon - New American Standard". Bible Study Tools.
  19. ^ Strong (2001) Hebrew entry number 2580 (p. 1501)
  20. ^ Proverbs 11:16 and Ecclesiastes 9:11
  21. ^ Proverbs 5:19
  22. ^ Proverbs 17:8
  23. ^ Descent of divine grace The Hindu, June 30, 2005.
  24. ^ venkatesananda. "Yoga Vasistha - Daily Readings - Swami Venkatesananda". www.venkatesaya.com.
  25. ^ Great Thinkers of the Eastern World, Ian McGreal.
  26. ^ Bassam Zawadi; Mansur Ahmed, Answering Common Questions on Salvation That Christians Pose to Muslims, retrieved 2011-01-01
  27. ^ "Chapter 15: None Would Attain Salvation Because of his Deeds but it is Through Lord's Mercy, Number 6764", Sahih Muslim, Book 39, University of Southern California center for Jewish-Muslim engagement, retrieved 2011-01-01

Sources

Baptist beliefs

Baptists do not have a central governing authority, and Baptist beliefs are not completely consistent from one Baptist church to another. However, Baptists do hold some common beliefs among almost all Baptist churches.

These would include beliefs about one God, the virgin birth, the impeccability, miracles, vicarious atoning death, burial and bodily resurrection of Christ, the need for salvation (although the understanding of means for achieving it may differ at times), divine grace, the Church, the Kingdom of God, last things (Jesus Christ will return personally and visibly in glory to the earth; the dead will be raised; and Christ will judge everyone in righteousness), evangelism and missions.

Binangonan

Binangonan, officially the Municipality of Binangonan, (Tagalog: Bayan ng Binangonan), is a 1st class municipality in the province of Rizal, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 282,474 people.A thriving fish port and fishing industry is found in Binangonan, having a long coast line facing the Laguna de Bay, including the western part of Talim Island. The plant of Rizal Cement and Grandspan are in Binangonan as well. Their main livelihood are fishing and farming.

With the continuous expansion of Metro Manila, the municipality is now part of Manila's conurbation which reaches Cardona in its easternmost part.

Catholic Church and Islam

Relations between the Catholic Church and Islam deals with the current attitude of the Catholic Church towards Islam and Muslims, as well as the attitude of Islam towards the Catholic Church and Catholics, and notable changes in the relationship since 20th century.

Clan McGrath

The Clan McGrath (Irish: Clann Mac Craith), is an Irish Clan. The name McGrath is derived from Mac Craith, recorded in other written texts as Mag Craith, Mag Raith and Macraith, including the Annals of the Four Masters and the Annals of Ulster. McGrath is a surname of ancient Irish origin, and is borne by the descendants of a number of septs, each with a common origin in the Kingdom of Thomond, a Kingdom that existed before the Norman invasion and located in north Munster.Tradition states the McGraths are of Dál gCais or Dalcassian ancestry, stemming from Cormac Cas, King of the Province of Muster in the 3rd century AD. The Irish surname Mac Craith is considered to be patronymic in origin, being a name derived from the first name of the original bearer. The prefix ‘Mac’ in Mac Craith, denotes ‘son of’ and the commonly accepted translation of ‘Craith’ is Grace / Prosperity or Divine Grace. Therefore, the literal translation of McGrath is ‘son of divine grace’.As the native Irish language was replaced by English, so the spelling of the family name Mac Craith was transformed. The most widely used anglicised spelling of Mac Craith is McGrath. However other variants exist, including Magrath, McGraw, Macrae, MacCrae, McCreagh, MacGraith, Megrath, MacReagh, MacCraw, McCreath, MacGrae, Makrayth, McKray. These are simply anglicised variations of the same name.

Congregatio de Auxiliis

The Congregatio de Auxiliis (Latin for "Congregation on help (by Divine Grace)") was a commission established by Pope Clement VIII to settle a theological controversy regarding divine grace that had arisen between the Dominicans and the Jesuits towards the close of the sixteenth century. It was presided for a time by Peter Lombard, Archbishop of Armagh.

Diksha

Deekshya (Sanskrit: दीक्षा in Devanagari, dīkṣā, Tamil: தீட்சை) also spelled deeksha or deeksa in common usage, translated as a "preparation or consecration for a religious ceremony", is giving of a mantra or an initiation by the guru (in Guru–shishya tradition) of Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Diksa is given in a one-to-one ceremony, and typically includes the taking on of a serious spiritual discipline. The word is derived from the Sanskrit root dā ("to give") plus kṣi ("to destroy") or alternately from the verb root dīkṣ ("to consecrate"). When the mind of the guru and the disciple become one, then we say that the disciple has been initiated by the guru.Diksa can be of various types, through the teacher's sight, touch, or word, with the purpose of purifying the disciple or student. Initiation by touch is called sparśa dīkṣā. The bestowing of divine grace through diksa is sometimes called śaktipāt.Vishnu Yamala (tantra) says:

"The process that bestows divyam jnanam (transcendental, spiritual knowledge) and destroys sin (pāpa), the seed of sin and ignorance, is called diksha by the spiritual persons who have seen the Truth (desikais tattva-kovidaih)."Different traditions and sects treat diksa in various ways. Tantra mentions five types of initiation or diksa: initiation by a ritual or samaya-diksa; sparsa-diksa is an initiation by touch and is done without a ritual; vag-diksa is done by word or mantra; sambhavi-diksa is arising from perception of external appearance of the guru; mano-diksa is when initiation is performed in the mind. For ISKCON members first diksa, or harinama-diksa initiation, is performed as part of a fire sacrifice where grains, fruit, and ghee are placed on an open fire of the sacrifice. In the tradition of Lahiri Mahasaya, initiation into Kriya Yoga is given as diksa. The Bengali saint Anandamayi Ma often gave sparśa dīkṣā (divine touch) or drik diksa (through her look), in which she would bestow śaktipāt (divine grace).Another type of diksa, into a monastic order, involves a vow of celibacy, renunciation of all personal possessions and of all worldly duties, including family ties. Diksha has the same meaning in Jainism. Diksha is also called Charitra or Mahanibhiskraman in Jainism.

Initiation in Hinduism involves performing one of several rituals depending on the person being initiated and the Hindu group involved.

Various tantric works enumerate different types of disksha rituals:

Kriyavati

Kalavati

Varnamayi

Vedamayi

Divine illumination

According to divine illumination, the process of human thought needs to be aided by divine grace. It is the oldest and most influential alternative to naturalism in the theory of mind and epistemology. It was an important feature of ancient Greek philosophy, Neoplatonism, medieval philosophy, and the Illuminationist school of Islamic philosophy.

Gauranga

Gauranga is the 16th Century Appearance of Srimati Radharani and Sri Krishna. Gauranga Mahaprabhu has the Golden complexion of Srimati Radharani while simultaneously being Sri Krishna Himself. Gouranga Caitanya Mahaprabhu started the Krishna Consciousness movement in India about 500 years ago and Krishna Consciousness was brought to the western world from India by His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Founder and Acharya of the Hare Krishna movement in the 1960 and 1970s.

The bija (root) syllables of Gauranga can be broken down into their Sanskrit bija syllables gaurāṅga (Devanagari गौराङ्ग) "having a golden or yellowish complexion", a bahuvrihi compound from Gaura "soft, yellowish, golden" and aṅga "limb or part of Krishna".

Gaurāṅga is the name of the incarnation of Krishna in Gaudiya literature. Gaudiya Vaishnavism began with the appearance of Nimai Pandita in the India region. Nimai Pandita was well known as great Sanskrit scholar and highly intelligent being.Nimai's mother, Sachi Devi and Nimai's father Jagannath particular a name of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (considered the 16th Century appearance of Sri Krishna).

Grace in Christianity

In Western Christian theology, grace has been defined, not as a created substance of any kind, but as "the love and mercy given to us by God because God desires us to have it, not necessarily because of anything we have done to earn it", "Grace is favour, the free and undeserved help that God gives us to respond to his call to become children of God, adoptive sons, partakers of the divine nature and of eternal life." It is understood by Christians to be a spontaneous gift from God to people "generous, free and totally unexpected and undeserved" – that takes the form of divine favor, love, clemency, and a share in the divine life of God.It is an attribute of God that is most manifest in the salvation of sinners. Christian orthodoxy holds that the initiative in the relationship of grace between God and an individual is always on the side of God.

In Eastern Christianity too, grace is the working of God completely, not a created substance of any kind that can be treated like a commodity.

The question of the means of grace has been called "the watershed that divides Catholicism from Protestantism, Calvinism from Arminianism, modern [theological] liberalism from [theological] conservatism." The Catholic Church holds that it is because of the action of Christ and the Holy Spirit in transforming into the divine life what is subjected to God's power that "the sacraments confer the grace they signify": "the power of Christ and his Spirit acts in and through [each sacrament], independently of the personal holiness of the minister. Nevertheless, the fruits of the sacraments also depend on the disposition of the one who receives them." the Sacred Mysteries (sacraments) are seen as a means of partaking of divine grace because God works through his Church. Catholics, Eastern Orthodox and Protestants agree that faith is a gift from God. Ephesians 2:8; "For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God." Protestants almost universally believe that grace is given by God based on the faith of the believer. Lutherans hold that the means of grace are "the gospel in Word and sacraments.” That the sacraments are means of grace is also the teaching of John Wesley, who described the Eucharist as "the grand channel whereby the grace of his Spirit was conveyed to the souls of all the children of God". Calvinists emphasize "the utter helplessness of people apart from grace." But God reaches out with "first grace" or "prevenient grace". The Calvinist doctrine known as irresistible grace states that, since all persons are by nature spiritually dead, no one desires to accept this grace until God spiritually enlivens them by means of regeneration. God regenerates only individuals whom he has predestined to salvation. Arminians understand the grace of God as cooperating with one's free will in order to bring an individual to salvation. According to Evangelical theologian Charles C. Ryrie, modern liberal theology "gives an exaggerated place to the abilities of people to decide their own fate and to effect their own salvation entirely apart from God's grace." He writes that theological conservatives maintain God's grace is necessary for salvation.

Kirtanananda Swami

Kirtanananda Swami (September 6, 1937 – October 24, 2011) was the highly controversial charismatic Hare Krishna guru and co-founder of the New Vrindaban Hare Krishna community in Marshall County, West Virginia, where he served as spiritual leader for 26 years (from 1968 until 1994).

Kripa (philosophy)

Kripa (कृपा) is the concept of divine grace in Hinduism. It is the central tenet of Bhakti Yoga and Bhakti movements, which are seen as reform movements in Hinduism as compared to the Hinduism which finds its origins in the Vedas; though variously it can mean "grace", "mercy", or "blessing", depending upon the context. The Hindi word Kirpala from Sanskrit Kripala means "kind" and is used as a given name for males, while "Kripa" (Kṛpā), is used as a female given name.

Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary is a Marian litany originally approved in 1587 by Pope Sixtus V. It is also known as the Litany of Loreto, for its first-known place of origin, the Shrine of Our Lady of Loreto (Italy), where its usage was recorded as early as 1558.

The litany contains many of the titles used formally and informally for the Virgin Mary, and would often be recited as a call and response chant in a group setting. This litany is called Litaniae lauretanae in Latin. Many classical composers, like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart have written Litaniae lauretanae.

Samuel Rutter

Samuel Rutter was Bishop of Sodor and Man between 1660 and 1662 (or 1663).

It is suggested in the Mona Miscellaney that Sam Rutter was probably a native of Lancashire, educated at Westminster school, and elected from there in 1623, to Christ Church, Oxford. He was nominated as Archdeacon of Man in 1640. He was appointed Prebendary of Longden, in the cathedral of Lichfield (being M.A.) 24 November 1660 and confirmed as Bishop of Sodor and Man on 5 October 1661. His consecration was on 24 March 1660-1 (the last day of the Restoration year).

He was a chaplain to the James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby, and was at Lathom House during its first siege. He was also "the chosen friend counsellor, and afterwards chaplain, of the noble-minded Countess, during all her troubles, and it was principally through her influence that he succeeded to the bishopric."

He is reported has having been "grave and devout, temperate and dignified, and unfortunately was worn out, though not an old man, when he became a bishop, and died in the Isle of Man" on 30 May in either 1662 (according to Le Reve) or says he died in 1663 (according to Seacome). (see Stanley Papers, part iii. vol. i. pp. cxxx.-ii., note; Chetham Society)

His body was interred in the chancel of St. German's Cathedral in Peel Castle and there one can find an inscription, that he is alleged to have written himself. A translation of it reads as follows:

In this house which I have borrowed from my brothers the worms

in the hope of the resurrection to life

lie I SAM by divine grace Bishop of this Island.

Stay reader, behold and laugh at the Bishop's palace.He wrote numerous pieces of poetry for the Earl of Derby's amusement, but not many of them have been published.

Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Romano

The Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Romano, also known as the Sanctuary of Mother Mary of the Divine Grace, is a renaissance-style, Marian sanctuary and Franciscan convent, located in the frazione of San Romano in the territory of the town of Montopoli in Val d'Arno, province of Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.

Sri Vitthal Rukmini Samsthan

With the divine grace of Sri Haridhos Giri Swamigal (Sri Guruji) and Paranur Mahathma Sri Krishna Premi Swamigal (Sri Sri Anna), Sri Vittal Rukmini Samsthan was established in the year 1998 by Brahmashri Vittaldas Jayakrishna Deekshithar. The main objective is to spread the Bhakthi cult through Namasankeerthanam, the easiest way to attain liberation in the age of Kali and to build a unique Maharashtrian Hemandapanthi style temple for Sri Pandurangan and Rukmini Devi. To achieve this feat, Sri Vittaldas Maharaj has established Sri Vittal Rukmini Samsthan in a holy place called Govindapuram on the Kumbakonam Auduthurai Highways, 6 km from Kumbakonam, 2 km from Thiruvidaimarudur and approximately a kilometer from Sri Bhagavannama Bodhendra Saraswathi Swamigal's (Sri Bodhendral) Adhishtaanam. Bhoomi pooja (ground breaking ceremony) was performed in April 1997. Paranur Mahathma Sri Krishna Premi Swamigal (Sri Sri Anna) and Sri Vittaldas Maharaj consecrated the deities on 6 September 1998. Sri Krishna Premi Swamigal (Sri Sri Anna) bestowed the title Dakshina Pandaripuram (Phandarpur of South India) to Sri Vittal Rukmini Samsthan.

Synergism (theology)

In Christian theology, synergism is the position of those who hold that salvation involves some form of cooperation between divine grace and human freedom. It stands opposed to monergism, a doctrine most commonly associated with the Lutheran and Reformed Protestant traditions, whose soteriologies have been strongly influenced by the North African bishop and Latin Church Father Augustine of Hippo (354–430). Lutheranism, however, confesses a monergist salvation and synergist damnation (see below). Synergism is upheld by the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, and by the Methodist and Pentecostal traditions of Protestantism. It is an integral part of Arminian theology.Synergism and semipelagianism each teach some collaboration in salvation between God and man, but semipelagian thought teaches that the beginning half of faith is an act of human will. The Council of Orange (529), Lutheran Formula of Concord (1577), and other local councils each condemned semipelagianism as heresy.

The Hound of Heaven

"The Hound of Heaven" is a 182-line poem written by English poet Francis Thompson (1859–1907). The poem became famous and was the source of much of Thompson's posthumous reputation. The poem was first published in Thompson's first volume of poems in 1893. It was included in the Oxford Book of English Mystical Verse (1917). Thompson's work was praised by G. K. Chesterton, and it was also an influence on J. R. R. Tolkien, who presented a paper on Thompson in 1914.This Christian poem has been described as follows:

"The name is strange. It startles one at first. It is so bold, so new, so fearless. It does not attract, rather the reverse. But when one reads the poem this strangeness disappears. The meaning is understood. As the hound follows the hare, never ceasing in its running, ever drawing nearer in the chase, with unhurrying and imperturbed pace, so does God follow the fleeing soul by His Divine grace. And though in sin or in human love, away from God it seeks to hide itself, Divine grace follows after, unwearyingly follows ever after, till the soul feels its pressure forcing it to turn to Him alone in that never ending pursuit." J.F.X. O'Conor, S.J.

Under the Sun of Satan (film)

Under the Sun of Satan (French: Sous le soleil de Satan) is a 1987 French drama film directed by Maurice Pialat, starring Gérard Depardieu, Sandrine Bonnaire and Pialat. It is based on the 1926 novel of the same name by Georges Bernanos, and tells the story of a devout priest who becomes involved with a murderess. The film is about mysticism and divine grace.

The film won the Palme d'Or at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival.

Works of Piety

Works of Piety, in Methodism, are certain spiritual disciplines that along with the Works of Mercy, serve as a means of grace, and are necessary for Christian perfection. All Methodist Christians, laity and ordained, are expected to employ them. The Works of Piety are:

Prayer

Searching the Scriptures

Holy Communion

Fasting

Christian community

Healthy livingThe more interior Works of Piety are paralleled by the external Works of Mercy. John Wesley insisted that the Works of Piety were important because they "further ensconced believers in a spiritual world of conflict in which humans needed to pursue holiness with the same vigor with which they sought their justification." In relation to soteriology, the grace of God was "all sufficient," and it issued in a universal atonement that made possible a saving "change of heart;" this change of heart required "the influences of divine grace," but it also required "constant exertions."

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