District

A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, or political district.

Municipal utility district

A municipal utility district is a special-purpose district or other jurisdiction that provides services (such as electricity, natural gas, sewage treatment, waste collection/management, wholesale telecommunications, water) to district residents. Local residents may vote to establish a municipal utility district, which is represented by a board of directors elected by constituents.[1][2][3][4] As governmental bodies, they are usually nonprofit.

In the US, public utility districts (PUD) have similar functions to Municipal utility districts, but are created by a local government body such as a city or county, and have no authority to levy taxes. They provide public utilities to the residents of that district.[5]

PUDs are created by a local government body, such as a city, county, or metropolitan service area (two or more communities joining together for public utility purposes). Normally the districts are non-profit.[6] PUDs are often governed by a commission, which may be appointed or elected.

By country/region

 Afghanistan

In Afghanistan, a district (Persian / Pashto: ولسوالۍWuleswali) is a subdivision of a province. There are almost 400 districts in the country.

 Australia

Electoral districts are used in state elections. Districts were also used in several states as cadastral units for land titles. Some were used as squatting districts. New South Wales had several different types of districts used in the 21st century.

 Austria

In Austria, the word Bezirk is used with different meanings in three different contexts:

  • Some of the tasks of the administrative branch of the national and regional governments are fulfilled by the 95 district administrative offices (Bezirkshauptmannschaften). The area a district administrative office is responsible for is often, although informally, called a district (Bezirk). A number of statutory cities, currently 15, are not served by any district administrative office. Their respective municipal bureaucracies handle the tasks normally performed by the district administrative office.
  • The cities of Vienna and Graz are divided into municipal districts (Stadtbezirke), assisting the respective municipal governments. In Vienna, the constituents of each district elect a district council (Bezirksvertretung); the district council in turn elects a district chairperson (Bezirksvorsteher). Although the city vests its districts with a limited amount of budgetary autonomy, district councils and chairpersons have little real responsibility. In particular, they do not legislate. Most of the districts of Vienna were independent municipalities at some point; district councils and chairpersons symbolize the town councils and mayors they used to have.
  • From the point of view of the judiciary of Austria, the country is subdivided into 115 judicial districts (Gerichtsbezirke), each corresponding to one of the country's 115 lowest-level trial courts.

 Bangladesh

Bangladeshi districts are local administrative units. In all, there are 64 districts in Bangladesh. Originally, there were 21 greater districts with several subdivisions in each district. In 1984, the government made all these subdivisions into districts. Each district has several sub districts called Upazila in Bengali.

 Belgium

In Belgian municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, on initiative of the local council, sub-municipal administrative entities with elected councils may be created. As such, only Antwerp, having over 460,000 inhabitants, became subdivided into nine districts (Dutch: districten).

The Belgian arrondissements (also in French as well as in Dutch), an administrative level between province (or the capital region) and municipality, or the lowest judicial level, are in English sometimes called districts as well.

 Bhutan

Bhutanese districts (dzongkhag) are local administrative units consisting of village blocks called gewog. Some have subdistricts called dungkhag.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, a district is a self-governing administrative unit.

Brčko District

Brčko District in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina is formally part of both the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Assembly of the Brčko District has 29 seats.

 Brazil

Brazilian municipalities are subdivided into districts. Small municipalities usually have only one urban district, which contains the city itself, consisting of the seat of the local government, where the municipality's prefeitura and câmara de vereadores (City Hall and City Council, respectively, the Executive and Legislative local bodies) are located. The rural districts and groups of urban districts (mainly in large cities) may also present a sub local Executive body, named subprefeitura.

 Brunei

A district is known locally as daerah and it is the first-level administrative division of Brunei. There are four districts in the country, namely Brunei-Muara, Tutong, Belait and Temburong. Each district is administered by a Jabatan Daerah (District Office), which is headed by a Pegawai Daerah (District Officer). All district offices are government departments under the Ministry of Home Affairs (Malay: Kementerian Hal Ehwal Dalam Negeri).

 Canada

Alberta

In Alberta, the municipal districts and improvement districts are types of rural municipalities.[7] They are recognized as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada,[8] which form parts of census divisions.

British Columbia

In the province of British Columbia, there are several kinds of administrative districts by that name. The usual usage is a reference to district municipalities, which are a class of municipality in the same hierarchy as city, town, or village. Most are styled, e.g., "District of Mission" or "District of Wells", though some are styled, e.g., "Corporation of Delta" or "Township of Langley".

Within the area of municipal powers, regional districts – which are somewhat analogous to counties in other jurisdictions, a number of municipalities, and unincorporated areas – are always referred to as "regional districts" to distinguish them from district municipalities and other kinds of district.

Other kinds of districts in British Columbia are:

New Brunswick

New Brunswick has numerous local service districts, 7 school districts, 10 federal electoral districts and 55 provincial electoral districts.

 Ontario

In Ontario, a district is a statutory subdivision of the province, but, unlike a county, a district is not incorporated. Most districts are composed of unincorporated lands, mostly Crown land. Originally present-day Southern Ontario (then part of the Province of Quebec and after 1791, Upper Canada) was divided into districts in 1788 [1]. Districts continued to operation until 1849 when they were replaced by counties by the Province of Canada.

The current Ontario districts such as Algoma and Nipissing were first created by the Province of Canada in 1858 prior to Confederation for the delivery of judicial and provincial government services to sparsely populated areas from the district seat (e.g. Sault Ste. Marie). Some districts may have District Social Service Administration Boards, which are designed to provide certain social services. The boundaries of a federal census division may correspond to those of a district.

Northwest Territories

In western and northern Canada, the federal government created districts as subdivisions of the Northwest Territories 1870–1905, partly on the model of the districts created in the Province of Canada[9]. The first district created was the District of Keewatin in 1876 followed by four more districts in 1882. Gradually, these districts became separate territories (such as Yukon), separate provinces (such as Alberta and Saskatchewan) or were absorbed into other provinces.

Quebec

In Quebec, districts are municipal electoral subdivisions of boroughs, which are subdivisions of cities. They function in a similar manner to what is elsewhere known as a ward.

 China

In China, the district or (市辖区, pinyin: shì xiá qū) is a subdivision of any of various city administrative units, including municipalities, sub-provincial cities and prefecture-level cities. Districts have county level status.

Modern districts are a recent innovation. In the context of pre-modern China, the English translation "district" is typically associated with xian, another Chinese administrative division. The xian is translated as "county" in the context of modern China.

 Hong Kong

Hong Kong is divided into eighteen districts, each with a district council.

 Macau

 Colombia

In Colombia, a district is one of ten special administrative units:

  • Barranquilla (Special Industrial Port District)
  • Cartagena Tourism and Cultural District
  • Bogotá (Capital District)
  • Santa Marta (Historical, Tourism and Cultural District)
  • Tunja (Historical and Cultural District)
  • Popayán (Special, Ecotouristic, Historical and Universitarian District)
  • Turbo (Special Port District)
  • Tumaco (Special Industrial, Port, Biodiverse and Ecotouristic District)
  • Cúcuta (Special Border and Touristic District)
  • Buenaventura (Special Industrial, Port, Biodiverse and Ecotouristic District)

 Czech Republic

A "district" in the Czech Republic is an okres (plural okresy). After a reform in 2002, the districts lost administrative power to regions (kraje) and selected towns (pověřené obce) and became statistical zones.

 France

French districts were the first subdivision of the départements from the 4 March 1790 to the 28 pluviôse an VIII (17 February 1800). Then, in the 20th century, districts were a type of intercommunity, they've been replaced by communauté de communes and communautés d'agglomération after 1999.

 Germany

  • In Germany, a district ("Kreis") is an administrative unit between the "Länder" (German federal states) and the local / municipal levels (Gemeinden). As of 2011, most of the 402 German districts are "Landkreise", rural districts. 107 larger cities (usually with more than 100,000 inhabitants) that do not belong to a district are considered as urban districts ("Kreisfreie Städte" or "Stadtkreise").
    • A local subdistrict is called a Gemarkung, and is mostly a smaller rural area (with similar concepts in Austria and Switzerland). A Gemarkung is usually associated with and named after a central town or village. Areas in such subdistricts and their usage are documented in central registries (German: Kataster) and have been historically used for taxation.
  • In some states, there is additional level of administration between the Länder and the Landkreise called Regierungsbezirk (government district).
  • District (Bezirk) was also an administrative subdivision of the German Democratic Republic from 1952. See Administrative division of the German Democratic Republic
  • City district (Stadtbezirk or Ortsbezirk) is the primary subdivision category of many Kreisfreie Städte.

 Hungary

175 districts were established on January 1, 2013. The existing 19 counties are subdivided into 6 - 18 districts per county. The capital city of Budapest does not belong to any counties and is already divided to 23 districts.

 India

India districts
Districts of India

India's districts (Assamese: জিলা; Bengali (জেলা); Gujarati (જિલ્લો); Hindi: (ज़िला) [zɪla] or (जनपद) [dʒənpəd]; Kannada: ಜಿಲ್ಲೆ (jille); Malayalam: ജില്ല(jilla); Punjabi: ਜ਼ਿਲ੍ਹਾ; mavattam Tamil: மாவட்டம்;Telugu: జిల్లా;) are local administrative units inherited from the British Raj. They generally form the tier of local government immediately below that of India's subnational states and territories. Where warranted, districts may further be grouped into administrative divisions, which form an intermediate level between the district and the subnational state (or union territory).

A district is headed by a Deputy Commissioner/ Collector, who is responsible for the overall administration and the maintenance of law and order. The district collector may belong to IAS (Indian Administrative Service). Other key responsibilities include the collection of revenue, and criminal prosecution in the district and sessional courts. Usually, the Deputy Commissioner/District Collector is granted magisterial powers under section 20 of Criminal Procedure Code, and designated as the District Magistrate. The official designations are "Collector and District Magistrate" or "Deputy Commissioner and District Magistrate".

Districts are most frequently further sub-divided into smaller administrative units, called either tehsils or talukas or mavattams, depending on the region. These units have specific local responsibilities, including in particular coordinating revenue collection. An intermediate level (the sub-division) between district and tehsil/taluka may be formed by grouping these units under the oversight of Assistant Commissioners or sub-collectors. Each district includes one or two cities (or large towns), a few smaller towns and dozens of villages. Most of the Indian districts have the same name as their main town or city.

Kollamdistrict
A district in South India

As of April 2016, the National Informatics Centre of the Government of India, lists a total of 664 districts in India, more than the number of parliamentary constituencies (545).[10] This number went up to a total of 723 districts in 2019.[11]

District revenue administration in A.P.

  1. District headed by collector
  2. A district is composed of four or five revenue divisions administered by R.D.O./sub collector,
  3. Revenue Divisions divided into taluks/mandals headed by tahsildars,
  4. Mandals composed of a ten or more villages administered by village revenue officers and village servants.

In Uttar Pradesh Districts and tahsils are defined in U.P. Land Revenue Act, 1901.

Panchayati Raj

Tiers of administration

  1. Grama panchayath: sarpanch
  2. Village clusters: M.P.T.C.
  3. Mandal/Taluk: M.P.P./Z.P.T.C.
  4. District: Z.P. Chairperson.

 Indonesia

In Papua and West Papua, two of the 34 provinces of Indonesia, a distrik is a subdivision of a regency or a city. Formerly it was called a kecamatan. In translations of most official documents, kecamatan itself is translated into English as "district", but some other documents (especially from older era) translated it to "subdistrict", which is equivalent to a kelurahan in recent translations. This translation ambiguity has caused confusions among foreigners. Distrik or kecamatan do not have legal autonomy to govern themselves, because they are only administrative extensions of a regency or a city.

 Iran

Iran is subdivided into thirty one provinces (Persian: استان Ostān), each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital (Persian: Markaz) of that province. The provinces of Iran further subdivided into counties called shahrestan (Persian: شهرستانshahrestān), an area inside an ostan, and consists of a city center, few bakhsh (Persian: بخشbakhsh) and many villages around them. There are usually a few cities (Persian: شهرshahr) and rural agglomerations (Persian: دهستانdehestān) in each county. Rural agglomerations are a collection of a number of villages. One of the cities of the county is appointed as the capital of the county. The world Shahrestan comes from the Persian words shahr and ostan, which mean city (or town) and province, respectively. The nearest equivalent of Shahrestan in English would be sub-province or county. Each Shahrestan has a governmental office known as Farmandari which coordinates different events and governmental offices. The Farmandar, or the head of Farmandari, is the governor of the Shahrestan which is the highest governmental authority in the division.

 Iraq

In Iraq, they use the word qadaa for districts. There are over a hundred districts, each district being within one of 18 Iraqi governorates, sometimes known as provinces. The district generally (but not always) bears the name of a city within that district, usually the capital of that district.

 Japan

A district (gun in Japanese) is a local administrative unit comprising towns and villages but not cities. See districts of Japan for more complete description. In 1923, its administrative role was abolished although it is still in use for addressing purposes. "District" is also a translation of chiku, defined by Japan's planning law.

 Kenya

In Kenya, a district (wilayah) is a subdivision of a Province and is headed by a District Officer (DO).

 South Korea

A district (gu) is a subdivision of larger cities in South Korea. Smaller cities have no districts, whereas districts in Seoul and six Metropolitan Cities are treated as a city in its own right.

Mauritius

The Districts of the Republic of Mauritius are the second-order administrative divisions after the Outer islands of the country. Mauritius is divided into nine districts which consist of 2 cities, 4 towns and 130 villages, the capital is Port Louis.

The island of Rodrigues used to be the tenth district of Mauritius but it gained autonomous status in 2002.

 Malaysia

A district is known as Daerah in Malay. A district governed directly by the federal government is known as a Federal Territory, and they are Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya, and Labuan.

In Peninsular Malaysia, a district is a division of a state. A mukim is a subdivision of a district. The mukim is however of less importance with respect to the administration of local government.

In East Malaysia, a district is a subdivision within a division of a state. For example, Tuaran is a district within the West Coast Division of Sabah. A district is usually named after the main town or its administrative capital, for example, Sandakan town is the capital of the district of Sandakan, as well the capital of Sandakan Division. (Note: Sandakan district is a sub-division of Sandakan Division.)

In Malaysia, each district will have a District Office, headed by a district officer, and is administered by a local government either being a District Council, Municipal Council, or a City Council. In some highly urbanized districts, there may be further subdivisions. For example, the district of Petaling in Selangor is administered by 3 local governments: Shah Alam City Council, Petaling Jaya City Council, and Subang Jaya Municipal Council. Another example is the district of Johor Bahru in Johor, which has 3 subdivisions: Johor Bahru City Council, Iskandar Puteri City Council, and Pasir Gudang Municipal Council. Conversely, there may be one local government administering more than one district, for example, Seberang Perai Municipal Council administers the districts of Central Seberang Perai, North Seberang Perai, and South Seberang Perai.

An administrative district border and an electoral district border (constituency) transcend each other and do not correspond with each other in most instances.

Nauru

The districts of Nauru are the only subdivisions of the whole state.

   Nepal

Nepal is divided into 77 districts. Each district acts as an independent administrative unit. A district consists two types of units like Rural Municipalities and Municipalities. Official documents like citizenship cards and passports are issued by the Chief of District Office (CDO). Constituencies for elections are also constructed according to the population distribution within the district.

 New Zealand

A district in New Zealand is a territorial authority (second-tier local government unit) that has not gained the distinction of being proclaimed a city. Districts tend to be less urbanized, tend to cover more than one population center and a larger amount of rural area, and tend to have a smaller population than cities. While cities and districts are generally considered to be two different types of territorial authority, the area covered by a city is often known as its district—for example the term district plan is used equally in districts and cities. The Chatham Islands Territory is neither a district nor a city.

A district is not always a simple division of a region: several districts lie within two regions, and the Taupo District lies in four.

 Pakistan

Pakistan's districts are local administrative units inherited from the British Raj. Districts were generally grouped into administrative divisions, which in turn formed provinces. Pakistan has 130 districts (including ten in Azad Jammu and Kashmir). They comprise villages, towns and cities. A district is headed by a district nazim (mayor), who is an elected official and the local controller of the district level officers of all the departments under provincial government while Deputy Commissioner is executive head of the District usually Grade-18 officer from Pakistan Administrative Service.Deputy Commissioner is entrusted with overall responsibility of law & order, implementation of government schemes and is also authorised to hear revenue cases pertaining to the district. The district mayor(nazim) heads an elected district council composed of councilors, who represent various district-level constituencies. The councils have a constitutional requirement to be composed of a minimum of 33% women; there is no upper limit, so women can comprise 100% of these councils but men cannot.

 Philippines

The usage of the term 'district' (distrito) in the Philippines has similarities to that in the United States.

Legislative

A constituency with a representative in the lower house of Congress is a congressional district. However, the term congressional district has become synonymous in local parlance with 'representative district,' because, just like in the US, the word 'congress' (konggreso) has come to refer specifically to the lower house (the House of Representatives).

A legislative district, which has an average population of about 250,000 to 500,000, may be composed of: (a.) an entire province, (b.) within a province, a group of municipalities and cities (sometimes even including independent and highly urbanized cities geographically located in the province), (c.) a single city, (d.) a group of geographically adjacent independent cities and independent municipalities (currently the only example is the Pateros-Taguig, or (e.) a group of barangays within a city.

Each province is guaranteed at least one representative to the lower house, even though it may not come close to having the same population as other legislative districts. Only voters within each district are allowed to vote in the election for the member of the House of Representatives from that district.

From 1916 to 1935, the Philippines were divided into 12 senatorial districts, of which 11 elected two members each, for a total of 22 out of the 24 members of the upper house of Congress (the Senate). Since 1935 senators have been elected at large.

In addition, each congressional district that falls under the jurisdiction of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (a total of 8) elects three members each to the country's only subnational legislative assembly.

There are provincial districts for the purpose of electing Sangguniang Panlalawigan (Provincial Council) members, which follow the congressional district arrangement, except that independent and highly urbanized cities whose charters prevent them from electing provincial officials are excluded. Also, provinces that comprise a lone congressional district are divided into at least two provincial districts.

There are also city councilor districts for the purpose of electing Sangguniang Panlungsod (City Council) members, which follow the congressional district arrangement. In cases where the city does not form two or more congressional districts by itself, it is divided into at least two city council districts.

Administrative

Districts exist as an administrative entity only in local government, with limited powers or responsibilities. Certain cities, such as Manila, Iloilo and Davao, for administrative purposes, formally divide their jurisdictions into city districts composed of several barangays, but the extent of these district-level administrative powers vary. Several barangays (the lowest level of government) also have the word 'district' in their names – examples are those in Jala-jala and Zamboanga City. However, this is solely for the purpose of nomenclature, and does not imply a higher level of local government.

During Spanish and early American colonial rule, certain areas of the Philippines were designated as 'districts,' mainly those that had not been formally organized into provinces or incorporated into existing ones. In the American era, cities and municipalities were divided into city and municipal districts, which served as the lowest level of government before the creation of the barangay.

Special-purpose districts

Special-purpose districts also exist in the Philippines, created for government departments and agencies. Examples are school districts for the Department of Education (DepEd), engineering districts for the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and coast guard districts for the Philippine Coast Guard (PCG).

Informal districts

Some cities and municipalities also extend the usage of the word 'district' to refer to certain areas, even without having any formal administrative purposes. Examples are the central business districts in Naga City and Makati City.

 Poland

The second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1) in other countries is called a powiat. As of 2008 there are 379 powiat-level entities in Poland: 314 land counties and 65 city counties. For a complete alphabetical listing, see list of counties in Poland.

 Portugal

Districts (distritos) are administrative divisions of Portugal. They were mainly used as the jurisdiction areas for the civil governors, the government officials that represented locally the Central Government. However, in 2011, the role of civil governor was de facto extinct (although not de jure), with the decision taken by the Government not to appoint new civil governors and to transfer its functions to other bodies. The district areas are now only used as the regional jurisdiction areas of some public bodies (like the Public Security Police district commands) and some private entities (like the district associations and championships of football).

 Russia

In Russia, districts are administrative and municipal divisions of the federal subjects, as well as administrative divisions of larger cities ("city districts") which are commonly referenced as raions (Russian: Районы) and okrugs (Russian: Округа) respectively. The term "district" is also used to refer to the type of administrative division of the Sakha Republiculus (Russian: улус; Yakut: улуус). The Sakha Republic is administratively divided into five cities under the Republic's jurisdiction and 33 uluses. The law of the Sakha Republic establishes that the terms "ulus" and "district" are equivalent.[12]

In historical context (for the Russian Empire), the term "district" is often used to refer to uyezds.

 Serbia

Serbia is divided into twenty-nine districts (okrug) and the city of Belgrade, each of which is further divided into municipalities (opština)

 Slovakia

In Slovakia, a district (okres) is a local administrative unit.

 South Africa

Map of South Africa with district borders (2009)
Districts of South Africa

In South Africa, the district municipality forms the layer of government below the provinces. A district municipality is in turn divided into several local municipalities.

This structure varies in the eight largest urban areas:

  1. Bloemfontein (seat of the Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality),
  2. Cape Town (City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality),
  3. Durban (seat of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality),
  4. East London / King Williams Town (seat of the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality),
  5. East Rand (seat of the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality),
  6. Johannesburg (City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality),
  7. Port Elizabeth incl. Uitenhage (seat of the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality) and
  8. Pretoria (seat of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality),

where a metropolitan municipality replaces both a district and a local municipality.

 Sri Lanka

For purposes of local government, the country of Sri Lanka is divided into nine provinces: Western, Central, Southern, Northern, Eastern, North Western, North Central, Uva and Sabaragamuwa. (The Northern and Eastern Provinces have however, technically been jointly administered since 1988.)

Each of the districts is divided into divisions. These were originally based on the feudal counties, the korales and ratas. They were formerly known as 'D.R.O. Divisions' after the 'Divisional Revenue Officer'. Later the D.R.O.s became 'Assistant Government Agents' and the Divisions were known as 'A.G.A. Divisions'. Currently, the Divisions are administered by a 'Divisional Secretary', and are known as a 'D.S. Divisions'. Rural D.S. Divisions are also administered by a 'Pradeshiya Sabha' (Sinhala for 'Regional Council'), which is elected.

  Switzerland

In Switzerland, some cantons organize themselves into districts, while others dispense with districts and govern themselves at the Wahlkreise (constituency or electoral district) level.

 Sweden

Some municipalities in the Kingdom of Sweden have divided their territory into smaller areas, which often are assigned an administrative board responsible for certain elements of municipal governance within their district. These areas take a variety of different Swedish names; however "district" is usually the official English term for them. The term "borough" is sometimes used in unofficial contexts.

 Taiwan

In the Republic of China, district (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the 3rd level of the administrative division. It is a division of special municipality and provincial city of Taiwan Province. Currently, there are 157 districts in total from 5 special municipalities and 3 provincial cities.

 Thailand

A district ("amphoe") is a subdivision of a province ("changwat") in Thailand. Some provinces also contain minor districts ("กิ่งอำเภอ")(th:กิ่งอำเภอ), which are smaller than the average district.

 Turkey

In Turkey, a district (Turkish: ilçe) is an administrative subdivision of a province (Turkish: il). See also Districts of Turkey.

 Ukraine

In Ukraine, districts (raions) second level of administrative division of Ukraine and are primary the most common division of Ukrainian regions, as well as administrative divisions of larger cities ("city districts").

 United Kingdom

England

Districts are the most recognizable form of local government in large parts of England. For those areas that retain two-tier local government, districts usually form the lower tier of that arrangement, with counties forming the upper tier. Districts tend to have responsibility for a number of areas including:

  • Tax collection (council tax and non-domestic rates)
  • Leisure Services
  • Refuse collection
  • Housing
  • Planning
  • Arts & Entertainment
  • Environmental Health

Each district raises taxes from residents on behalf of itself, and the upper tier authority through the Council Tax. It also raises income from business through the Non-Domestic Rates system, which is coordinated nationally.

Wales

There is no official use of the word district in Wales. The country is broken up into 22 unitary authorities. However, district may be used informally for a whole or unofficial part of a ward in a city.

Scotland

Districts of Scotland were local government areas between 1975 and 1996.

Between 1930 and 1975 districts were subdivisions of counties, formed under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1929. See List of local government areas in Scotland 1930–75. Scotland, since 1996, has been divided in 32 unitary council areas and districts are no longer used.

Scotland has had other kinds of administrative areas which might be described as districts:

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is divided into 11 districts for local government purposes. The councils do not carry out the same range of functions as those in the rest of the United Kingdom; for example they have no responsibility for education, road-building or housing (although they do nominate members to the advisory Northern Ireland Housing Council).

Their functions do include waste and recycling services, leisure and community services, building control and local economic and cultural development. They are not planning authorities, but are consulted on some planning applications. Collection of rates (local tax) is handled by the Rate Collection Agency.

 United States

DC Landsat
Satellite photograph of the District of Columbia.

There are several types of districts in the United States.

A constituency with a representative in Congress is a congressional district. Each state is organized into one or more such districts; the exact number within each state is based on the most recent census. Only voters within each district are allowed to vote in the election for the member of the House of Representatives from that district. Overall, there are 435 congressional districts in the United States; each has roughly 630,000 people, with some variance.

A constituency with a representative in a state legislature is a legislative district; the territory over which a federal court has jurisdiction is a federal judicial district.

The District of Columbia is the only part of the United States, excluding territories, that is not located within any of the fifty states.

The United States also has many types of special-purpose districts with limited powers of local government. School districts are the most common, but other types of districts include community college districts, hospital districts, utility districts, irrigation districts, port districts, and public transit districts.

Many cities in the late 20th century adopted names for non-governmental districts as a way of increasing recognition and identity of these distinct areas and neighborhoods. Perhaps most apparently in Los Angeles, various areas and neighborhoods within the city are specified as districts. For instance, Hollywood is a district of Los Angeles, whereas Beverly Hills and West Hollywood are independent incorporated cities, with their own governments and police departments. This can be confusing, as the difference between districts and neighboring cities is usually not readily apparent, for they all make up the greater Los Angeles area. Typically, districts may or may not be distinguished at the boundary of the district with a "district sign" with the city's insignia; whereas at a city boundary, a city limit sign would usually be placed on the street with the city's name and population, at a minimum, but also often includes its elevation. The important distinction is that areas classified as districts are still part of the parent city and governed by the laws and ordinances of that city.

Various federal, regional and local agencies such as the National Register of Historic Places recognize historic districts.

Prior to the Act of Consolidation in 1854, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania had some districts acting like cities or towns.

 Vietnam

The term district in Vietnam refers to the second level administrative unit, below provinces (tỉnh) and centrally administered cities (thành phố trực thuộc trung ương). This second level unit is called a "huyện" in rural areas, while in urban areas districts are either "quận" (sub-divisions of centrally administered cities), "Thành phố trực thuộc tỉnh" (provincial cities) or "thị xã" (towns). As of 28 November 2011, Vietnam had 698 "districts" including 55 provincial cities, 47 towns, 47 urban sub-divisions, and 549 rural districts (including 12 island districts).[13]

Vietnamese districts vary significantly in both population and area. Excluding the island districts, the most populous is Biên Hoà (provincial city) with 784,398 people; the least populous is the town of Mường Lay (11,650). Similarly, the largest district is Mường Tè (3,677.4 km²) while the smallest is District ("Quận") 4 of Hồ Chí Minh City with an area of only 4.18 km².[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ McGlinchy, Audrey. "Everything You Wanted To Know About MUDs But Were Too Afraid To Ask". KUT News. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  2. ^ "What You Need To Know About Municipal Utility Districts (MUDs)". www.jbgoodwin.com. JB Goodwin. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  3. ^ "What is municipal utility district (MUD)? definition and meaning". BusinessDictionary.com. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  4. ^ "What is MUNICIPAL UTILITY DISTRICT (MUD)? definition of MUNICIPAL UTILITY DISTRICT (MUD)". Black's Law Dictionary. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  5. ^ "About Us". Cypress Forest Public Utility. Cypress Forest Public Utility. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  6. ^ Slechta, Alfred F., and Gordon L. Culp. "Water reclamation studies at the South Tahoe public utility district." Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation) (1967): 787-814.
  7. ^ "Types of Municipalities in Alberta". Alberta Municipal Affairs. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  8. ^ "Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries, Status, and Names: From January 2, 2012 to January 1, 2012" (PDF). Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  9. ^ Careless, James Maurice Stockford. "Province of Canada 1841-67". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  10. ^ "list of districts of India by states". Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  11. ^ "Districts | Government of India Web Directory". www.goidirectory.gov.in. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  12. ^ Law Z#77-I of 6 July 1995 "On Administrative and Territorial Structure of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic", with amendments
  13. ^ a b vi:Huyện (Việt Nam)
Central business district

A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it often coincides with the "city centre" or "downtown", but the two concepts are separate: many cities have a central business district located away from its commercial or cultural city centre or downtown.

The CBD is often also the "city centre" or "downtown", but this is also often not the case. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in New York City and in the world; yet Lower Manhattan, commonly called Downtown Manhattan, represents the second largest distinct CBD in New York City and is geographically situated south of Midtown. For example, London's "city centre" is usually regarded as encompassing the historic City of London and the mediaeval City of Westminster, whereas the City of London and the transformed Docklands area are regarded as its two CBDs. Mexico City also has a historic city centre, the colonial-era Centro Histórico, along with two CBDs: the mid-late 20th century Paseo de la Reforma – Polanco, and the new Santa Fe.

The shape and type of a CBD almost always closely reflect the city's history. Cities with strong preservation laws and maximum building height restrictions to retain the character of the historic and cultural core will have a CBD quite a distance from the centre of the city. This is quite common for European cities such as Paris or Vienna. In cities in the New World that grew quickly after the invention of mechanised modes such as road or rail transport, a single central area or downtown will often contain most of the region's tallest buildings and act both as the CBD and the commercial and cultural city center. Increasing urbanisation in the 21st century have developed megacities, particularly in Asia, that will often have multiple CBDs scattered across the urban area. It has been said that downtowns (as understood in North America) are therefore conceptually distinct from both CBDs and city centers. No two CBDs look alike in terms of their spatial shape, however certain geometric patterns in these areas are recurring throughout many cities due to the nature of centralised commercial and industrial activities.

District attorney

In the United States, a district attorney (DA) is the chief prosecutor for a local government area, typically a county. The exact name of the office varies by state.

Except in the smallest counties, a district attorney leads a staff of prosecutors, who are most commonly known as deputy district attorneys (DDAs). The Deputy who serves as the supervisor of the office is often called the Assistant District Attorney. The majority of prosecutions will be delegated to DDAs, with the district attorney prosecuting the most important cases and having overall responsibility for their agency and its work. Depending upon the system in place, DAs may be appointed by the chief executive of the jurisdiction or elected by local voters.

The district attorney, and assistant district attorneys under the district attorney’s authority, are the attorneys representing a government body as prosecutors who are responsible for presenting cases against individuals and groups who are suspected of breaking the law, initiating and directing further criminal investigations, guiding and recommending the sentencing of offenders, and are the only attorneys allowed to participate in grand jury proceedings.

District magistrate (India)

A district magistrate, often abbreviated to DM, is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer who is the senior most executive magistrate and chief in charge of general administration of a district in India. Since district magistrates are responsible for collection of land revenue in the district, the post is also referred to as the district collector, and as the office-bearer works under the supervision of a divisional commissioner, the post is also known as deputy commissioner.

Districts of England

The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. As the structure of local government in England is not uniform, there are currently four principal types of district-level subdivision. There are a total of 343 districts made up of 36 metropolitan boroughs, 32 London boroughs, 192 non-metropolitan districts, and 55 unitary authorities, as well as the City of London and the Isles of Scilly which are also districts, but do not correspond to any of these categories. Some districts are styled as boroughs, cities, or royal boroughs; these are purely honorific titles, and do not alter the status of the district. All boroughs and cities, and a few districts, are led by a mayor who in most cases is a ceremonial figure elected by the district council, but—after local government reform—is occasionally a directly elected mayor who makes most of the policy decisions instead of the council.

Electoral district

An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the United States Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body. Generally, only voters (constituents) who reside within the district are permitted to vote in an election held there. From a single district, a single member or multiple members might be chosen. Members might be chosen by a first-past-the-post system or a proportional representative system, or another voting method entirely. Members might be chosen through a direct election under universal suffrage, an indirect election, or another form of suffrage.

Electoral district (Canada)

An electoral district in Canada, also known as a "constituency" or a "riding", is a geographical constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based. It is officially known in Canadian French as a circonscription, but frequently called a comté (county).

Each federal electoral district returns one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of Canada; each provincial or territorial electoral district returns one representative—called, depending on the province or territory, Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA), Member of the National Assembly (MNA), Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP) or Member of the House of Assembly (MHA)—to the provincial or territorial legislature.

While electoral districts at both the federal and provincial levels are now exclusively single-member districts, multiple-member districts have been used in the past. Alberta has had a few districts that returned from two to seven members: see Calgary, Edmonton and Medicine Hat. British Columbia had a mix of multiple-member districts and single-member districts at the provincial level until the 1991 election, and Prince Edward Island had dual-member districts at the provincial level until the 1996 election.

Since 2015 there have been 338 federal electoral districts in Canada.

In provincial and territorial legislatures, the provinces and territories each set their own number of electoral districts independently of their federal representation; although the province of Ontario currently defines most, but not all, of its provincial electoral districts to align with federal boundaries, no other province does so, and even Ontario maintains a few variances from federal boundaries.

Elections Canada is the independent body set up by Parliament to oversee Canadian federal elections, while each province and territory has its own separate elections agency to oversee the provincial and territorial elections.

Historic districts in the United States

Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as historically or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures, objects and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories, contributing and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few.

The U.S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing usually imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria (no restrictions) or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level. Local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government.

Lake District

The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains (or fells), and its associations with William Wordsworth and other Lake Poets and also with Beatrix Potter and John Ruskin. The National Park was established in 1951 and covers an area of 2,362 square kilometres. It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2017.The Lake District is located entirely within the county of Cumbria. All the land in England higher than 3,000 feet (914 m) above sea level lies within the National Park, including Scafell Pike, the highest mountain in England. It also contains the deepest and largest natural lakes in England, Wast Water and Windermere respectively.

List of Regional Transport Office districts in India

This is a list of the Indian Regional Transport Offices and the assigned codes for vehicle registration. These are broken down to states or Union Territories and their districts.

The offices are all belonging to a certain type:

ARTO : Additional Transport Office

AssRTO : Assistant Regional Transport Office

DTC : Deputy Transport Commissioner

DTO : District Transport Office

DyDZO : Deputy Directorate Zonal Office

DyRTO : Deputy Regional Transport Office

JTC : Joint Transport Commissioner

LA : Licensing Authority

MVI : Motor Vehicle Inspector

PVD : Public Vehicles Department

RLA : Regional Licensing Authority

RTA : Regional Transport Authority

RTO : Regional Transport Office

SDivO : Subdivisional Office

SDM : Subdivisional Magistrate

SRTO : Subdivisional Regional Transport Office

STA : State Transport Authority

UO : Unit Office

WIAA : Western India Automobile Associationin maharashtra get a new rto code no. 51-nashik rural

List of United States congressional districts

Congressional districts in the United States are electoral divisions for the purpose of electing members of the United States House of Representatives. The number of voting seats in the House of Representatives is currently set at 435 with each one representing approximately 711,000 people. That number has applied since 1913, excluding a temporary increase to 437 after the admissions of Alaska and Hawaii. The total number of state members is capped by the Reapportionment Act of 1929. In addition, each of the five inhabited U.S. territories and the federal district of Washington, D.C. sends a non-voting delegate to the House of Representatives.

The Bureau of the Census conducts a constitutionally mandated decennial census whose figures are used to determine the number of congressional districts to which each state is entitled, in a process called "apportionment". The 2012 elections were the first to be based on the congressional districts which were defined based on the 2010 United States Census.Each state is responsible for the redistricting of districts within their state, and several states have one "at-large" division. Redistricting must take place if the number of members changes following a reapportionment, or may take place at any other time if demographics represented in a district has changed substantially. Districts may sometimes retain the same boundaries while changing their district numbers.

The following is a complete list of the 435 current congressional districts for the House of Representatives, and over 200 obsolete districts, and the six current and one obsolete non-voting delegations.

List of districts in India

A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. In some cases districts are further subdivided into sub-divisions, and in others directly into tehsils or talukas. As of 2019 there are a total of 725 districts, up from the 640 in the 2011 Census of India and the 593 recorded in the 2001 Census of India.District officials include:

District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner or District Collector, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service, in charge of administration and revenue collection

Superintendent of Police or Senior Superintendent of Police or Deputy Commissioner of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service, responsible for maintaining law and order

Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, entrusted with the management of the forests, environment and wildlife of the districtEach of these officials is aided by officers from the appropriate branch of the state government.

Most districts have a distinct headquarters; but the districts of Mumbai City, in Maharashtra, Hyderabad District in Telangana and Chennai, in Tamil Nadu, are examples where there is no distinct district headquarters, although there are district collectors.

Mahe of Puducherry is the smallest (9 km2) district of India by area while Kutch of Gujarat is the largest (45,652 km2) district of India by area.

List of districts of Nepal

Districts in Nepal are second level of administrative divisions after provinces. Districts are subdivided in municipalities and rural municipalities. There are seven provinces and 77 districts in Nepal.

After the state's reconstruction of administrative divisions, Nawalparasi District and Rukum District were divided into Parasi District and Nawalpur District, and Eastern Rukum District and Western Rukum District respectively.

District official include:

Chief District Officer, an official under Ministry of Home Affairs is appointed by the government as the highest administrative officer in a district. The C.D.O is responsible for proper inspection of all the departments in a district such as health, education, security and all other government offices.

District Coordination Committee acts as an executive to the District Assembly. The DCC coordinates with the Provincial Assembly to establish coordination between the Provincial Assembly and rural municipalities and municipalities and to settle disputes, if any, of political nature. It also maintains coordination between the provincial and Federal government and the local bodies in the district.

Metropolitan borough

A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, metropolitan boroughs are defined in English law as metropolitan districts. However, all of them have been granted or regranted royal charters to give them borough status (as well as, in some cases, city status). Metropolitan boroughs have been effectively unitary authority areas since the abolition of the metropolitan county councils by the Local Government Act 1985. However, metropolitan boroughs pool much of their authority in joint boards and other arrangements that cover whole metropolitan counties, such as combined authorities.

Red-light district

A red-light district or pleasure district is a part of an urban area where a concentration of prostitution and sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, and adult theaters, are found. Areas in many big cities around the world have acquired an international reputation as red-light districts.The term red-light district originates from the red lights that were used as signs for brothels.

School district

A school district is a special-purpose district that operates local public primary and secondary schools in various nations.

United States Attorney

United States attorneys (also known as chief federal prosecutors and, historically, as United States district attorneys) represent the United States federal government in United States district courts and United States courts of appeals.

The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the case against an individual suspected of breaking the law, initiating and directing further criminal investigations, guiding and recommending the sentencing of offenders, and are the only attorneys allowed to participate in grand jury proceedings.There are 93 U.S. Attorney offices located throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. One U.S. Attorney is assigned to each of the judicial districts, with the exception of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands where a single U.S. Attorney serves both districts. Each U.S. Attorney is the chief federal law enforcement officer within his or her particular jurisdiction, acting under the guidance of the United States Attorneys' Manual. They supervise district offices with as many as 350 Assistant U.S. Attorneys (AUSAs) and as many as 350 support personnel.An Assistant United States Attorney (AUSA), or federal prosecutor, is a public official who represents the federal government on behalf of the U.S. Attorney (USA) in criminal prosecutions, and in certain civil cases as either the plaintiff or the defendant. In carrying out their duties as prosecutors, AUSAs have the authority to investigate persons, issue subpoenas, file formal criminal charges, plea bargain with defendants, and grant immunity to witnesses and accused criminals.U.S. Attorneys and their offices are part of the Department of Justice. U.S. Attorneys receive oversight, supervision, and administrative support services through the Justice Department's Executive Office for United States Attorneys. Selected U.S. Attorneys participate in the Attorney General's Advisory Committee of United States Attorneys.

United States District Court for the Southern District of New York

The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (in case citations, S.D.N.Y.), known informally as The Mother Court, is a federal district court. Appeals from the Southern District of New York are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit).

The Southern District is one of the most influential and active federal district courts in the United States, largely because of its jurisdiction over New York's major financial centers.

United States district court

The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. Both civil and criminal cases are filed in the district court, which is a court of law, equity, and admiralty. There is a United States bankruptcy court associated with each United States district court. Each federal judicial district has at least one courthouse, and many districts have more than one. The formal name of a district court is "the United States District Court for" the name of the district—for example, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri.

In contrast to the Supreme Court, which was established by Article III of the Constitution, the district courts were established by Congress. There is no constitutional requirement that district courts exist at all. Indeed, after the ratification of the Constitution, some opponents of a strong federal judiciary urged that, outside jurisdictions under direct federal control, like Washington, D.C., and the territories, the federal court system be limited to the Supreme Court, which would hear appeals from state courts. This view did not prevail, however, and the first Congress created the district court system that is still in place today.

There is at least one judicial district for each state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The insular areas of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands each have one territorial court; these courts are called "district courts" and exercise the same jurisdiction as district courts, but differ from district courts in that territorial courts are Article IV courts, with judges who serve ten-year terms rather than the lifetime tenure of judges of Article III courts, such as the district court judges.There are 89 districts in the 50 states, with a total of 94 districts including territories.

Wayanad district

Wayanad is an Indian district in the north-east of Kerala state with headquarters at the municipality of Kalpetta. It is set high on the Western Ghats with altitudes ranging from 700 to 2100. The district was formed on 1 November 1980 as the 12th district in Kerala by carving out areas from Kozhikode and Kannur districts. About 885.92 sq.km of area of the district is under forest. Wayanad has three municipal towns—Kalpetta, Mananthavady and Sulthan Bathery. There are many indigenous tribals in this area.Wayanad district is bordered by Karnataka to north and north-east, Tamil Nadu to south-east, Malappuram to south, Kozhikode to south-west and Kannur to north-west. Pulpally in Wayanad boasts of the only Lava Kusha Temple in Kerala and Vythiri has the only mirror temple in Kerala which is a Jain temple. The edicts and caves of Ambukuthi Mala and other evidences states that the place is as old as the beginning of the New Age Civilisation.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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