Distributism

Distributism is an economic ideology asserting that the world's productive assets should be widely owned rather than concentrated.[1] It was developed in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries based upon the principles of Catholic social teaching, especially the teachings of Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical Rerum novarum (1891) and Pope Pius XI in Quadragesimo anno (1931).[2][3][4] It views both capitalism and socialism as equally flawed and exploitative, and it favors economic mechanisms such as small-scale cooperatives and family businesses, and large-scale anti-trust regulations.

Some Christian Democratic political parties have advocated distributism in their economic policies.

Overview

According to distributists, property ownership is a fundamental right,[5] and the means of production should be spread as widely as possible, rather than being centralized under the control of the state (state capitalism/state socialism), a few individuals (plutocracy), or corporations (corporatocracy). Distributism, therefore, advocates a society marked by widespread property ownership.[1] Co-operative economist Race Mathews argues that such a system is key to bringing about a just social order.[6]

Distributism has often been described in opposition to both socialism and capitalism,[7][8] which distributists see as equally flawed and exploitative.[9] Further, some distributists argue that socialism is the logical conclusion of capitalism, as capitalism's concentrated powers eventually capture the state, resulting in a form of socialism.[10][11] Thomas Storck argues: "Both socialism and capitalism are products of the European Enlightenment and are thus modernizing and anti-traditional forces. In contrast, distributism seeks to subordinate economic activity to human life as a whole, to our spiritual life, our intellectual life, our family life."[12] A few distributists[13] were influenced by the economic ideas of Proudhon and his mutualist economic theory,[14] thus the lesser-known anarchist branch of distributism of Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker Movement could be considered a form of free-market libertarian socialism[15] due to their opposition to both state capitalism and state socialism.

Some have seen it more as an aspiration, which has been successfully realised in the short term by commitment to the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity (these being built into financially independent local cooperatives and small family businesses), though proponents also cite such periods as the Middle Ages as examples of the historical long-term viability of distributism.[16] Particularly influential in the development of distributist theory were Catholic authors G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc,[9] the Chesterbelloc, two of distributism's earliest and strongest proponents.[17][18]

Background

The mid-to-late 19th century witnessed an increase in popularity of political Catholicism across Europe.[19] According to historian Michael A. Riff, a common feature of these movements was opposition not only to secularism, but also to both capitalism and socialism.[18] In 1891 Pope Leo XIII promulgated Rerum novarum, in which he addressed the "misery and wretchedness pressing so unjustly on the majority of the working class" and spoke of how "a small number of very rich men" had been able to "lay upon the teeming masses of the laboring poor a yoke little better than that of slavery itself".[20] Affirmed in the encyclical was the right of all men to own property,[21] the necessity of a system that allowed "as many as possible of the people to become owners",[22] the duty of employers to provide safe working conditions[23] and sufficient wages,[24] and the right of workers to unionise.[25] Common and government property ownership was expressly dismissed as a means of helping the poor.[26][27]

Around the start of the 20th century, G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc drew together the disparate experiences of the various cooperatives and friendly societies in Northern England, Ireland, and Northern Europe into a coherent political ideology which specifically advocated widespread private ownership of housing and control of industry through owner-operated small businesses and worker-controlled cooperatives. In the United States in the 1930s, distributism was treated in numerous essays by Chesterton, Belloc and others in The American Review, published and edited by Seward Collins. Pivotal among Belloc's and Chesterton's other works regarding distributism are The Servile State,[28] and Outline of Sanity.[29]

Although a majority of distributism's later supporters were not Catholics and many were in fact former radical socialists who had become disillusioned with socialism, distributist thought was adopted by the Catholic Worker Movement, conjoining it with the thought of Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin concerning localized and independent communities. It also influenced the thought behind the Antigonish Movement, which implemented cooperatives and other measures to aid the poor in the Canadian Maritimes. Its practical implementation in the form of local cooperatives has been documented by Race Mathews in his 1999 book Jobs of Our Own: Building a Stakeholder Society.

Position within the political spectrum

Triangle of economic systems
Distributism is more than a compromise between socialism and capitalism.
William Cobbett
William Cobbett's social views influenced Chesterton.

The position of distributists when compared to other political philosophies is somewhat paradoxical and complicated (see Triangulation). Strongly entrenched in an organic but very English Catholicism, advocating culturally traditionalist and agrarian values, directly challenging the precepts of Whig history—Belloc was nonetheless an MP for the Liberal Party and Chesterton once stated "As much as I ever did, more than I ever did, I believe in Liberalism. But there was a rosy time of innocence when I believed in Liberals."[30] This liberalism is different from most modern forms, taking influence from William Cobbett and John Ruskin, who combined elements of radicalism, challenging the establishment position, but from a perspective of renovation, not revolution; seeing themselves as trying to restore the traditional liberties of England and her people which had been taken away from them, amongst other things, since the Industrial Revolution.

While converging with certain elements of traditional Toryism, especially an appreciation of the Middle Ages and organic society, there were several points of significant contention. While many Tories were strongly opposed to reform, the distributists in certain cases saw this not as conserving a legitimate traditional concept of England, but in many cases, entrenching harmful errors and innovations. Belloc was quite explicit in his opposition to Protestantism as a concept and schism from the Catholic Church in general, considering the division of Christendom in the 16th century one of the most harmful events in European history. Elements of Toryism on the other hand were quite intransigent when it came to the Church of England as the established church, some even spurning their original legitimist ultra-royalist principles in regards to James II to uphold it.

Much of Dorothy L. Sayers' writings on social and economic matters has affinity with distributism. She may have been influenced by them, or have come to similar conclusions on her own; as an Anglican, the reasonings she gave are rooted in the theologies of Creation and Incarnation, and thus are slightly different from the Catholic Chesterton and Belloc.

Economic theory

Private property

Three acres and a cow
Self-portrait of G. K. Chesterton based on the distributist slogan "Three acres and a cow".

Under such a system, most people would be able to earn a living without having to rely on the use of the property of others to do so. Examples of people earning a living in this way would be farmers who own their own land and related machinery, carpenters and plumbers who own their own tools, etc. The "cooperative" approach advances beyond this perspective to recognise that such property and equipment may be "co-owned" by local communities larger than a family, e.g., partners in a business.

In Rerum novarum, Leo XIII states that people are likely to work harder and with greater commitment if they themselves possess the land on which they labour, which in turn will benefit them and their families, as workers will be able to provide for themselves and their household. He puts forward the idea that when men have the opportunity to possess property and work on it, they will "learn to love the very soil which yields in response to the labor of their hands, not only food to eat, but an abundance of the good things for themselves and those that are dear to them". [31] He states also that owning property is not only beneficial for a person and their family, but is in fact a right, due to God having "...given the earth for the use and enjoyment of the whole human race".[32]

Similar views are presented by G. K. Chesterton in his 1910 book What’s Wrong with the World. Chesterton believes that whilst God has limitless capabilities, man has limited abilities in terms of creation. As such, man therefore is entitled to own property and to treat it as he sees fit. He states "Property is merely the art of the democracy. It means that every man should have something that he can shape in his own image, as he is shaped in the image of heaven. But because he is not God, but only a graven image of God, his self-expression must deal with limits; properly with limits that are strict and even small."[33] Chesterton summed up his distributist views in the phrase "Three acres and a cow".

According to Belloc, the distributive state (the state which has implemented distributism) contains "an agglomeration of families of varying wealth, but by far the greater number of owners of the means of production". This broader distribution does not extend to all property, but only to productive property; that is, that property which produces wealth, namely, the things needed for man to survive. It includes land, tools, and so on.[34] Distributism allows for society to have public goods such as parks and transit systems.

Guild system

The kind of economic order envisaged by the early distributist thinkers would involve the return to some sort of guild system. The present existence of labor unions does not constitute a realization of this facet of distributist economic order, as labour unions are organized along class lines to promote class interests and frequently class struggle, whereas guilds are mixed class syndicates composed of both employers and employees cooperating for mutual benefit, thereby promoting class collaboration.

Banks

Distributism favors the dissolution of the current private bank system, or more specifically its profit-making basis in charging interest. Dorothy Day, for example, suggested[35] abolishing legal enforcement of interest-rate contracts (usury). It would not entail nationalization but could involve government involvement of some sort. Distributists look favorably on credit unions as a preferable alternative to banks.

Anti-trust legislation

Distributism appears to have one of its greatest influences in anti-trust legislation in America and Europe designed to break up monopolies and excessive concentration of market power in one or only a few companies, trusts, interests, or cartels. Embodying the philosophy explained by Chesterton, above, that too much capitalism means too few capitalists, not too many, America's extensive system of anti-trust legislation seeks to prevent the concentration of market power in a given industry into too few hands. Requiring that no company gain too great a share of any market is an example of how distributism has found its way into government policy. The assumption behind this legislation is the idea that having economic activity decentralized among many different industry participants is better for the economy than having one or a few large players in an industry. (Note that anti-trust regulation does take into account cases when only large companies are viable because of the nature of an industry, as in the case of natural monopolies like electricity distribution. It also accepts that mergers and acquisitions may improve consumer welfare; however, it generally prefers more economic agents to fewer, as this generally improves competition.)

Social credit

Social credit is an interdisciplinary distributive philosophy developed by C. H. Douglas (1879–1952), a British engineer, who wrote a book by that name in 1924. It encompasses the fields of economics, political science, history, accounting, and physics. Its policies are designed, according to Douglas, to disperse economic and political power to individuals.

Social theory

Human family

Distributism sees the family of two parents and their child or children as the central and primary social unit of human ordering and the principal unit of a functioning distributist society and civilization. This unit is also the basis of a multi-generational extended family, which is embedded in socially as well as genetically inter-related communities, nations, etc., and ultimately in the whole human family past, present and future. The economic system of a society should therefore be focused primarily on the flourishing of the family unit, but not in isolation: at the appropriate level of family context, as is intended in the principle of subsidiarity. Distributism reflects this doctrine most evidently by promoting the family, rather than the individual, as the basic type of owner; that is, distributism seeks to ensure that most families, rather than most individuals, will be owners of productive property. The family is, then, vitally important to the very core of distributist thought.

Subsidiarity

Distributism puts great emphasis on the principle of subsidiarity. This principle holds that no larger unit (whether social, economic, or political) should perform a function which can be performed by a smaller unit. Pope Pius XI, in Quadragesimo anno, provided the classical statement of the principle: "Just as it is gravely wrong to take from individuals what they can accomplish by their own initiative and industry and give it to the community, so also it is an injustice and at the same time a grave evil and disturbance of right order to assign to a greater and higher association what lesser and subordinate organizations can do."[36] Thus, any activity of production (which distributism holds to be the most important part of any economy) ought to be performed by the smallest possible unit. This helps support distributism's argument that smaller units, families if possible, ought to be in control of the means of production, rather than the large units typical of modern economies.

Pope Pius XI further stated, again in Quadragesimo anno, "every social activity ought of its very nature to furnish help to the members of the body social, and never destroy and absorb them".[36] To prevent large private organizations from thus dominating the body politic, distributism applies this principle of subsidiarity to economic as well as to social and political action.

Social security

Distributism favors the elimination of social security on the basis that it further alienates man by making him more dependent on the Servile State. Distributists such as Dorothy Day did not favor social security when it was introduced by the United States government. This rejection of this new program was due to the direct influence of the ideas of Hilaire Belloc over American Distributists.

Political parties who claim to support distributism may not necessarily share the view of favouring the abolition of social security such as the Democratic Labour Party of Australia who for instance wish to "Raise the level of student income support payments to the Henderson poverty line".[37]

Society of artisans

Distributism promotes a society of artisans and culture. This is influenced by an emphasis on small business, promotion of local culture, and favoring of small production over capitalistic mass production. A society of artisans promotes the distributist ideal of the unification of capital, ownership, and production rather than what distributism sees as an alienation of man from work.

This does not, however, suggest that distributism necessarily favors a technological regression to a pre-Industrial Revolution lifestyle, but a more local ownership of factories and other industrial centers. Products such as food and clothing would be preferably returned to local producers and artisans instead of being mass-produced overseas.

Geopolitical theory

Political order

Distributism does not favor one political order over another (political accidentalism). While some distributists, such as Dorothy Day, have been anarchists, it should be remembered that most Chestertonian distributists are opposed to the mere concept of anarchism. Chesterton thought that Distributism would benefit from the discipline that theoretical analysis imposes, and that distributism is best seen as a widely encompassing concept inside of which any number of interpretations and perspectives can fit. This concept should fit in a political system broadly characterized by widespread ownership of productive property.[38]

Political parties

The Brazilian political party, Humanist Party of Solidarity is a distributist party, and distributism has influenced Christian Democratic parties in Continental Europe and the Democratic Labour Party in Australia. Ross Douthat and Reihan Salam view their Grand New Party, a roadmap for revising the Republican Party in the United States, as "a book written in the distributist tradition".[39]

War

Distributists usually use Just War Theory in determining whether a war should be fought or not. Historical positions of distributist thinkers provide insight into a distributist position on war. Both Belloc and Chesterton opposed British imperialism in general, as well as specifically opposing the Second Boer War, but supported British involvement in World War I.

On the other hand, prominent distributists such as Dorothy Day and those involved in the Catholic Worker Movement were/are strict pacifists, even to the point of condemning involvement in World War II at much personal cost.

Influence

E. F. Schumacher

Distributism is known to have had an influence on the economist E. F. Schumacher,[40] a convert to Catholicism.

Mondragon Corporation

The Mondragon Corporation, based in the Basque Country in a region of Spain and France, was founded by a Catholic priest, Father José María Arizmendiarrieta, who seems to have been influenced by the same Catholic social and economic teachings that inspired Belloc, Chesterton, Father Vincent McNabb, and the other founders of distributism.[41]

Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic

Distributist ideas were put into practice by The Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic, a group of artists and craftsmen who established a community in Ditchling, Sussex, England, in 1920, with the motto "Men rich in virtue studying beautifulness living in peace in their houses". The Guild sought to recreate an idealised medieval lifestyle in the manner of the Arts and Crafts Movement; it survived almost 70 years, until 1989.

Big Society

The Big Society was the flagship policy idea of the 2010 UK Conservative Party general election manifesto. Some distributists claim that the rhetorical marketing of this policy was influenced by aphorisms of the distributist ideology and promotes distributism.[42] It purportedly formed a part of the legislative programme of the Conservative – Liberal Democrat Coalition Agreement.[43] The stated aim was "to create a climate that empowers local people and communities, building a big society that will 'take power away from politicians and give it to people.'"[44] The idea of the Big Society was suggested by Steve Hilton, who worked as director of strategy for David Cameron during the Coalition government before moving on to live and work in California.

Early distributists

Contemporary distributists

Key texts

  • Rerum novarum (1891), papal encyclical by Pope Leo XIII
  • Quadragesimo anno (1931), papal encyclical by Pope Pius XI
  • Centesimus Annus (1991), papal encyclical by Pope John Paul II
  • Evangelii gaudium (2013), apostolic exhortation by Pope Francis
  • What's Wrong with the World (1910) by G. K. Chesterton ISBN 0-89870-489-8 – eText
  • The Outline of Sanity (1927) by G. K. Chesterton
  • Utopia of Usurers (1917) by G. K. Chesterton
  • The Servile State (1912) by Hilaire Belloc
  • An Essay on The Restoration of Property (1936) by Hilaire Belloc ISBN 0-9714894-4-0
  • Jobs of Our Own (1999) by Race Mathews ISBN 978-1871204179

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Zwick, Mark and Louise (2004). The Catholic Worker Movement: Intellectual and Spiritual Origins . Paulist Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-8091-4315-3
  2. ^ Coulter, Michael (2007). Encyclopedia of Catholic Social Thought, Social Science and Social Policy. Scarecrow Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-8108-5906-7
  3. ^ McConkey, Dale; Lawler, Peter (2003). Faith, Morality, and Civil Society. Lexington Books. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7391-0483-5
  4. ^ Allitt, Patrick (2000). Catholic Converts: British and American Intellectuals Turn to Rome. Cornell University Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-8014-8663-0
  5. ^ Shiach, Morag (2004). Modernism, Labour and Selfhood in British Literature and Culture, 1890-1930. Cambridge University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-521-83459-9
  6. ^ Gibson-Graham, J.K. (2006). A Postcapitalist Politics. University of Minnesota Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-8166-4804-7.
  7. ^ Boyle, David; Simms, Andrew (2009). The New Economics. Routledge. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-84407-675-8
  8. ^ Novak, Michael; Younkins, Edward W. (2001). Three in One: Essays on Democratic Capitalism, 1976-2000. Rowman and Littlefield. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-7425-1171-2
  9. ^ a b Prentiss, Craig R. (2008). Debating God's Economy: Social Justice in America on the Eve of Vatican II. Penn State University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-271-03341-9
  10. ^ "Why Isn't Romania Rich?". www.frontporchrepublic.com. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  11. ^ "Distributism as an equalitarian economic policy". www.hsnsw.asn.au. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  12. ^ Storck, Thomas. "Capitalism and Distributism: two systems at war," in Beyond Capitalism & Socialism. Tobias J. Lanz, ed. IHS Press, 2008. p. 75
  13. ^ Dorothy, Day. On Pilgrimage. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1999. p. 40.
  14. ^ McKay, Iain. An Anarchist FAQ Volume One. AK Press, 2007. p. 75
  15. ^ McKay, Iain. An Anarchist FAQ Volume One. AK Press, 2007. p. 23
  16. ^ Hilaire Belloc, "The Servile Institution Dissolved," The Servile State, (1913; reprint, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 1977), 71-83.
  17. ^ Fitzgerald, Ross et al. (2003). The Pope's Battalions: Santamaria, Catholicism and the Labor Split. University of Queensland Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7022-3389-0
  18. ^ a b Riff, Michael A. (1990). Dictionary of Modern Political Ideologies. Manchester University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-7190-3289-9
  19. ^ Adams, Ian (1993). Political Ideology Today. Manchester University Press. p. 59-60. ISBN 978-0-7190-3347-6
  20. ^ Leo XIII, Rerum novarum, 3.
  21. ^ Leo XIII, Rerum novarum, 6.
  22. ^ Leo XIII, Rerum novarum, 46.
  23. ^ Leo XIII, Rerum novarum, 42.
  24. ^ Leo XIII, Rerum novarum, 45.
  25. ^ Leo XIII, Rerum novarum, 49.
  26. ^ Leo XIII, Rerum novarum, 4.
  27. ^ Leo XIII, Rerum novarum, 15.
  28. ^ Hilaire Belloc, The Servile State, The Liberty Fund, originally published 1913.
  29. ^ G. K. Chesterton, The Outline of Sanity, IHS Press, 2002, originally published 1927.
  30. ^ Chesterton, G. K. (2008). Orthodoxy. BiblioBazaar. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-554-33475-2.
  31. ^ Pope Leo XIII, Rerum novarum : 47, 1891
  32. ^ Pope Leo XIII, Rerum novarum: 8, 1891.
  33. ^ Chesterton, Gilbert Keith, What’s Wrong with the World (1920), p. 59.
  34. ^ Hilaire Belloc, The Servile State, 1913.
  35. ^ Considine, Kevin. Is it sinful to charge interest on a loan? U.S. Catholic, 17 March 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  36. ^ a b Pope Pius XI, Quadragesimo anno, 1931.
  37. ^ Cath. "Policy: STUDENTS". Democratic Labour Party. Retrieved 2019-02-23.
  38. ^ G. K. Chesterton, The Outline of Sanity(Norfolk, Va.: IHS Press, 2001), p. 90
  39. ^ Ross Douthat (27 March 2013). "Twitter post".
  40. ^ Opdebeeck, Hendrik, ed. Frontiers of Business Ethics, Volume 11 : Responsible Economics : E. F. Schumacher and His Legacy for the 21st Century. Oxford, GBR: Peter Lang AG, 2013. Page 12.
  41. ^ Mathews, Race. Jobs of Our Own: Building a Stakeholder Society. Fernwood Publishing. 1999.
  42. ^ A Potential Step in the Right Direction 21 July 2010
  43. ^ Cameron and Clegg set out 'big society' policy ideas BBC News 18-May-2010
  44. ^ Government launches "Big Society" programme 10 Downing Street website 18-May-2010
  45. ^ "Distributism Versus Capitalism", Dorothy Day, The Catholic Worker, October 1954.
  46. ^ "Last of the Realists - American Chesterton Society". American Chesterton Society. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  47. ^ "Articles on Distributism - 2" Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine by Dorothy Day. The Catholic Worker, July–August 1948, 1, 2, 6
  48. ^ "Dorothy Day, Peter Maurin, & Distributism", in The Hound of Distributism.
  49. ^ "The Distributist Review – Dale Ahlquist". Distributistreview.com. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  50. ^ "The Mistake About Distributism"
  51. ^ Allan Carlson (2009-07-12). ""A Distributist View of the Global Economic Crisis": A Report". Front Porch Republic. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  52. ^ "Distributism: A Catholic System of Economics"
  53. ^ "The Distributist Review – John Médaille". Distributistreview.com. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  54. ^ Aleman, Richard (2007-01-30). "The ChesterBelloc Mandate: Distributism Without the Cow". Distributist.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  55. ^ Mark Stahlman. "Rocking the Bus". Strategy+Business. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  56. ^ "The Distributist Review – Thomas Storck". Distributistreview.com. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  57. ^ "The Rural Solution: Modern Catholic Voices on Going 'Back to the Land'"

Further reading

External links

American Solidarity Party

The American Solidarity Party (ASP) is a Christian democratic political party in the United States. Its motto is "Common Good, Common Ground, Common Sense." Founded in 2011 and officially incorporated in 2016, the party has a National Committee and is active in state and local chapters and through on-line communication. It is regarded as a minor third party.

Those who join the American Solidarity Party affirm their "recognition of the sanctity of human life, the necessity of social justice, our responsibility for the environment, and the possibility of a more peaceful world." In keeping with a consistent life ethic and the "inviolable dignity and rights of every human person from conception to natural death," the ASP opposes abortion, euthanasia, and capital punishment, and is concerned with human rights in the areas of immigration, criminal justice reform and foreign policy.The ASP encourages social development along the lines of Subsidiarity, emphasizing the importance of strong families, local communities, and voluntary associations. This also involves strong protection for religious freedom in both private and public life. Influenced by distributism and the social market economy, the ASP seeks widespread economic participation and ownership, expressed in the flourishing of independent businesses and small farms, while respecting both private property and the dignity of labor, and providing a safety net for the poor and vulnerable. In order to promote environmental stewardship and sustainability, the ASP platform calls for conservation and a transition toward more renewable sources of energy, while rejecting population control measures.

Aristocracy

Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος, kratos 'rule') is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class. The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best-born".The term is synonymous with hereditary government, and hereditary succession is its primary philosophy, after which the hereditary monarch appoints officers as they see fit. At the time of the word's origins in ancient Greece, the Greeks conceived it as rule by the best qualified citizens—and often contrasted it favourably with monarchy, rule by an individual. In later times, aristocracy was usually seen as rule by a privileged group, the aristocratic class, and has since been contrasted with democracy. The idea of hybrid forms which have aspects of both aristocracy and democracy are in use in the parliament form.

Arthur Penty

Arthur Joseph Penty (17 March 1875 – 1937) was an English architect and writer on Guild socialism and distributism. He was first a Fabian socialist, and follower of Victorian thinkers William Morris and John Ruskin. He is generally credited with the formulation of a Christian socialist form of the medieval guild, as an alternative basis for economic life.

From: Edwardian Architecture: A Biographical Dictionary - Page 283

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id...

A. Stuart Gray - 1986

Penty was the elder of the two architect sons of Walter Green Penty of York, designer of the York Institute of Art, Science and Literature. While a pupil and assistant with his father, Penty absorbed the spirit of the Arts and Crafts Movement and the progressive movement in Glasgow. In York and its environs from 1896 to 1898 A.J. Penty did Aldersyde (his first important work), the Four Alls Inn, Malton Road, Dringhouses, York, and for the fish and ...

Back-to-the-land movement

A back-to-the-land movement is any of various agrarian movements across different historical periods. The common thread is a call for people to take up smallholding and to grow food from the land with an emphasis on a greater degree of self-sufficiency, autonomy, and local community than found in a prevailing industrial or postindustrial way of life. There have been a variety of motives behind such movements, such as social reform, land reform, and civilian war efforts. Groups involved have included political reformers, counterculture hippies, and religious separatists.

The concept was popularized in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century by activist Bolton Hall, who set up vacant lot farming in New York City and wrote many books on the subject. The practice, however, was strong in Europe even before that time.During World War II, when Great Britain faced a blockade by Nazi U-boats, a "Dig for Victory" campaign urged civilians to fight food shortages by growing vegetables on any available patch of land. In the USA between the mid-1960s and mid-1970s there was a revived back-to-the-land movement, with substantial numbers migrating from cities to rural areas.

The back-to-the-land movement has ideological links to distributism, a 1920s and 1930s attempt to find a "Third Way" between capitalism and socialism.

Catholic social teaching

Catholic social teaching is the Catholic doctrines on matters of human dignity and common good in society. The ideas address oppression, the role of the state, subsidiarity, social organization, concern for social justice, and issues of wealth distribution. Its foundations are widely considered to have been laid by Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical letter Rerum novarum, which advocated economic distributism. Its roots can be traced to the writings of Catholic thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas and Augustine of Hippo, and is also derived from concepts present in the Bible and the cultures of the ancient Near East.According to Pope Benedict XVI, its purpose "is simply to help purify reason and to contribute, here and now, to the acknowledgment and attainment of what is just. ... [The church] has to play her part through rational argument and she has to reawaken the spiritual energy without which justice ... cannot prevail and prosper", According to Pope John Paul II, its foundation "rests on the threefold cornerstones of human dignity, solidarity and subsidiarity".Catholic social teaching is distinctive in its consistent critiques of modern social and political ideologies both of the left and of the right: liberalism, communism, feminism, atheism, socialism, fascism, capitalism, and Nazism have all been condemned, at least in their pure forms, by several popes since the late nineteenth century.

Catholic social doctrine has always tried to find an equilibrium between respect for human liberty, including the right to private property and subsidiarity, and concern for the whole society, including the weakest and poorest.

Democratic Labour Party (Australia)

The Democratic Labour Party (DLP) is a political party in Australia that espouses social conservatism and favours distributism. The first DLP Senator in decades, John Madigan was elected for a six-year term to the Australian Senate with 2.3 per cent of the primary vote in Victoria at the 2010 federal election, serving from July 2011 until the July 2016 double dissolution election. In September 2014, Madigan resigned from the party and served the rest of his term as an independent, citing long-term internal party tensions.The DLP won a seat at the 2014 Victorian state election in the Legislative Council, with Dr Rachel Carling-Jenkins being elected in the Western Metropolitan Region. On 26 June 2017 it was revealed that Carling-Jenkins would be leaving the DLP to join Cory Bernardi's Australian Conservatives, resulting in the DLP once again being without any parliamentary representation in Australia.On 27 June 2013, the Australian Electoral Commission approved a change in the spelling of the party's name from "Democratic Labor Party" to "Democratic Labour Party"—with the party stating that the change reflected the "correct Australian spelling" of the word 'labour', and also differentiated it from the Australian Labor Party.On 23 April 2015 the party was deregistered by the Australian Electoral Commission for 'failure to demonstrate requisite 500 members to maintain registration'. On 1 March 2016, the Australian Electoral commission upheld an appeal by the DLP against its deregistration and reregistered it. The DLP has proven it has at least 500 members in Victoria alone and is registered with the Victorian Electoral Commission.

Economic Justice for All

"Economic Justice for All" is the pastoral letter promulgated by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops in 1986. It deals with the U.S. economy and with Catholic social teaching in the U.S. context. It is a part of the tradition of Catholic social teaching. The letter was written at a time when the Reagan administration was implementing libertarian policies of laissez-faire capitalism, and it may be interpreted as a reaction to what was seen as hostility towards the Catholic Church's teachings on social justice, subsidiarity, corporatism and distributism.

Archbishop Rembert Weakland was asked to chair the U.S. bishops’ committee responsible for drafting the pastoral letter. He terms the experience “one of the most important and formative periods of my life”.

G. K.'s Weekly

G. K.'s Weekly was a British publication founded in 1925 (with its pilot edition surfacing in late 1924) by seminal writer G. K. Chesterton, continuing until his death in 1936. Its articles typically discussed topical cultural, political, and socio-economic issues yet the publication also ran poems, cartoons, and other such material that piqued Chesterton's interest. It contained much of his journalistic work done in the latter part of his life, and extracts from it were published as the book The Outline of Sanity. Precursor publications existed by the names of The Eye-Witness and The New Witness, the former being a weekly newspaper started by Hilaire Belloc in 1911, the latter Belloc took over from Cecil Chesterton, Gilbert's brother, who died in World War I: and a revamped version of G. K.'s Weekly continued some years after Chesterton's death by the name of The Weekly Review.As an alternative publication outside of the mainstream press of the time, G. K.'s Weekly never attained a particularly large readership, with its highest circulation being some eight thousand. However, it attracted significant support from several benefactors, which included notables such as the internationally famous conductor Sir Thomas Beecham. Individuals whose work appeared in G. K.'s Weekly include public figures such as E. C. Bentley, Alfred Noyes, Ezra Pound, and George Bernard Shaw as well as (at the very beginning of his career) George Orwell. The relationship between the Distributist League and G. K.'s Weekly being a very close one, the publication advocated the philosophy of distributism in contrast to both the centre-right and centre-left attitudes of the time regarding socialism and industrialism.In terms of criticism, the publication has garnered condemnation for alleged anti-Semitic prejudice to be found in the views of Gilbert and Cecil Chesterton as well as of Hilaire Belloc. The controversy has involved sorting out the distinct differences in the opinions of the three men versus that of others within the publication, as essentially everyone featured had their own nuances to their viewpoints and would disagree among themselves. Critics have alleged that the writers often featured false stereotypes and made ignorant arguments about British capitalistic society while defenders have viewed the accusations as biased and misleading.

Government

A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a means by which organizational policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. Typically the philosophy chosen is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state authority (tyranny).

While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations.Historically prevalent forms of government include monarchy, aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny. The main aspect of any philosophy of government is how political power is obtained, with the two main forms being electoral contest and hereditary succession.

Humanist Party of Solidarity (Brazil)

The Humanist Party of Solidarity (Portuguese: Partido Humanista da Solidariedade) was a Brazilian political party. Its electoral code was 31 and it became a registered political party on July 06, 1995 with the denomination of "National Solidarity Party" (PSN) and obtained permanent record on March 20, 1997, with its first president being Phillipe Guedon of France. The party advocated distributism and Christian morals.

In the presidential elections of 1998, still with the previous denomination, launched the candidate Vasco Neto. He would receive 109,003 votes, totaling 0.16% of intentions, finishing in 12th place. In 2000 it changed its name to the current one, merging with the group that tried to organize the National Humanist Party. In 2006, the party had officialized its merger with the Popular Socialist Party (PPS) and Party of National Mobilization (PMN) in order to form the Democratic Mobilization, a new association created in order to circumvent the restrictions of the barrier clause, but with its overthrow, the association was broken up and the parties separated.

In 2018, after not getting enought electoral votes to keep receiving funds from the Brazilian supreme electoral court, the party decided to disband itself and merge with Podemos.

John Sharpe

John Sharpe may refer to:

John Sharpe (cricketer) (1866–1936), English test cricketer

John Sharpe (Australian tennis), Australian tennis tour player from the 1960s in 1971 US Open – Men's Singles

John Sharpe (Canadian tennis), Canadian Davis Cup player from the early 1970s in 1967 U.S. National Championships – Men's Singles

John Sharpe (publisher), American naval officer and publisher of economic books about distributism

John Sharpe (footballer) (born 1957), English football (soccer) player

John Sharpe (courtier) (died 1518), courtier to King Henry VII

John Sharpe (born 1967), Australian convicted of the speargun Sharpe family murders

John Henry Sharpe, Premier of Bermuda, 1975–1977

John Robin Sharpe (born c. 1933), Canadian convicted of child sexual abuse in R v Sharpe

John Sharpe (MP), British Member of Parliament for Callington, 1754–1756

John Walker Sharpe (1916–1997), Scottish physicist

Jon Sharpe (died 2004), original author of The Trailsman series of Western novels

John Sharpe (publisher)

John Forrest Sharpe is an American publisher and author. He has published of numerous articles and books on the economic theory of distributism. He is chairman of the publishing house IHS Press in Virginia; the vice-chairman is Derek Holland. IHS Press and the Legion of St. Louis (LSL), another publishing entity run by Sharpe that sells books such as Henry Ford's The International Jew and Michael A. Hoffman II's Strange Gods of Judaism, are on the list of hate groups for the nonprofit civil rights organization Southern Poverty Law Center.

List of forms of government

This article lists forms of government and political systems, according to a series of different ways of categorising them. The systems listed are not mutually exclusive, and often have overlapping definitions.

Military junta

A military junta () is a government led by a committee of military leaders. The term junta comes from Spanish and Portuguese and means committee, specifically a board of directors. Sometimes it becomes a military dictatorship, though the terms are not synonymous.

Recycling cooperative

A recycling cooperative is an industrial cooperative, co-owned and maintained by either workers or consumers, which specializes in the recycling of various materials. Such cooperatives are either non-profit or not-for-profit; a major theoretical benefit of mass co-ownership is that raw recycled materials can become increasingly and equally distributed among the membership population at a low cost, be it for reusage at home or for reusage in the manufacturing of newer goods or versions of goods to be sold to customers at cheaper prices than would be possible with freshly obtained raw materials. A subset is the business recycling cooperative, which, according to the Northeast Recycling Council, is a group of business in a particular region, which separate recyclable waste, usually produced by their own functions, for prearranged collection by a shared hauler.

Schools of economic thought

In the history of economic thought, a school of economic thought is a group of economic thinkers who share or shared a common perspective on the way economies work. While economists do not always fit into particular schools, particularly in modern times, classifying economists into schools of thought is common. Economic thought may be roughly divided into three phases: premodern (Greco-Roman, Indian, Persian, Islamic, and Imperial Chinese), early modern (mercantilist, physiocrats) and modern (beginning with Adam Smith and classical economics in the late 18th century). Systematic economic theory has been developed mainly since the beginning of what is termed the modern era.

Currently, the great majority of economists follow an approach referred to as mainstream economics (sometimes called 'orthodox economics'). Within the mainstream in the United States, distinctions can be made between the Saltwater school (associated with Cornell, Berkeley, Harvard, MIT, Pennsylvania, Princeton, and Yale), and the more laissez-faire ideas of the Freshwater school (represented by the Chicago school of economics, Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Rochester and the University of Minnesota). Both of these schools of thought are associated with the neoclassical synthesis.

Some influential approaches of the past, such as the historical school of economics and institutional economics, have become defunct or have declined in influence, and are now considered heterodox approaches. Other longstanding heterodox schools of economic thought include Austrian economics and Marxian economics. Some more recent developments in economic thought such as feminist economics and ecological economics adapt and critique mainstream approaches with an emphasis on particular issues rather than developing as independent schools.

Subsidiarity (Catholicism)

Subsidiarity is an organizing principle that matters ought to be handled by the smallest, lowest or least centralized competent authority. Political decisions should be taken at a local level if possible, rather than by a central authority. The Oxford English Dictionary defines subsidiarity as the idea that a central authority should have a subsidiary function, performing only those tasks which cannot be performed effectively at a more immediate or local level.

The word subsidiarity is derived from the Latin word subsidiarius and has its origins in Catholic social teaching.

The Bookman (New York City)

The Bookman was a literary journal established in 1895 by Dodd, Mead and Company. It drew its name from the phrase, "I am a Bookman," by James Russell Lowell. The phrase regularly appeared on the cover and title page of the bound edition.

Frank H. Dodd, head of Dodd, Mead and Company, established The Bookman in 1895. Its first editor was Harry Thurston Peck, who worked on its staff from 1895 to 1906. With the journal's first issue in February 1895, Peck created America's first bestseller list. The lists in The Bookman ran from 1895 until 1918, and is the only comprehensive source of annual bestsellers in the United States from 1895 to 1912, when Publishers Weekly began publishing their own lists.

In 1918, the journal was bought by the George H. Doran Company and then sold in 1927 to Burton Rascoe and Seward B. Collins. After Rascoe's departure in 1928, Collins continued to edit and publish the magazine until it ceased publication in 1933.It was edited by Arthur Bartlett Maurice (1873–1946) from 1899 to 1916; by G.G. Wyant from 1916 to 1918; and by John C. Farrar during the years it was owned by George H. Doran. Only under the brief editorship of Burton Rascoe from 1927-28 did it abandon its conservative standards and political stance, publishing, for example, Upton Sinclair's novel Boston. Its last editor was Seward Collins, under whose editorship The Bookman carried articles conforming to his conservative views, influenced by Irving Babbitt, and promoted humanism and distributism. Collins himself was moving towards a far-right and fascist during his years as editor. When The Bookman ceased publication in 1933, Collins launched The American Review.

Third Ways

Third Ways: How Bulgarian Greens, Swedish Housewives, and Beer-Swilling Englishmen Created Family-Centered Economies – and Why They Disappeared is a book which looks at twentieth century alternatives to unrestricted capitalism on the one hand, and totalitarian systems such as communism, socialism, and fascism on the other. It was written by Allan C. Carlson and published by ISI Books in 2007.

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