Distracted driving

Distracted driving refers to the act of driving while engaging in other activities which distract the driver's attention away from the road. Distractions are shown to compromise the safety of the driver, passengers, pedestrians, and people in other vehicles.[1]

Cell phone use while behind the wheel is one of the common forms of distracted driving.[2] According to the United States Department of Transportation, "texting while driving creates a crash risk 23 times higher than driving while not distracted."[3] Studies and polls regularly find that over 30% of United States drivers had recently texted and driven.[4][5][6] Distracted driving is particularly common among, but not exclusive to, younger drivers.[7][8]

Types of distractions

Distractions while driving can be separated into three distinct groups: visual, manual, and cognitive. Visual distractions involve taking one's eyes off the road, such as looking at a GPS system or checking a child's seat belt in the rear view mirror. Manual distractions involve taking one's hands off the wheel, such as searching for something in a bag, eating or drinking, grooming, or changing radio stations.[9] Cognitive distractions occur when an individual is not mentally focused on the act of driving.[10] Some distractions can combine some or all of these groups, such as texting and calling on one's cell phone.[11]

Driving distractions can greatly vary in form and severity. They range from the use of cell phones and other electronics to rubbernecking[12], carrying passengers including children[13][14] and pets[15][16] in the vehicle, eating while driving[17], and searching for misplaced items.[18]

Distraction rates

A 2016 study[4] found that nearly 50 percent of drivers admitted to, while driving, reading a text message, sending a text message, checking their phone for directions, or using social media. Overall, nearly 60 percent of respondents admitted to using their cell phone at least once while driving. Older age was strongly correlated with decreased cell phone distraction scores.

The US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) discovered that 35 to 50 percent of drivers admit to using a smartphone while driving and 90 percent of drivers fear those who do.[19]

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2011 study found that 69% of respondent drivers between the ages of 18 and 64 admitted to calling on the phone while driving in the month before the survey and that 31% sent or read an email or text message.[20]

A Harris Poll survey[5] in February 2015 showed differences in distracted driving by United States region with 24 percent frequency in the Northeast, 28 percent in the Midwest, 30 percent in the West, and 35 percent in the South. 4% more males texted and drove than females. 51 percent of 18- to 34-year-olds texted and drove, 39 percent of 35- to 44-year-olds texted and drove, 33 percent of 45- to 54-year-olds texted and drove, 14 percent of 55- to 64-year-olds texted and drove, and 7 percent of people 65 years old or older texted drove.

According to a HealthDay poll from November 2011,[6] most adults who drive confess to engaging in distracted driving behaviors. In addition to use of electronic devices, behaviors admitted include eating or drinking, to which 86% of drivers admitted; combing or styling hair, to which at least 20 percent admitted; and applying makeup, to which 14 percent admitted. The poll also reported that younger drivers and males had higher rates of distraction. A study from the president of Hagerty Insurance Agency found that coffee, hot soup, tacos, chili, hamburgers, and barbecued foods were the most dangerous to try and eat while driving.[14]

According to a study by AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 15 percent of reported crashes were due to a teen driver distracted by talking with a passenger. Another 12 percent of crashes occurred because a teen was either talking, texting or searching for information on a cellphone while driving. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration determined that distracted driving accounts for 25 percent of all crashes involving teenage drivers.[21]

Hazard assessment

A New England Journal of Medicine study in 2013 estimated the following crash or near-crash risks among novice drivers:[12]

Activity Odds Ratio
Calling on a phone 8.3
Reaching for a phone 7.1
Sending or receiving text messages 3.9
Reaching for an object other than a phone 8.0
Looking at a roadside object (Rubbernecking) 3.9
Eating 3.0
Interaction with radio (or head unit) 1.0

A 2003 study of U.S. crash data estimates that distracted driving contributed to 8-13 percent of police-reported crashes, with phone use sourcing 1.5 to 5 percent of these. Driver inattention contributed to an estimated 20-50 percent of crashes.[22] The most-reported cause of distraction-related accidents was "outside person, object, or event" (commonly known as rubbernecking), followed by "adjusting radio/cassette player/CD". "Using a phone" was the eighth most reported cause. In 2011, according to the NHTSA, 1/3 of accidents were caused by distracted driving.[23]

The National Safety Council (NSC) estimates that 1.6 million (25%) of crashes annually are due to calling on a smartphone, and another 1 million (18%) are caused by texting while driving. These numbers equate to one accident caused every 24 seconds by driving distracted from phone use. It also reported that speaking in a call while driving reduces focus on the road and the act of driving by 37 percent, irrespective of hands-free calling operation.[24] Calling on a phone is estimated to increase the risk of experienced drivers crashing or nearly crashing by a factor of 2.5.[12] The US Department of Transportation estimates that reaching for a phone distracts a driver for 4.6 seconds; at 55 miles per hour, this could equal a football field of distance.[25]

A study by the American Automobile Association (AAA) found that talking to a passenger was as distracting as talking in a call on a hands-free smartphone[26], and a study by Monash University found that having one or more children in the car was 12 times more distracting than calling while driving.[13] Devid Petrie of the Huffington Post deemed backseat children passengers the worst distraction for drivers, and recommended pulling over in case of crying children.[14] According to an AAA study, 80 percent of respondents with dogs drove with them, but 31 percent of these admitted to being distracted by them, and only 17 percent used any form of pet restraints.[15]

Boston Globe correspondent Lucia Huntington stated that "eating while operating a vehicle has become the norm, but...proves costly for many drivers. Soups, unwieldy burgers, and hot drinks can make steering a car impossible. Although the dangers...are apparent and well known, drivers ignore them repeatedly, accounting for many crashes and near-misses."[17]

Risk characterization

The rising annual rate of fatalities from distracted driving corresponds to both the number of cell phone subscriptions per capita, as well as the average number of text messages sent per month. From 2009 to 2011, the number of text messages sent increased by nearly 50 percent.[27]

Distracted driving offenders are more likely to report driving while drowsy, going 20 miles per hour over the speed limit, driving aggressively, not stopping at a red light or stop sign, and driving while under the influence of alcohol.[28]

The American Automobile Association (AAA) reports that younger drivers are overwhelmingly more likely than older drivers to text message and talk on cell phones while driving. However, the proportion of drivers aged 35–44 who reported talking on cell phones while driving is not significantly lower than those drivers aged 18–24 who report doing so.[29] More than 600 parents and caregivers were surveyed in two Michigan emergency rooms while their children, ages 1–12 years, were being treated for any reason. During this survey, almost 90% of drivers reported engaging in at least one technology-related distraction while driving their children in the past month. The parents who disclosed conducting phone calls while driving were 2.6 times likely to have reportedly been involved in a motor vehicle crash.[30]

Accident risk assessment

In 2011, Shutko and Tijerina reviewed a large naturalistic study of in field operational tests on cars, heavy product vehicles, and commercial vehicles and buses and concluded that:

  • Most of the collisions and near misses that occur involve inattention as a contributing factor.
  • Visual inattention (looking away from the road ahead) is the single most significant factor contributing to crash and near-crash involvement.
  • Cognitive distraction associated with listening to, or talking on, a handheld or hands-free device is associated with crashes and near-miss events to a lesser extent than is commonly believed, and such distractions may even enhance safety in some instances.[31]

Effects on the brain

Brain activity without distractions

The somatosensory association, parietal and visual cortices are not significantly activated during simple driving tasks, like driving straight or making a right-hand turn. A left turn with no oncoming traffic presents a little more activation in the premotor cortex, somatosensory area, visual and parietal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. When oncoming traffic is introduced while trying to make a left-hand turn, there is a significant activation multiple bilateral regions in the mid-posterior brain, which includes motor and premotor areas, visual, parietal, and somatosensory regions, and the cerebellum.[32]

Brain activity with distractions

When something as simple as answering general knowledge true-or-false questions are introduced as a distraction to the driver, the brain activity is increased during both straight driving and when turning left with the presence of oncoming traffic. When just driving straight, which showed very little brain activation without distraction, is paired with answering simple questions, there is a significant increase in brain activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally, along with the auditory cortex and parietal lobes. There was also decreased activation in occipital-visual regions of the brain. When a left turn plus traffic, which already yielded the most activation of the undistracted driving tasks, had audio tasks added to the tasking, auditory, motor, somatosensory, visual, parietal, and cerebellar regions were activated. There was also significant additional activation bilaterally in the anterior brain areas, mainly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontal polar region.[32]

Driving ability

The areas of the brain that have decreased activation during a moment of multitasking are areas of spatial processing and spatial attention. Because of this, it is important for drivers to focus on only the task at hand, driving. Even though driving becomes a primary cognitive function, when drivers are distracted (e.g.on their cell phones, talking to passengers, or fiddling with the radio), the areas of the brain that need to be activated to safely operate the vehicle are not.[33]

Consequences

The rate of incidents associated with distracted driving is growing in the United States. According to an NHTSA report, 3,477 people were killed and 391,000 were injured in the United States from motor vehicle crashes involving distracted drivers in 2015. The report states that 80% of accidents and 16% of highway deaths are the results of distracted drivers. [34]

Incidents related to distracting driving have been particularly common among young drivers. In 2008, there were 23,059 accidents involving 16- to 19-year-olds, which led to 194 deaths. Of these deaths, 10 percent were reported to be caused by distracted driving. Throughout the United States, over 3,000 deaths and 416,000 injuries annually can be attributed to distracted driving.[35] Driving while texting is about 4 times more likely to result in an accident than drinking while driving, while the risk of injury requiring hospital visitation is 3–5 times greater than for other types of accidents.[36]

Some distracted driving accidents include:

Solutions

Legislation

Thirty-nine states and the District of Columbia (D.C.) have passed laws related to distracted driving.[38] Additionally, 41 states, DC and Guam have banned text messaging for all drivers, and 10 states, DC and Guam prohibit drivers from holding phones while driving.[39] However, no state currently completely bans all use of the device, including hands-free.[40] Each state varies in the restrictions placed upon drivers.[41]

Current US laws are not strictly enforced. Punishments are so mild that people pay little attention. Drivers are not categorically prohibited from using phones while driving. For example, using earphones to talk and texting with a hands-free device remain legal.[38]

Laws have not led to consistent driver compliance. Hand-held phone usage fell in New York in the five months after the hands-free law took effect. However, it returned to near the prior level by the 16-month mark.[42]

Other steps

Another approach is through education. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and NHTSA conducted a series of initiatives and campaigns, such as "One Text or Call Could Wreck It all", "Stop the Texts, Stop the Wrecks" advertisement, and "Faces of Distracted Driving". The "Stop the Texts, Stop the Wrecks" commercials advocate safe driving habits via vivid scenarios,[43] attempting to make the consequences of distraction more tangible. The "Faces of Distracted Driving" is a DOT online video series that focuses on individuals who have been personally affected.[44]

In the August 2013 issue of Motor Age magazine, the NHTSA released voluntary guidelines covering the use of in-car infotainment and communication devices. "Proposed items include disabling manual text entry and video-based systems prohibiting the display of text messages, social media or webpages while the car is in motion or in gear. The goal: Don't take the driver's eyes off the road for more than two seconds at a time, or 12 seconds in total by limiting drivers to six inputs or touches to the screen in 12 seconds".[45]

The cellular network providers AT&T, Verizon, Sprint, T-Mobile and several hundred other organizations have teamed up to create the "It Can Wait" campaign, that started on May 20, 2013 (Wireless Leaders Unite for "It Can Wait" Campaign to Curb Texting While Driving, 2013). The campaign is an attempt to inform young drivers that no phone call or text message is worth a life.[46]

Washington State has also created a video PSA to educate people about the dangers of distracting driving.

Some employers have taken steps to reduce distracted driving beyond current legislation; The military permits only hands-free use of phones. Freight companies ban phone use while driving.[47] In October 2009, President Obama signed an executive order banning federal employees from sending texts in government cars.[14]

U.S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood introduced his "Blueprint for Ending Distracted Driving," a plan for reducing distracted driving accidents and related deaths.[48] This blueprint encourages the eleven states without distracted driving laws to enact such legislation. It challenges the auto industry to adopt guidelines to reduce the potential for distraction. It recommended that states partner with driving educators on new curriculum materials.[49]

Technology

Automakers are providing dashboard and heads-up displays to allow driving information to be available without the driver looking away from the road. Gesture- and voice-based interfaces simplify controlling the vehicle and its services. Mobile applications may disable communication, blank the screen or limit access to applications or programs when the device is in motion. A similar approach is under investigation by telecom providers.[50]

On January 7, 2014, an article in CNNMoney announced a partnership between AT&T and car manufacturers Audi and Tesla. AT&T head of emerging devices, Glenn Lurie, told CNNMoney that these advancements reflect a major step forward in converting cars form mindless machines to intelligent gadgets. AT&T says everything is going to be connected. The car will be easier to use, safer, reduce distracted driving, and deliver infotainment. When asked, "Will these innovations increase distracted driving?", Mr. Laurie replied, "Visual distractions will be limited to passengers as drivers can keep their hands on the wheel". One will need only their voice to send messages and communicate with their car.[51]

Toyota is working on perfecting technology that will monitor driver's eyelids to ensure that they are looking at the road. Other vehicle manufacturers are also working on similar technology. For example, General Motors has a pilot program to monitor distraction. Likewise, Jaguar Land Rover monitors the driver's eyes to create the 3D image for its "Virtual Windscreen".[52]

Cellebrite has reportedly developed a textalyzer device that can be used to scan a vehicle driver's smartphone after an accident or incident to determine whether the phone was used to make calls, send text messages and/or emails when the vehicle was in motion.[53]

The use of Smartphone applications (apps) designed to stop certain phone behaviours while driving is an emerging countermeasure for distracted driving. A study at the Queensland University of Technology examined 29 apps that aim to stop drivers picking up their mobiles and reading and answering texts or engaging in phone calls behind the wheel and found that many of these road safety apps simply 'hide' incoming texts and calls – they silence notifications so that the driver doesn't know someone is trying to reach them, with the app sending an auto-reply to say the driver can't answer. [54] In addition, Dr Oviedo-Trespalacios et al [55] found that current applications to prevent mobile phone use while driving might not fully prevent visual-manual interactions such as in-car streaming music interfaces or GPS devices, which is not always compatible with driving. Some popular applications include Apple Inc. "Do Not Disturb While Driving", AT&T DriveMode, DriveSafe.ly, Android Auto, etc.

See also

References

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External links

Anti-Distracted Driving Act (Philippines)

The Anti-Distracted Driving Act, officially recorded as Republic Act No. 10913, is a law in the Philippines that prohibits distracted driving by restricting and penalizing the use of mobile phones and other electronics devices while driving on any public thoroughfare, highway or street in the Philippines. The republic act defines "distracted driving" as "using mobile communications device to write, send, or read a text-based communication or to make or receive calls" or "using an electronic entertainment or computing device to play games, watch movies, surf the internet, compose messages, read e-books, perform calculations, and other similar acts" while behind the wheel of a moving vehicle or while temporarily stopped at a red light. The law covers all private and public vehicles, including agricultural machines, construction equipments, public utility buses and jeepneys, taxicabs, motorcycles, tricycles, pedicabs, kuligligs and carriages.

Distraction

Distraction is the process of diverting the attention of an individual or group from a desired area of focus and thereby blocking or diminishing the reception of desired information. Distraction is caused by: the lack of ability to pay attention; lack of interest in the object of attention; or the great intensity, novelty or attractiveness of something other than the object of attention. Distractions come from both external sources, and internal sources. External distractions include factors such as visual triggers, social interactions, music, text messages, and phone calls. There are also internal distractions such as hunger, fatigue, illness, worrying, and daydreaming. Both external and internal distractions contribute to the interference of focus.

Doug Eyolfson

Doug Eyolfson (born 1963) is a Canadian physician and Member of Parliament in the House of Commons of Canada for the riding of Charleswood—St. James—Assiniboia—Headingley. He was elected in the 2015 federal election.

He is a member of the Standing Committee on Health, the Standing Committee on Veteran Affairs and the Subcommittee on Sports-Related Concussions in Canada. He is also the chair of the Manitoba Liberal Caucus.

Driving

Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a motor vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, and buses. Permission to drive on public highways is granted based on a set of conditions being met and drivers are required to follow the established road and traffic laws in the location they are driving.

Matt Richtel

Matt Richtel (born October 2, 1966 in Los Angeles) is an American writer and journalist for The New York Times. He was awarded the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting for a series on distracted driving.Richtel obtained a bachelor's degree from the University of California at Berkeley and an MS from the Columbia School of Journalism.He is the author of A Deadly Wandering, a New York Times-bestselling nonfiction narrative that intertwines the story of a car crash caused by a texting driver with a study of the science of attention. It was named one of the best books of 2014 by The Christian Science Monitor, San Francisco Chronicle, and Amazon, among others.

Richtel also writes fiction and has authored several mystery/thrillers, including Dead on Arrival (William Morrow, 2017), called by the New York Times Book Review "An intellectual thrill ride that tucks searing social critique into the Trojan horse of a save-the-world page-turner." He also wrote Doomsday Equation (2015), The Cloud, and Devil's Plaything. His first book, called Hooked, is about a reporter whose life is turned upside down when he escapes a cafe explosion after a stranger hands him a note in his dead fiancée's handwriting warning him to leave.He co-created and formerly wrote the syndicated comic Rudy Park under the pen name Theron Heir. Since 2012, the strip is now written by its longtime illustrator Darrin Bell.In 2010, Richtel wrote, and was interviewed, about the impact on the human brain of living with "a deluge of data" from digital devices. In the interview, he previewed his current investigation into the idea that "[t]here is some thought that the way kids' brains ... and frontal lobes ... are developing" differently from those of their parents and others of older generations. He said he expected to publish his work on this subject in early December.His most recent book released in March 2019, titled An Elegant Defense, follows the story of four individuals in a complex narrative that demonstrates the function of the immune system.

Mobile phones and driving safety

Mobile phone use while driving is common but it is widely considered dangerous due to its potential for causing distracted driving and crashes. Due to the number of crashes that are related to conducting calls on a phone and texting while driving, some jurisdictions have made the use of calling on a phone while driving illegal. Many jurisdictions have enacted laws to ban handheld mobile phone use. Nevertheless, many jurisdictions allow use of a hands-free device. Driving while using a hands-free device is not safer than using a handheld phone to conduct calls, as concluded by case-crossover studies, epidemiological, simulation, and meta-analysis. In some cases restrictions are directed only at minors, those who are newly qualified license holders (of any age), or to drivers in school zones. In addition to voice calling, activities such as texting while driving, web browsing, playing video games, or phone use in general can also increase the risk of a crash.

In the United States, automobile crashes due to distracted driving are increasing. The leading cause of distracted driving is cell phones.In 2015, six hundred and sixty thousand drivers in the United States were estimated to use cell phones each day, while driving behind the wheel during daylight hours. Cell phone use while driving has become a leading cause of vehicle crashes over the last two decades. Using a cell phone while driving increases the driver's risk of causing a crash. Drivers are distracted, decreasing the driver's awareness on the road, leading to more car crashes. When drivers talk on cell phones the risk of an automobile crash resulting in hospitalization is four times higher than when not talking on a cell phone[2]. Drivers who text when behind the wheel, are twenty-three times more likely to have an automobile crash. One out of every four automobile crashes in the United States are caused by texting while driving. Some states have implemented laws in regards to using cell phones while driving, there is more to be done.

Ontario Students Against Impaired Driving

OSAID (Ontario Students Against Impaired Driving) is an anti-impaired driving initiative which is found across the province of Ontario, Canada, aimed primarily at youth involvement in combating impaired driving. It was founded in 1987 and encourages the student population to practice responsible choices and to never to drive while impaired. OSAID chapter members regularly hold awareness raising activities, such as mocktail sales or events aimed at raising awareness about the dangers of driving while impaired.

OSAID describes itself as: "... a provincial youth driven organization peer education, health promotion and injury prevention program that strives to promote smart healthy choices through education and public awareness to prevent tragedies caused by impaired and distracted driving."

Passenger problem

The passenger problem is the inability of technological systems designed for use in a moving vehicle to differentiate between a driver and a passenger.

The passenger problem arises when such a device or system is intended to function differently when used by a driver versus a passenger, but is unable to autonomously determine the role of its user. The problem is a factor for distracted driving prevention systems, GPS navigation software, and usage-based insurance systems.

Peter H. Appel

Peter H. Appel (born 1964) was the administrator of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA). From 2009 to 2011 Appel was the Obama Administration point person on transportation technology issues and research. He left RITA in late 2011 for the private sector to work on emerging technologies in the transportation industry.

Pinky swear

To pinky swear, or to make a pinky promise, is the locking of the pinkies of two people to signify that a promise has been made.

In the United States, the pinky swear has existed since at least 1860, when Dictionary of Americanisms listed the following accompanying promise:

Pinky, pinky bow-bell,

Whoever tells a lie

Will sink down to the bad place [sic]

And never rise up again.Pinky swearing presumably started in Japan, where it is called yubikiri (指切り, "finger cut-off") and often additionally confirmed with the vow "Finger cut-off, ten thousand fist-punchings, whoever lies has to swallow thousand needles." (指切拳万、嘘ついたら針千本呑ます, "Yubikiri genman, uso tsuitara hari senbon nomasu"). The gesture may be connected to the Japanese belief that soulmates are connected by a red thread of fate attached to each of their pinkies.

Recently in South Korea, the hooked pinky has been followed by a “seal,” wherein the thumbs touch each other while the pinkies are still hooked.

In modern times, pinky swearing is a more informal way of sealing a promise. It is most common among school-age children and close friends. The pinky swear signifies a promise that can never be broken. Pinky promises can only be made if there is a clear understanding on both parties. If there is no clear understanding then the pinky promise may be voided.A new movement using #iPinkySwear started after Linda "Pinky" Brown was hit by a distracted driver while riding her motorcycle. On September 1st, 2015, Canadian distracted driving laws and fines were given harsher penalties. It was this day that "Pinky" was hit by an individual with 9 previous major driving infractions, her injuries being number 10. While in the hospital the campaign known as "Don't Drive Distracted- I Pinky Swear" was born.

Put It Down (South Park)

"Put It Down" is the second episode in the twenty-first season of the American animated television series South Park. The 279th episode of the series overall, it first aired on Comedy Central in the United States on September 20, 2017.

The episode's plot concerns Craig's attempts to assuage Tweek's anxieties over the contemporary issues parodied in the episode, including the relations between North Korea and the United States following the 2017 North Korean nuclear tests, distracted driving, and the impact of Donald Trump on social media.

Research and Innovative Technology Administration

The Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) is a unit of the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT). It was created in 2005 to advance transportation science, technology, and analysis, and to improve the coordination of transportation research within the department and throughout the transportation community.

RITA performs four basic functions:

Coordinates the USDOT's research and education programs

Shares advanced technologies with the transportation system

Offers transportation statistics and analysis for decision-making

Supports national efforts to improve education and training in transportation-related fieldsRITA has over 750 employees in Washington, at the Volpe Center (Cambridge, Massachusetts), and at the Transportation Safety Institute (Oklahoma City, OK).

Restrictions on cell phone use while driving in the United States

Various laws in the United States regulate the use of mobile phones and other electronics by motorists. Different states take different approaches. Some laws affect only novice drivers or commercial drivers, while some laws affect all drivers. Some laws target handheld devices only, while other laws affect both handheld and handsfree devices.

Textalyzer

A textalyzer is a proposed device that would allow the police to detect illegal text messaging while driving. The device has been promoted as a means of reducing distracted driving. The device would be used by police officers who suspect that a driver has been texting while driving using similar procedures currently in place for drivers suspected of driving under the influence. The device would be connected to the driver's mobile phone and would scan the phone for calls, e-mails, or text messages sent when the driver would have been operating the vehicle.

In 2016, legislation was introduced in the New York Senate to implement the use of textalyzers, but the effort ultimately failed. A report by the New York Governor's Traffic Safety Committee was worried about the lack of competing products and unknown costs of the device which the manufacturer was not going to produce until they had a legal market for it. Among other concerns, they stated that there is "no evidence that the product will be able to do what the manufacturer claims." This was echoed by the statement of American Civil Liberties Union, which did not believe the device could be made to reliably distinguish between illegal texts and legal activity such as texts written by a car passenger or texting via hands-free speech-to-text technology. According to an ACLU security engineer, phones do not log information in enough detail to differentiate between these cases.Law experts as well as members of police have stated that the device might be in contravention of existing privacy laws. The Riley v California Supreme Court case states that a warrant is necessary to search the contents of a cell phone found on an arrested person. Additionally, some see it as an unnecessary breach of privacy to get information that can already be acquired through other means.

Texting while driving

Texting while driving, also called texting and driving, is the act of composing, sending, reading text messages, email, or making similar use of the web on a mobile phone while operating a motor vehicle. Texting while driving is considered extremely dangerous by many people, including authorities, and in some places have either been outlawed or restricted. As a form of distracted driving, texting while driving significantly increases the chances that a driver will be involved in a motor vehicle accident.

Tombras Group

Charles Tombras Advertising, Inc., dba The Tombras Group, is a full service advertising agency founded in 1946 and headquartered in Knoxville, Tennessee, noted for its national advertising campaigns in the United States. In 2015 The Tombras Group was honored as National Small Agency of the Year, presented by Advertising Age.With annual billings of $270 million, Tombras is one of the top 25 largest independent national advertising agencies. Tombras is headquartered in Knoxville, Tennessee with offices in Washington, D.C., Louisville, Kentucky, and Charlotte, North Carolina. Tombras offers advertising, creative development, web design and in-house programming, branding, media buying, public relations, social media, content development, search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), integrated marketing communications, analytics and marketing research services. Tombras is a member of the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA).

Vehicular cycling

Vehicular cycling (also known as bicycle driving) is the practice of riding bicycles on roads in a manner that is in accordance with the principles for driving in traffic, and in a way that places responsibility for safety on the individual.

The phrase vehicular cycling was coined by John Forester in the 1970s. In his book Effective Cycling, Forester contends that "Cyclists fare best when they act and are treated as drivers of vehicles".These techniques have been adopted by the League of American Bicyclists and other organizations teaching safe riding courses for cyclists. As a method for strong and confident riders to cope with fast motor traffic, many recommendations of vehicular cycling are widely applied. Vehicular cycling has at times been controversial, particularly on larger roads not designed for bikes.

Work-related road safety in the United States

People who are driving as part of their work duties are an important road user category. First, workers themselves are at risk of road traffic injury. Contributing factors include fatigue and long work hours, delivery pressures, distractions from mobile phones and other devices, lack of training to operate the assigned vehicle, vehicle defects, use of prescription and non-prescription medications, medical conditions, and poor journey planning. Death, disability, or injury of a family wage earner due to road traffic injury, in addition to causing emotional pain and suffering, creates economic hardship for the injured worker and family members that may persist well beyond the event itself.

Employers are in a unique position because they can use the employer-employee relationship as leverage to complement and enforce government policies that require safety belt use, prohibit impaired driving, and prohibit mobile-phone use and other forms of distracted driving. Safe-driving policies implemented in the workplace can promote safer driving away from work. In addition, employers, as purchasers of large fleets of vehicles, can spur improvements in vehicle safety, and encourage development of road safety capacity and legislation in the local areas and countries in which they operate, thereby improving road safety for all.

Research examining motor vehicle crashes has focused on topics such as driver fatigue, medical conditions, distracted driving, biomechanics, vehicle engineering, collision warning systems, stability control, naturalistic driving data and the potential relation these factors have on the crashes. Various interventions from researchers studying driver behaviours have focused on vehicle monitoring devices, seat belt controls, behaviour interventions and obeying safe driving practices.

Zach Veach

Zachary E. Veach (born December 9, 1994) is an American auto racing driver, currently competing in the IndyCar Series.

Veach was named to CNN's list of "Intriguing People" in May 2010, is the national spokesperson for FocusDriven, and released his first book, 99 Things Teens Wish They Knew Before Turning 16 on NBC's The Today Show on March 2, 2011.

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