Distinguished Service Cross (United Kingdom)

The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is a third level military decoration awarded to officers, and since 1993 ratings and other ranks, of the British Armed Forces, Royal Fleet Auxiliary and British Merchant Navy, and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries.

The DSC is "awarded in recognition of an act or acts of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy at sea."[2][3] Since 1979 it can be awarded posthumously.[2]

Distinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Cross, Obverse, 1937-47
Obverse of the Cross
Distinguished Service Cross, second award bar
Ribbon bar for further award
Awarded by United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
TypeMilitary decoration
EligibilityBritish, (formerly) Commonwealth, and allied forces
Awarded forGallantry during active operations against the enemy at sea
StatusCurrently awarded
DescriptionPlain silver cross with rounded ends, 43mm max height and width
Statistics
Established15 June 1901 (as Conspicuous Service Cross), renamed October 1914
Total awardedAt least 6,658 Crosses and 603 bars
Order of Wear
Next (higher)Royal Red Cross, First Class[1]
Next (lower)Military Cross[1]
RelatedDistinguished Service Medal
UK Distinguished Service Cross BAR

UK DSC w bar BAR

UK DSC w 2bars BAR
Distinguished Service Cross ribbon:
without bar, and with one and two bars

History

The award was originally created in 1901 as the Conspicuous Service Cross, for award to warrant and subordinate officers, including midshipmen, ineligible for the Distinguished Service Order. It was renamed the Distinguished Service Cross in October 1914, eligibility being extended to all naval officers (commissioned and warrant) below the rank of lieutenant commander.[4]

From March 1915 foreign officers of equivalent rank in allied navies could receive honorary awards, and in August 1916 bars were introduced to reward further acts of gallantry meriting the Cross, with a silver rosette worn on the ribbon when worn alone to denote the award of each bar.[4] During World War I officers of the Merchant and Fishing Fleets had been awarded the DSC and their eligibility was legally clarified by an order in council in 1931.[5]

World War II saw a number of changes. In December 1939 eligibility was extended to Naval Officers of the rank of Commander and Lieutenant-Commander.[5] In April 1940 equivalent ranks in the Royal Air Force serving with the Fleet could receive the DSC, and from November 1942 so could those in the Army aboard defensively equipped merchant ships.[4]

Since the 1993 review of the honours system, as part of the drive to remove distinctions of rank in awards for bravery, the Distinguished Service Medal, formerly the third level decoration for ratings, has been discontinued. The DSC now serves as the third level award for gallantry at sea for all ranks, not to the standard required to receive the Victoria Cross or the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross.[6]

The DSC had also been awarded by Commonwealth countries but by 1990's most, including Canada, Australia and New Zealand, were establishing their own honours systems and no longer recommended British honours.[7]

Recipients are entitled to the post-nominal "DSC".[5]

Description

The DSC is a plain silver cross with rounded ends with a width of 43 millimetres (1.7 in) and with the following design:[8]

  • The obverse has a circular centre containing the Royal Cypher of the reigning monarch at the time of award surmounted by a crown.
  • The reverse is plain apart from the hallmark, and the ribbon is attached via a hall-marked silver ring. From 1940 year of issue was engraved on lower limb of cross,[9] and since 1984 it has been awarded named to the recipient.[8]
  • The ribbon has three equal stripes of dark blue, white and dark blue.[9]
  • The ribbon bar denoting a further award is plain silver, with convex ends and a central crown.

Recipients

Numbers awarded

Since 1901 at least 6,658 Crosses and 603 bars have been awarded. The dates below reflect the relevant London Gazette entries:[10]

Period Crosses 1st bar 2nd bar 3rd bar
Pre 1914 1901–1913 8
World War I 1914–1920 1,983[11] 91 10
Inter–War 1921–1938 7
World War II 1939–1946 4,524 434 44 1
Post–War 1947–2016 136[12] 18 5
Total 1901–2016 6,658 543 59 1

A number of honorary awards were made to members of allied foreign forces, including 151 for World War I and 228, with 12 first bars and 2 second bars, for World War II. Eight honorary awards were made in 1955 to members of the US Navy for service in Korea.[10]

The above table includes awards to the Dominions:
In all, 199 DSCs have gone to those serving with Canadian forces, with 34 first bars and five second bars.[13] It was replaced in 1993 by the Medal of Military Valour.
182 were awarded to Australians, in addition to 13 first bars and three second bars. Last awarded to an Australian in 1972, it was replaced in 1991 by the Medal for Gallantry.[14]

Four-time recipient

Only one person has ever been awarded the Distinguished Service Cross four times. Norman Eyre Morley served in the Royal Naval Reserve during World War I and World War II. He was awarded the DSC for the first time in 1919. He was awarded his second DSC in 1944. He was awarded the DSC a further two times in 1945. He gained an entry into the Guinness Book of Records as the most decorated reserve naval officer.[15][16]

List of three time recipients

Collective Award

In 1919 the Distinguished Service Cross was awarded to the City of Dunkirk for the gallant behaviour of its citizens during World War I, and the Cross appears in the coat of arms of the city.[18][19]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b "JSP 761 Honours and Awards in the Armed Forces" (PDF). p. 12A-1. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  2. ^ a b "No. 56693". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 October 2002. p. 11145.
  3. ^ Defence FactSheet Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 28 June 2007.
  4. ^ a b c Abbott & Tamplin, pages 107-109.
  5. ^ a b c Dorling, page 40.
  6. ^ "Distinguished Service Cross". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  7. ^ Mussell, pages 390, 429, 459.
  8. ^ a b Mussell, page 86.
  9. ^ a b Duckers, pages 24-25.
  10. ^ a b Abbott & Tamplin, pages 110-111.
  11. ^ Abbott & Tamplin, page 110 gives varying figures from several sources, this being the highest figure.
  12. ^ Abbott & Tamplin, page 111 confirms 95 DSCs for 1947-79. A further 41 awarded 1980-2016: 30 for South Atlantic (London Gazette Supplements, 3 June 1982 & 8 October 1982); 7 for Gulf War (London Gazette Supplement, 29 June 1991); 1 for Iraq War (London Gazette Supplement 31 October 2003); and 3 for smaller conflicts:(London Gazette Supplements 6 April 2001, 23 March 2012 & 18 March 2016).
  13. ^ Veterans Affairs Canada – Distinguished Service Cross (Retrieved 7 November 2018)
  14. ^ "Imperial Awards". It's an Honour. Australian Government. Archived from the original on 23 June 2006. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  15. ^ "No. 37127". The London Gazette (Supplement). 8 June 1945. p. 3088.
  16. ^ "An important collection of Royal Navy items relating to Commander Norman Morley DSC". Bonhams. 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  17. ^ "No. 39854". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 May 1953. p. 2765.
  18. ^ "Traces of War". TracesOfWar. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  19. ^ "La Grande Guerre (fr)". Dunkerque & vous. Retrieved 11 November 2018.

Bibliography

  • Current Royal Warrant for the Distinguished Service Cross, 17 September 2002. London Gazette.
  • Abbott, Peter and Tamplin, John – British Gallantry Awards, 2nd edition (1981). Nimrod Dix and Co, London. (ISBN 9780902633742)
  • Dorling, H. Taprell – Ribbons and Medals, (1956). A. H. Baldwin & Son
  • Duckers, Peter – British Gallantry Awards 1855–2000, (2011). Shire Publications, Risborough, Buckinghamshire. (ISBN 9780747805168)
  • Mussell, J (ed) – Medals Yearbook 2015, (2014). Token Publishing, Honiton, Devon. (ISBN 9781908828163)
Allan Noble

Sir Allan Herbert Percy Noble, DSO, DSC (1908–1982) was an English naval commander, politician, and diplomat.

Andrew Woodhouse

The Ven. Andrew Henry Woodhouse DSC (born 30 January 1923) is an Anglican priest: he was the Archdeacon of Ludlow from 1970 to 1982; and Archdeacon of Hereford from 1982 to 1991.

He was educated at Lancing College, The Queen's College, Oxford . His time at Oxford was split with wartime service with the RNVR. He was ordained in 1951 after a period of study at Lincoln Theological College. After a curacy at Curate of All Saints, Poplar he was Vicar of St Martin, West Drayton from 1956 to 1970; Rural Dean of Hillingdon from 1967 to 1970; Rector of Wistanstow from 1970 to 1982; and a Canon Residentiary at Hereford Cathedral from 1982 to 1991.

Arthur Reginald Evans

Arthur Reginald Evans, DSC (14 May 1905 – 31 January 1989) was an Australian coastwatcher in the Pacific Ocean theatre in World War II. He is chiefly remembered for having played a significant part in the rescue of future US President John F. Kennedy and his surviving crew after their Motor Torpedo Boat, PT-109, was sunk by enemy action in August 1943.

David Dunbar-Nasmith

Rear Admiral David Arthur Dunbar-Nasmith (21 February 1921 – 15 September 1997) was a former Royal Navy officer who became Naval Secretary.

David Foster (Royal Navy officer)

David Ramsey Foster, DSO, DSC and bar (24 May 1920 – 4 June 2010) was a decorated pilot in the British Royal Navy during World War II and a business executive.

Edmund Rushbrooke

Vice-Admiral Edmund Gerard Noel Rushbrooke, CBE, DSC (15 December 1892 – 9 October 1972) was a Royal Navy officer.

Herbert Rayner

Vice Admiral Herbert Sharples Rayner DSC & Bar, CD (16 January 1911 – 30 May 1976) was a Royal Canadian Navy officer who served as Chief of the Naval Staff from 1960 to 1964.

Horace Law

Admiral Sir Horace Rochfort Law (23 June 1911 – 30 January 2005) was Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command.

James Johnson (South African Navy officer)

Vice-Admiral James 'Johnny' Johnson (10 February 1918 – 2 October 1990) was a former Chief of the South African Navy (1 April 1972 to 30 September 1977).

He was nicknamed "Flam" after his wartime red beard - "Vlambaard" in Afrikaans.

John Bush (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral Sir John Fitzroy Duyland Bush (1 November 1914 – 10 May 2013) was a British Royal Navy officer who served as Commander-in-Chief Western Fleet.

John Eaton (Royal Navy officer)

Vice Admiral Sir John William Musgrave Eaton, (3 November 1902 – 21 July 1981) was a Royal Navy officer who served as Commander-in-Chief America and West Indies Station from 1955 to 1956.

Maurice Wood

Maurice Arthur Ponsonby Wood, (26 August 1916 – 24 June 2007) was an Anglican bishop in the Evangelical tradition. He was a Royal Navy commando chaplain in World War II and later the Bishop of Norwich.

Nilakanta Krishnan

Vice Admiral Nilakanta Krishnan, PVSM, DSC (1919 – January 1982) was an Indian Navy Admiral. He was the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the Eastern Naval Command during the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War. He is credited with using a very innovative strategy, while commanding the Eastern Navy which had the aircraft carrier INS Vikrant, in the Bay of Bengal. He is believed to have tricked the Pakistani submarine PNS Ghazi, which was on a search and destroy mission, into entering Visakhapatnam; where it was eliminated.

Owen Woodhouse

Sir Arthur Owen Woodhouse (18 July 1916 – 15 April 2014) was a New Zealand jurist and chair of government commissions.

Patrick Graham (Royal Navy officer)

Rear-Admiral Patrick Walter Willingdon Graham, CB, DSC (26 February 1915 – 31 May 1980) was a Royal Navy officer.

Peter Bull

Peter Cecil Bull, (21 March 1912 – 20 May 1984) was a British character actor who appeared in supporting roles in such film classics as The African Queen, Tom Jones and Dr. Strangelove.

Peter Hellings

General Sir Peter William Cradock Hellings, (6 September 1916 – 2 November 1990) was a Royal Marines officer who served as Commandant General Royal Marines from 1968 to 1971.

Phil Connolly

Philip George Connolly (14 November 1899 – 13 February 1970) was a New Zealand politician of the Labour Party.

William Anderson (bishop of Salisbury)

William Louis Anderson DSC (11 February 1882 – 5 March 1972) was the Church of England Bishop of Portsmouth and then the Bishop of Salisbury. He also held what is believed to be the unique distinction of being the only bishop to have served in all three of the armed services.

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