A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine, policy, or institution. In a religious context, the word has been used since 18th century, and in the political sense since 1940, coinciding with the rise of totalitarian systems, especially the Soviet Union.[1]

Eastern bloc dissidents

The term dissident was used in the Eastern bloc, particularly in the Soviet Union, in the period following Joseph Stalin's death until the fall of communism. It was attached to citizens who criticized the practices or the authority of the Communist Party. The people who used to write and distribute non-censored, non-conformist samizdat literature were criticized in the official newspapers. Soon, many of those who were dissatisfied with the Soviet Bloc began to self-identify as dissidents.[2] This radically changed the meaning of the term: instead of being used in reference to an individual who opposes society, it came to refer to an individual whose non-conformism was perceived to be for the good of a society.[3][4][5] An important element of dissident activity in the USSR was informing society (both inside the Soviet Union and in foreign countries) about violation of laws and human rights: see Chronicle of Current Events and Moscow Helsinki Group. Some famous Soviet dissents were Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov.

Republican dissidents in Ireland

The term dissident has become the primary term to describe Irish republicans who politically continue to oppose Good Friday Agreement of 1998 and reject the outcome of the referendums on it. These political parties also have paramilitary wings which espouse violent methods to achieve a United Ireland.

Irish republican dissident groups include the Irish Republican Socialist Party (founded in 1974 – its currently-inactive paramilitary wing is the Irish National Liberation Army), Republican Sinn Féin (founded in 1986 – its paramilitary wing is the Continuity IRA), and the 32 County Sovereignty Movement (founded in 1997 – its paramilitary wing is the Real IRA). In 2006 the Óglaigh na hÉireann emerged, which is a splinter group of the Continuity IRA.[6]

Dissidents and new technologies

Dissidents and activists were among the earliest adopters of encrypted communications technology such as Tor and the dark web, turning to the technology as ways to resist authoritarian regimes, avoid censorship and control and protect privacy.[7][8][9]

Tor was widely used by protestors on Mubarak regime in Egypt in 2011. Tor allowed dissidents to communicate anonymously and securely, while sharing sensitive information. Also, Syrian rebels widely used Tor in order to share with the world all of the horrors that they witnessed in their country.[10] Moreover, government dissidents in Lebanon, Mauritania, as well as Arab Spring nations widely used Tor in order to stay safe while exchanging their ideas and agendas.[11]

See also


  1. ^ "the definition of dissident". www.dictionary.com.
  2. ^ Chronicle of Current Events (samizdat) (in Russian)
  3. ^ Universal Declaration of Human Rights Archived December 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine General Assembly resolution 217 A (III), United Nations, 10 December 1948
  4. ^ Proclamation of Tehran, Final Act of the International Conference on Human Rights, Teheran, 22 April to 13 May 1968, U.N. Doc. A/CONF. 32/41 at 3 (1968), United Nations, May 1968
  5. ^ CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND CO-OPERATION IN EUROPE FINAL ACT. Helsinki, 1 aug. 1975 Archived 2011-05-31 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Who are the dissidents?". BBC News. 2009-03-10. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  7. ^ Bartlett, Jamie (June 2015), How the mysterious dark net is going mainstream, TEDGlobalLondon
  8. ^ Hern, Alex (23 August 2017). "The dilemma of the dark web: protecting neo-Nazis and dissidents alike". The Guardian.
  9. ^ David Kushner (October 22, 2015). "The Darknet: Is the Government Destroying 'the Wild West of the Internet?'". Rolling Stone.
  10. ^ "Cryptopolitik and the Darknet". Survival (00396338). 58 (1, p7-38. 32p.).
  11. ^ Croke, Paul (15 July 2015). "Dark Net: Secret basement of the Internet". Baltimore Post-Examiner. Retrieved 20 December 2017.

External links

Colin Duffy

Colin Duffy (born 1968) is an Irish republican, described by the BBC as the most recognisable name and face amongst dissident republicans in Northern Ireland. He was cleared of murder charges in three court cases involving police and army killings.

Copa de Competencia (Asociación Amateurs)

The Copa de Competencia was an official Argentine football cup competition contested between 1920 and 1926. It was established by the "Asociación Amateurs de Football", a dissident body formed a year before. The Associación Amateurs organized its own championships until 1926 when it merged to official Asociación Argentina.Unlikely Copa de Competencia Jockey Club, this Cup did not qualify any team to play an international match because it had been created by a dissident league (clubs registered to AFA played against the Uruguayan Football Association champions).The inaugural edition of the cup was contested by 21 clubs from dissident leagues of Buenos aires and Rosario. From 1924 to its end, the tournament was played by teams from Buenos Aires only due to the Rosario representatives had joined Liga Rosarina de Football.

Cuban dissident movement

The Cuban dissident movement is a political movement in Cuba whose aim is "to replace the current regime with a more democratic form of government". According to Human Rights Watch, the Cuban government represses nearly all forms of political dissent.

Debian Free Software Guidelines

The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) is a set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is a free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in Debian. The DFSG is part of the Debian Social Contract.

Dissident (album)

Dissident is the second studio by Deadline, released in 1991 by Day Eight Music.

Dissident (song)

"Dissident" is a song by American rock band Pearl Jam, released in 1994 as the fourth single from the band's second studio album, Vs. (1993). The song peaked at number three on the US Billboard Album Rock Tracks chart, number two in Norway, and number seven in Finland and Ireland. "Dissident (Part 2)" was also released as a single, reaching number two in the Netherlands and number 19 in France.

The song was included on Pearl Jam's 2004 greatest hits album, rearviewmirror (Greatest Hits 1991–2003).

Dissident Aggressor

"Dissident Aggressor" is a song by the British heavy metal band Judas Priest that was first released on Sin After Sin in 1977. Thirty-three years after its release, the song won the 2010 Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance after being released again on A Touch of Evil: Live.

Dissident Irish Republican campaign

For a timeline of the campaign, see the timelines of Real IRA actions, Continuity IRA actions and Óglaigh na hÉireann actions.

Since the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or PIRA) called a ceasefire and ended its armed campaign in 1997, breakaway groups opposed to the ceasefire ("dissident Irish republicans") have continued a low-level armed campaign against the security forces in Northern Ireland. The main paramilitaries involved are the Real IRA, Continuity IRA and Óglaigh na hÉireann. They have targeted the Northern Irish police and the British Army in gun and bomb attacks, as well as with mortars and rockets. They have also carried out bombings that are meant to cause disruption. However, their campaign has not been as intensive as the Provisional IRA's.

In 2007, the government declared the end of Operation Banner, ending the four-decade long deployment of the British Army in Northern Ireland. As a result, the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) has since been the main target of attacks.

The dissident republican campaign began towards the end of the Troubles, a 30-year period of conflict in Northern Ireland that resulted in over 3,500 deaths. The Good Friday Agreement of May 1998 is generally seen as marking the end of the Troubles. To date, two British soldiers, two PSNI officers and two Prison Service guard have been killed as part of the republican campaign. At least 97 civilians have also been killed by republican and loyalist paramilitaries, 29 of whom died in the Omagh bombing carried out by the Real IRA.

Motivations for continued violence vary by group; for the more conservative Continuity IRA, the Provisionals' ending of abstentionist politics at the 1986 General Army Convention (GAC) served as a catalyst for tension. For ONH; the acceptance by the Sinn Féin special Ard Fheis of the PSNI and the Real IRA's "criminality", whilst for the majority of Dissident Republicans and the RIRA/NIRA the cause was the Belfast Good Friday Agreement. Loyalist groups were motivated by Protestant fundamentalism, anti-Catholic sentiment, and their disapproval of Loyalist decommissioning and the peace process as whole. A number of other groups on both sides were also created due to internal feuds.

Dissident Left

The Dissident Left (Italian: Sinistra dissidente), commonly named The Pentarchy (Italian: La Pentarchia) like its five leaders, was a progressive and radical parliamentary group active in Italy during the last decades of the 19th century.

Dissident republican

Dissident republicans, renegade republicans, anti-Agreement republicans or anti-ceasefire republicans (Irish: poblachtach easaontach) are Irish republicans who do not support the current peace agreements in Northern Ireland. The agreements followed a 30-year conflict known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives. During the conflict, republican paramilitary groups such as the Provisional Irish Republican Army waged a campaign to bring about a united Irish republic. Peace negotiations in the 1990s led to an IRA ceasefire in 1994 and to the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. Mainstream republicans, represented by Sinn Féin, supported the Agreement as a means of achieving Irish unity peacefully. 'Dissidents' saw this as an abandonment of republican ideals and acceptance of partition and British rule. They hold that the Northern Ireland Assembly and Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) are illegitimate and see the PSNI as a "British paramilitary police force".

Some dissident republican political groups, such as Republican Sinn Féin (which was established by a split from Sinn Féin, and no longer has a connection to the party) and the 32 County Sovereignty Movement, support political violence against the British security forces. Thus, they oppose the Provisional IRA's 1994 ceasefire.

However, other groups, such as éirígí and the Republican Network for Unity, wish to achieve their goals only through peaceful means.

Since the IRA called a ceasefire, splinter groups have continued an armed campaign against the British security forces in Northern Ireland. Like the Provisional IRA, each of these groups sees itself as the only rightful successor of the original IRA and each calls itself simply "the IRA", or Óglaigh na hÉireann in Irish (see also Irish republican legitimism).

Eritrean Civil Wars

The Eritrean Civil Wars were two conflicts that were fought between competing organizations for the liberation of Eritrea.

The First Eritrean Civil War was fought from 1972 to 1974. The Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) tried to suppress dissident groups that disliked the ELF leadership and wished to break away to form a new insurgency. Dissidents included Christians who resented an alleged Islamic bias in the ELF, inhabitants of the coast with regionalist concerns, and radical Marxists. The ELF failed to suppress the dissident groups, who ultimately united themselves into the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF).

The Second Eritrean Civil War was fought from 1980 to 1981. The EPLF attacked the ELF when it appeared that the ELF were attempting to negotiate a peace deal with the enemy Soviet and Ethiopian governments. The ELF was defeated and pushed out of Eritrea. The remnants of the ELF withdrew to the Sudan.

Jazz in Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia’s jazz roots were established by Jaroslav Ježek and Rudolf Antonín Dvorský in the 1920s and 1930s. Ježek’s influence in this realm is particularly noted and by the time he immigrated to the United States in 1939, his compositions blending jazz and classical music were among the most popular music. After the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Nazis, however, jazz was banned and it was not until 1947 when the Australian jazz pianist Graeme Bell and his Dixieland Jazz Band performed at a World Youth Festival in Prague that the jazz movement was revived.

When this movement began, the Stalinists were opposed to it, but as Josef Škvorecký writes in his The Bass Saxophone, “Its name was Dixieland. A type of the cannibal-music with roots so patently folkloristic and often (the blues) so downright proletarian that even the most Orwellian falsifier of facts would be hard put to deny them”. Similar to the situation during World War II, jazz was developed by Africans and as such, regarded as trash. As this movement grew, it became increasingly intertwined with the growth of the dissident movement.

Among the underground intellectuals, jazz was the genre that was most identified with. As the cultural scene in Czechoslovakia heated up, the jazz scene expanded along with it. In 1964, the First Prague International Jazz Festival was held, bringing hip bands of the time. When the Prague Spring occurred, jazz continued its success as an independent form that attracted the youth in all their rebellion. It was the music that was played at clubs and numerous individual bands formed. As one sees in Škvorecký’s The Cowards, the day revolved around practicing jazz with the group and heroic daydreams. Even though the novel is set at the end of WWII, the books publishing in 1958 is clearly demonstrative of the excitement for jazz that is present at the time Škvorecký writes the novel.

Liberalism in Colombia

This article gives an overview of liberalism in Colombia. It is limited to liberal parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having had a representation in parliament. The sign ⇒ means a reference to another party in that scheme. For inclusion in this scheme it is not necessary for the parties to have labeled themselves as a liberal party.

Polish underground press

Polish underground press devoted to prohibited materials (sl. Polish: bibuła, lit. semitransparent blotting paper or, alternatively, Polish: drugi obieg, lit. second circulation) has a long history of combatting censorship of oppressive regimes in Poland. It existed throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, including: under foreign occupation of the country, as well as, during the totalitarian rule of the pro-Soviet government. Throughout the Eastern Bloc, bibuła published until the collapse of communism was known also as samizdat (see below).

Real Irish Republican Army

The Real Irish Republican Army or Real IRA (RIRA), also called the New IRA (NIRA) since 2012, is a dissident Irish republican paramilitary group and internationally-designated terrorist organization which aims to bring about a united Ireland. It formed in 1997 following a split in the Provisional IRA by dissident members, who rejected the IRA's ceasefire that year. Like the Provisional IRA before it, the RIRA sees itself as the only rightful successor to the original Irish Republican Army and styles itself as "the Real Irish Republican Army" in English or Óglaigh na hÉireann in Irish. It is an illegal organisation in the Republic of Ireland and designated as proscribed terrorist organisation in the United Kingdom and the United States.

Since its formation, RIRA has waged a campaign in Northern Ireland against the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI)—formerly the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)—and the British Army. The RIRA is the largest and most active of the "dissident republican" paramilitary groups operating against the British security forces since the Provisional IRA signed the Good Friday Agreement in 1998. It has targeted the security forces in gun attacks and bombings, and with grenades, mortars and rockets. The organisation has also been responsible for bombings in Northern Ireland and England with the goal of causing economic harm and/or disruption. The most notable of these was the 1998 Omagh bombing, which killed 29 people. After that bombing the RIRA went on ceasefire, but resumed operations again in 2000. In March 2009 it claimed responsibility for an attack on Massereene Barracks which killed two British soldiers, the first to be killed in Northern Ireland since 1997.

The Real IRA has also been involved in vigilantism, mainly against drug dealers and organised crime gangs. In Dublin in particular it has been accused of extortion and engaging in feuds with these gangs. In July 2012 it was reported that Republican Action Against Drugs (RAAD) and other small republican militant groups were merging with the Real IRA. This new entity was named the New IRA by the media, but members continue to identify themselves as simply "the Irish Republican Army".

Sergei Soldatov (Soviet dissident)

Sergei Soldatov (24. June 1933 Narva – 24. January 2003 Tallinn) was one of the founders of anti-Soviet dissident movement in Estonia.

Soldatov was born into a Russian Estonian family, he finished high school in Jõhvi and the Leningrad University of Technology. He worked in a number of factories in Tallinn and became a lecturer at the Tallinn Polytechnic Institute.

In early 1970s, Soldatov participated in dissident organisation Estonian Democratic Movement and was editor of underground newspapers. Among others, he cooperated with Tunne Kelam. As an ethnic Russian, Soldatov also had connections with dissident circles in Russia, and was one of the authors of the programme of the Democratic Movement of the Soviet Union in Russian.

Hiding himself underground since the 1974 arrest of Kalju Mätik, Mati Kiirend and Artjom Juskevitš, the KGB managed to arrest him in 1975. Soldatov was imprisoned in prison camps of Mordovia for six years. Soon after being released in 1981, he and his wife Lyudmila were expelled from the USSR. They settled in West Germany, where Sergei (thanks to Alexander Solzhenitsyn's recommendation) got the job of journalist for the Radio Liberty. For many years, he arranged broadcasts in Estonian.

Sergei Soldatov remained critical of the developments in post-Soviet Estonia, where he returned to in 2000. He died in Tallinn and was buried at the Tallinn Alexander Nevsky cemetery.

Soviet dissidents

Soviet dissidents were people who disagreed with certain features in the embodiment of Soviet ideology and who were willing to speak out against them. The term dissident was used in the Soviet Union in the period following Joseph Stalin's death until the fall of communism. It was used to refer to small groups of marginalized intellectuals whose modest challenges to the Soviet regime met protection and encouragement from correspondents. Following the etymology of the term, a dissident is considered to "sit apart" from the regime. As dissenters began self-identifying as dissidents, the term came to refer to an individual whose non-conformism was perceived to be for the good of a society.Political opposition in the USSR was barely visible and, with rare exceptions, of little consequence. Instead, an important element of dissident activity in the Soviet Union was informing society (both inside the Soviet Union and in foreign countries) about violation of laws and human rights. Over time, the dissident movement created vivid awareness of Soviet Communist abuses.

Soviet dissidents who criticized the state faced possible legal sanctions under the Soviet Criminal Code and faced the choice of exile, the mental hospital, or the labor camp. Anti-Soviet political behavior, in particular, being outspoken in opposition to the authorities, demonstrating for reform, writing books were defined in some persons as being simultaneously a criminal act (e.g., violation of Articles 70 or 190-1), a symptom (e.g., "delusion of reformism"), and a diagnosis (e.g., "sluggish schizophrenia").

Wang Bingzhang (dissident)

Wang Bingzhang (Chinese: 王炳章; pinyin: Wáng Bǐngzhāng; born February 6, 1948 ("Yinli" / Chinese Lunar Calendar date was December 30, 1947)) is a political activist and founder of two Chinese pro-democracy movements. He is considered a political prisoner of China.

Wang Dan (dissident)

Wang Dan (born February 26, 1969) is a leader of the Chinese democracy movement and was one of the most visible student leaders in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. He holds a Ph.D. in history from Harvard University, and from August 2009 to February 2010, Wang taught cross-strait history at Taiwan's National Chengchi University, as a visiting scholar.He then taught at National Tsing Hua University until 2015.Besides conducting research on related topics, Wang is still active in promoting democracy and freedom for China. He travels the world to garner support from Overseas Chinese communities as well as from the public at large.

He is a friend of fellow activists Wang Juntao and Liu Gang.

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