Dissection (medical)

In medical pathology, a dissection is a tear within the wall of a blood vessel, which allows blood to separate the wall layers. By separating a portion of the wall of the artery (a layer of the tunica intima or tunica media), a dissection creates two lumens or passages within the vessel, the native or true lumen, and the "false lumen" created by the new space within the wall of the artery.

Dissection (medical)
AoDissect Schema 01a
Aortic dissection
Classification and external resources
Specialtyangiology
ICD-9-CM441.0, 443.2
MeSHD000784

Description

Dissections become threatening to the health of the organism when growth of the false lumen prevents perfusion of the true lumen and the end organs perfused by the true lumen. For example, in an aortic dissection, if the left subclavian artery orifice were distal to the origin of the dissection, then the left subclavian would be said to be perfused by the false lumen, while the left common carotid (and its end organ, the left hemisphere of the brain) if proximal to the dissection, would be perfused by the true lumen proximal to the dissection.

AoDiss MRT
MRI of an aortic dissection
1 Aorta descendens with dissection
2 Aorta isthmus

Vessels and organs that are perfused from a false lumen may be well-perfused to varying degrees, from normal perfusion to no perfusion. In some cases, little to no end-organ damage or failure may be seen. Similarly, vessels and organs perfused from the true lumen but distal to the dissection may be perfused to varying degrees. In the above example, if the aortic dissection extended from proximal to the left subclavian artery takeoff to the mid descending aorta, the common iliac arteries would be perfused from the true lumen distal to the dissection but would be at risk for malperfusion due to occlusion of the true lumen of the aorta by the false lumen.

Types

Examples include:

Carotid and vertebral artery dissection are grouped together as "cervical artery dissection".

Cholera Riots

Cholera Riots refers to civil disturbances associated with an outbreak or epidemic of cholera.

Dissection (disambiguation)

Dissection is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.

Dissection may also refer to:

The dissection problem in geometry

Dissection (medical), a tear in a blood vessel

Dissection (band), a Swedish extreme metal band

Dissection (album), a 1997 Crimson Thorn album

Dissected plateau, a plateau area

Hall Caine

Sir Thomas Henry Hall Caine (14 May 1853 – 31 August 1931), usually known as Hall Caine, was a British novelist, dramatist, short story writer, poet and critic of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Caine's popularity during his lifetime was unprecedented. Writing fifteen novels on subjects of adultery, divorce, domestic violence, illegitimacy, infanticide, religious bigotry and women's rights he became an international literary celebrity, selling ten million books. Caine was the most highly paid novelist of his day. The Eternal City is the first novel to sell over a million copies worldwide. In addition to his books, Caine is the author of more than a dozen plays and was one of the most commercially successful dramatists of his time; many were West End and Broadway productions. Caine adapted seven of his novels for the stage. He collaborated with leading actors and managers, including Wilson Barrett, Viola Allen, Herbert Beerbohm Tree, Louis Napoleon Parker, Mrs Patrick Campbell, George Alexander, and Arthur Collins. Most of Caine's novels were adapted into silent black and white films. A. E. Coleby's 1923 18,454 feet, nineteen-reel film The Prodigal Son became the longest commercially made British film. Alfred Hitchcock's 1929 film The Manxman, is Hitchcock's last silent film.

Born in Runcorn to a Manx father and Cumbrian mother, Caine was raised in Liverpool. After spending four years in school, Caine was trained as an architectural draughtsman. While growing up he spent childhood holidays with relatives in the Isle of Man. At seventeen he spent a year there as schoolmaster in Maughold. Afterwards he returned to Liverpool and began a career in journalism, becoming a leader-writer on the Liverpool Mercury. As a lecturer and theatre critic he developed a circle of eminent literary friends that he was influenced by. Caine moved to London at Dante Gabriel Rossetti's suggestion and lived with the poet, acting as secretary and companion during the last years of Rossetti's life. Following the publication of his Recollections of Rossetti in 1882, Caine began his career as a writer spanning four decades.

Caine established his residency in the Isle of Man in 1895, where he sat from 1901 to 1908 in the Manx House of Keys, the lower house of its legislature. Caine was elected President of the Manx National Reform League in 1903 and chair of the Keys' Committee that prepared the 1907 petition for constitutional reform. In 1929

Caine was granted the Freedom of the Borough of Douglas, Isle of Man. Caine visited Russia in 1892 on behalf of the persecuted Jews. In 1895 Caine travelled in the United States and Canada, where he represented the Society of Authors conducting successful negotiations and obtaining important international copyright concessions from the Dominion Parliament.

During the Great War (1914–1918) Caine wrote many patriotic articles and edited King Albert's Book, the proceeds of which went to help Belgian refugees. In 1917, Caine was created an Officer of the Order of Leopold by King Albert I of Belgium. Caine cancelled many literary contracts in America to devote all his time and energy to the British war effort. On the recommendation of the Prime Minister Lloyd George for services as an Allied propagandist in the United States, King George V made him a Knight of the British Empire in 1918 and a Companion of Honour in 1922. Aged 78 Caine died in his home at Greeba Castle on the Isle of Man.

Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe (born 28 February 1959) is an ethologist and author. He currently serves as Director of Animal Sentience with the Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy, and Department Chair for Animal Studies with Humane Society University, in Washington, DC. He lectures internationally on animal behavior and the human-animal relationship. He is Associate Editor of the journal Animal Sentience.

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection

A spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) (occasionally coronary artery dissection) is a rare, sometimes fatal traumatic condition, with eighty percent of cases affecting women. One of the coronary arteries develops a tear, causing blood to flow between the layers which forces them apart. Studies of the disease place the mortality rate at around 70%.SCAD is a primary cause of myocardial infarction (MI) in young, fit, healthy women (and some men) with no obvious risk factors. These can often occur during late pregnancy, postpartum and peri-menopausal periods.

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