Dissected plateau

A dissected plateau is a plateau area that has been severely eroded so that the relief is sharp. Such an area may be referred to as mountainous, but dissected plateaus are distinguishable from orogenic mountain belts by the lack of folding, metamorphism, extensive faulting, or magmatic activity that accompanies orogeny.

The Allegheny Plateau,[1] the Cumberland Plateau,[2] the Ozark Plateau,[3] and the Catskill Mountains[4] in the United States and the Blue Mountains in Australia and the Deccan Plateau in India are examples of dissected plateaus formed after regional uplift. These older uplifts have been eroded by creeks and rivers to develop steep relief not immediately distinguishable from mountains. Many areas of the Allegheny Plateau and the Cumberland Plateau, which are at the western edge of the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, are called "mountains" but are actually dissected plateaus. One can stand on the top of one of these high "mountains" and note that all the other tops are nearly the same height, which represents the original elevation profile of the plain before uplift, and thereafter the subsequent weather erosion.

A dissected plateau may also be formed, or created, usually on a comparatively small scale, by the levelling of terrain by planing and deposition beneath an ice sheet or perhaps, an ice cap. Subsequently, during the same or a later glacial, the margins of the glacial till plain are removed by glaciers, leaving the plateau into which erosion by water incises valleys. Such a plateau may be level or gently sloping but may be distinguished by the till caps on its hills. Glacial till is still widely known in Britain by the older name of boulder clay.

Dissected volcanic plateaus include the Pajarito Plateau in New Mexico, on the skirt of the enormous Valles Caldera.[5] Isolated portions of this plateau are known as mesas, and long, connected portions are known as potreros.

A melhor hora para visitar o morro é ao entardecer
View of the dissected plateau at Chapada Diamantina, Brazil.
WV plateau
Shaded relief map of Cumberland Plateau and Ridge and Valley Appalachians on the Virginia/West Virginia border

See also

References

  1. ^ Jones, Stephen B.1; Saviello, Thomas B A Field Guide to Site Quality for the Allegheny Hardwood Region Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, Volume 8, Number 1, 1 March 1991, pp. 3–8(6)
  2. ^ PHYSIOGRAPHY Wayne L. Newell
  3. ^ "The Ozarks Chronicle". Archived from the original on 2008-04-03. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
  4. ^ Catskill Center Archived 2009-10-29 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Mathien, Frances Joan; Steen, Charlie R.; Allen, Craig D. (1993). The Pajarito Plateau: A bibliography (PDF). Professional Paper. Southwest Cultural Resources Center.
Allegheny Plateau

The Allegheny Plateau , in the United States, is a large dissected plateau area in western and central New York, northern and western Pennsylvania, northern and western West Virginia, and eastern Ohio. It is divided into the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau and the glaciated Allegheny Plateau.

The plateau extends southward into western West Virginia, eastern Kentucky and Tennessee where it is instead called the Cumberland Plateau.

The plateau terminates in the east at the Allegheny Mountains, which are the highest ridges just west of the Allegheny Front. The Front extends from central Pennsylvania through Maryland and into eastern West Virginia.

The plateau is bordered on the west by glacial till plains in the north, generally north of the Ohio River, and the Bluegrass region in the south, generally south of the Ohio River.

Elevations vary greatly. In the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, relief may only reach one hundred feet or less. In the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau in southeastern Ohio and westernmost West Virginia, relief is typically in the range of two hundred to four hundred feet. Absolute highest elevations in this area are often in the range of 900 to 1,500 feet (270 to 460 m). By the Allegheny Front, however, elevations may reach well over 4,000 feet (1,200 m), with relief of up to 2,000 feet (610 m).

Boston Mountains

The Boston Mountains is a Level III ecoregion designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. states of Arkansas and Oklahoma. Part of the Ozark Mountains, the Boston Mountains are a deeply dissected plateau. The ecoregion is steeper than the adjacent Springfield Plateau to the north, and bordered on the south by the Arkansas Valley. The Oklahoma portion of the range is locally referred to as the Cookson Hills.

The Boston Mountains ecoregion has been subdivided into two Level IV ecoregions.

Canisteo River

The Canisteo River is a 61.0-mile-long (98.2 km) tributary of the Tioga River in western New York in the United States. It drains a dissected plateau, a portion of the northern Allegheny Plateau southwest of the Finger Lakes region, in the far northwestern reaches of the watershed of the Susquehanna River.

It rises in the hills of northern Allegany County, approximately 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Dansville. It flows east into northern Steuben County, then generally southeast past Hornell and Canisteo. It joins the Tioga from the west in southeastern Steuben County, approximately 10 miles (16 km) north of the Pennsylvania state line and 5 miles (8 km) southwest of Corning.

The name of the river comes from a Native American word meaning either "pickerel" or "head of water". In the 19th century the river valley was the site of an early timber industry. Logs were floated down the river after being cut. As on other rivers in the Susquehanna basin, transportation on the Canisteo before the middle 19th century was often accomplished by arks up to 75 feet (23 m) long. The headwaters of the Canisteo were considered to be the farthest navigable headwaters of ark navigation in the Susquehanna watershed.

In the floods of 1936, the river overflowed and inundated parts of the Canisteo and Hornell, leading to the construction of flood control systems in both communities. The only flooding since then was from Hurricane Agnes of 1972, in which the river destroyed the Erie Railroad line south of Hornell and N.Y. Route 36 between Canisteo and Hornell, which was rebuilt further from the tiver.

Catskill Mountains

The Catskill Mountains, also known as the Catskills, are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, located in southeastern New York. As a cultural and geographic region, the Catskills are generally defined as those areas close to or within the borders of the Catskill Park, a 700,000-acre (2,800 km2) forest preserve forever protected from many forms of development under New York state law.

Geologically, the Catskills are a mature dissected plateau, a once-flat region subsequently uplifted and eroded into sharp relief by watercourses. The Catskills form the northeastern end of the Allegheny Plateau (also known as the Appalachian Plateau).The Catskills are well known in American culture, both as the setting for films and works of art, including many 19th-century Hudson River School paintings, as well as for being a favored destination for vacationers from New York City in the mid-20th century. The region's many large resorts gave countless young stand-up comedians an opportunity to hone their craft. In addition, the Catskills have long been a haven for artists, musicians, and writers, especially in and around the towns of Phoenicia and Woodstock.

Chenango River

The Chenango River is a 90-mile-long (140 km) tributary of the Susquehanna River in central New York in the United States. It drains a dissected plateau area in upstate New York at the northern end of the Susquehanna watershed.

Named after the Oneida word for bull thistle, in the 19th century the Chenango furnished a critical link in the canal system of the northeastern United States. The Chenango Canal, built from 1836–1837 between Utica and Binghamton, connected the Erie Canal in the north to the Susquehanna River. The canal was rendered obsolete by railroads and was abandoned in 1878.

Flooding is often a concern during the spring and fall.

Chuska Mountains

The Chuska Mountains are an elongate range on the southeast Colorado Plateau and within the Navajo Nation whose highest elevations approach 10,000 feet. The range is about 80 by 15 km (50 by 10 miles). It trends north-northwest and is crossed by the state line between Arizona and New Mexico. The highlands are a dissected plateau, with an average elevation of about 2,740 m (8,990 ft), and subdued topography. The highest point is Roof Butte (36.4601° N, 109.0929° W) at 2,994 m (9,823 ft), near the northern end of the range in Arizona. Other high points include the satellite Beautiful Mountain at 2,861 m (9,386 ft) and Lukachukai Mountains at 2,885 m (9,465 ft), both also near the northern end, and Matthews Peak at 2,911 m (9,551 ft). The San Juan Basin borders the Chuskas on the east, and typical elevations in nearby parts of that basin are near 1,800 m (5,900 ft). The eastern escarpment of the mountains is marked by slumps and landslides that extend out onto the western margin of the San Juan Basin. To the north, the Chuskas are separated from the Carrizo Mountains by Red Rock Valley, which is today commonly referred to as Red Valley.

Cumberland Plateau

The Cumberland Plateau is the southern part of the Appalachian Plateau in the Appalachian Mountains of the United States. It includes much of eastern Kentucky and Tennessee, and portions of northern Alabama and northwest Georgia. The terms "Allegheny Plateau" and the "Cumberland Plateau" both refer to the dissected plateau lands lying west of the main Appalachian Mountains. The terms stem from historical usage rather than geological difference, so there is no strict dividing line between the two. Two major rivers share the names of the plateaus, with the Allegheny River rising in the Allegheny Plateau and the Cumberland River rising in the Cumberland Plateau in Harlan County, Kentucky.

Garhjat Hills

The Garhjat Hills is a mountain range formed by a series low lying hills, plateaux, ridges and meadows that stretch into Odisha from the Utkal Plains in the Chotanagpur region of Jharkhand and the Chhattisgarh Plains. The range, also known as the Odisha Highlands, runs in a north east to south west direction for about 382 km along the Odisha coast, covering 76,800 km2.The range rises abruptly and steeply in the east and slopes gently to a dissected plateau in the west running from north-west (Mayurbhanj) to south-west (Malkangiri). The whole area is also marked by intermontane basins which cut across the region in a number of broad and narrow river valleys and flood plains. The average height of the range is about 900 metres above mean sea level.

Haghpat

Haghpat (Armenian: Հաղպատ) is a village in the Lori Province of Armenia, located near the city of Alaverdi and the state border with Georgia.

It is notable for Haghpat Monastery, a religious complex founded in the 10th century and included in the UNESCO World Heritage List along with monasteries in nearby Sanahin. The monastery is a magnificent example of medieval Armenian architecture that has been attracting increasing numbers of tourists.

Haghpat Monastery is listed among the UNESCO World Heritage List (1996).

The village lies on a dissected plateau, a large flat area dissected by deep "cracks" formed by rivers, including the river Debed. The villages of Sanahin and Akner, as well as a part of Alaverdi, lie in plain view on neighbouring sections of the plateau, however a steep and long descent to and ascent from the river is required to travel to them.

Paunsaugunt Plateau

The Paunsaugunt Plateau (pronounced "PAWN-suh-gant") is a dissected plateau, rising to an elevation of 7,000–9,300 feet (2,100–2,800 m), in southwestern Utah in the United States. Located in northern Kane County and southwestern Garfield County, it is approximately 10 miles (16 km) wide, and extends southward from the Sevier Plateau approximately 25 miles (40 km), terminating in the Pink Cliffs at the southern end.

It is drained by the East Fork Sevier River which flows northward on the plateau, to the meet the main branch (Sevier River) which flows in a valley along the western side of the plateau. The plateau is highly dissected along the eastern flank, which is drained by the Paria River in the Colorado River watershed, and is protected as Bryce Canyon National Park. A section of the Great Basin Divide is along the plateau, and much of the plateau is part of Dixie National Forest. The plateau receives approximately 200 inches (5,100 mm) of snow per year and experiences approximately 200 days of freeze-and-thaw cycles. Utah's Highway 12, an All-American Road, climbs to the top of the Paunsaugunt Plateau.

Geologically the plateau was created approximately 10-20 million years ago by an uplift on the larger Colorado Plateau. The uplifting caused the formation of joints along the side of the plateau. Subsequent erosive forces, especially along the eastern side in Bryce Canyon National Park, have resulted in the creation of strange rock formations called hoodoos which are the hallmark of the park.

Potrero (landform)

A potrero is a long mesa that at one end slopes upward to higher terrain. This landform commonly occurs on the flanks of a mountain, as part of a dissected plateau.

A loan word from Spanish language, potrero is in current use in the southwestern United States, where it is sometimes translated as "tongue of land" and "enclosed piece of pasture land". In Spanish language, however, the "tongue of land" sense is archaic.

Also archaic is the related sense of potrero referring to someone who wrangles young horses (potros in Spanish) kept as breeding stock (not saddle or pack stock). In Spanish, the usual sense of potrero now refers to any land (such as a ranch, open range, or community pasture) where such horses are kept.

Notable examples of potreros include some of the many mesas of the Pajarito Plateau near Santa Fe, New Mexico (United States). Historically, these potreros were used as winter pasture for livestock (horses, sheep, and cattle) that were driven to and from lush summer pastures in the high grass valleys (valles) of the Valles Caldera. Today, these potreros are used in this manner by a large herd of elk. These potreros are natural enclosures, with only one principal exit: the narrow connection to higher land.

In Spain a potrero is common land in poor condition.

Sanahin Monastery

Sanahin Monastery is an Armenian monastery founded in the 10th century in the Lori Province of Armenia.

The name Sanahin literally translates from Armenian as "this one is older than that one", presumably representing a claim to having an older monastery than the neighbouring Haghpat Monastery. The two villages and their monasteries are similar in many ways, and lie in plain view of each other on a dissected plateau formation, separated by a deep "crack" formed by a small river flowing into the Debed river.

As with Haghpat, Sanahin is frequented by an increasing number of tourists, due to its recent inclusion on the itineraries of a great number of Armenian tour agencies, the beauty of its monastery complex matching that of Haghpat's. The complex belongs to the Armenian Apostolic Church with numerous khachkars (stones with elaborate engravings representing a cross) and bishop gravesites scattered throughout it.

Serras de Sudeste

Serras de Sudeste (English: Southeastern Mountain Ranges) is a dissected plateau, also named Planalto Dissecado de Sudeste (Southeastern Dissected Plateau) or Escudo Sul-Rio-Grandense (Shield of Rio Grande do Sul), located in the southeastern portion of Rio Grande do Sul state in southernmost Brazil, near Uruguay.

Syrt

A syrt is a kind of an elevated landform in Russia and Central Asia.

The word means "highland", "ridge" or "backbone" in Turkic languages (sırt) and is present in Turkic toponymy in the mentioned areas: in Tien Shan, Pamirs, South Urals, such as Obshchiy Syrt by Urals, Uzun-Syrt ("Long back") plateau by Koktebel in Crimea.

It is a denudational upland or elevated flatland, a kind of dissected plateau. Syrts may be separated from each other by higher ridges. At the same time, syrts may serve as water divides between drainage basins for larger rivers.

The term should not to be confused with the Latin term syrtis and the derived term "syrt" for sandy shores or quicksand.

Tekoa Mountain

Tekoa Mountain, 1,121 feet (342 m), is a dramatic, rocky high point overlooking the Westfield River Gorge at the eastern edge of the Berkshire plateau in the towns of Montgomery and Russell, Massachusetts, USA. Tekoa Mountain, very prominent from the "Jacob's Ladder" section of U.S. Route 20 in the town of Russell, is not a true mountain but a cleaver jutting from a dissected plateau; it was produced by glacial action and through continuous erosion by the Westfield River and Moose Meadow Brook before and after the last ice age.

With nearby Shatterack Mountain, another cleaver, Tekoa Mountain forms a 700 ft (210 m) high knobby cliff face and gorge wall along the northeast side of the Westfield River as it plunges from the Berkshire Mountains of western Massachusetts into the Connecticut River Valley. Much of the face of Tekoa Mountain is barren or populated by sparse tree cover exacerbated by frequent fires which support partially fire-dependent tree species such as pitch pine and scrub oak. The mountain is also the habitat of the New England cottontail, a species in decline in Massachusetts. Tekoa Mountain has been targeted by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service's Connecticut River Valley conservation plan as a "high priority" ecosystem.

Tioughnioga River

The Tioughnioga River () is a 34.2-mile-long (55.0 km) tributary of the Chenango River in central New York in the United States. It drains a dissected plateau area east of the Finger Lakes at the northernmost edge of the watershed of the Susquehanna River.

The name comes from a native word for "forks of the river" or "meeting of waters". The river was also called "Tiohujodha" by the Moravians. At one time it was called the Onondaga, as leading to that town, and Teyoghagoga was another early form.It rises in two branches in upstate New York southeast of Syracuse, with the East Branch sometimes regarded as the main branch. The West Branch, 15.6 miles (25.1 km) long, issues from Tully Lake, approximately 2 miles (3 km) south of Tully on the Onondaga-Cortland county line, and flows south.

The Tully Valley is a preglacial valley of a northward flowing river that flowed into the Ontarian River (preglacial Lake Ontario). Near Tully, during the glacial retreat, the valley was dammed by ice to form a lake. For a period of time the retreating of the front by melting matched the forward movement of the glacier, so that the captured rock, gravel and sand was deposited into the lake. This huge quantity of material approximately half filled the valley, and reversed the flow direction to the southward. It left enormous quantities of gravel from Tully to Cortland, some of which was used as building material for Interstate 81. The gravel also forms a major aquifer for the area. Tully Lake is a glacial kettle, being formed by a large chunk of ice that was buried in the glacial debris. As the ice melted the land collapsed, causing a lake to form.

The East (main) Branch, 21.4 miles (34.4 km) long, rises in northeastern Cortland County at the confluence of Tioughnioga Creek and the West Branch Tioughnioga Creek. The East Branch flows southwest, receiving the West Branch at Cortland.

The Tioughnioga River then flows south-southeast, receiving the Otselic River from the northeast at Whitney Point. It joins the Chenango from the northwest at Chenango Forks, approximately 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Binghamton.

Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau

The Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau is located in an arc around southeastern Ohio into western Pennsylvania and West Virginia.

This area is a dissected plateau, characterized by sandstone, shale, and many coal seams. This is the part of the Allegheny Plateau that lies outside the continental glaciation of the ice age.

Watkins Glen State Park

Watkins Glen State Park is located in the village of Watkins Glen, south of Seneca Lake in Schuyler County in New York's Finger Lakes region. The park's lower part is near the village, while the upper part is open woodland. It was opened to the public in 1863 and was privately run as a tourist resort until 1906, when it was purchased by New York State. Initially known as Watkins Glen State Reservation, the park was first managed by the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society before being turned over to full state control in 1911. Since 1924, it has been managed by the Finger Lakes Region of the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation.

The centerpiece of the 778-acre (3.15 km2) park is a 400-foot-deep (120 m) narrow gorge cut through rock by a stream – Glen Creek – that was left hanging when glaciers of the Ice age deepened the Seneca valley, increasing the tributary stream gradient to create rapids and waterfalls wherever there were layers of hard rock. The rocks of the area are sedimentary of Devonian age that are part of a dissected plateau that was uplifted with little faulting or distortion. They consist mostly of soft shales, with some layers of harder sandstone and limestone.

The park features three trails – open mid-May to early November – by which one can climb or descend the gorge. The Southern Rim and Indian Trails run along the wooded rim of the gorge, while the Gorge Trail is closest to the stream and runs over, under and along the park's 19 waterfalls by way of stone bridges and more than 800 stone steps. The trails connect to the Finger Lakes Trail, an 800-mile (1,300 km) system of trails within New York state.

Woronora Plateau

The Woronora Plateau is a plateau located in New South Wales, Australia. The area is adjacent to the Sydney Plains and is slightly higher in altitude. It is capped with Hawkesbury Sandstone. It is often hotter in summer and colder in winter than metropolitan Sydney. The Woronora River flows through the deeply dissected plateau to the Georges River from near the sources of the Port Hacking, within the Sutherland Shire.

Located between the Woronora River and Forbes Creek it holds the suburb of Woronora Heights.

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