Display resolution

The display resolution or display modes of a digital television, computer monitor or display device is the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. It can be an ambiguous term especially as the displayed resolution is controlled by different factors in cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, flat-panel displays (including liquid-crystal displays) and projection displays using fixed picture-element (pixel) arrays.

It is usually quoted as width × height, with the units in pixels: for example, "1024 × 768" means the width is 1024 pixels and the height is 768 pixels. This example would normally be spoken as "ten twenty-four by seven sixty-eight" or "ten twenty-four by seven six eight".

One use of the term "display resolution" applies to fixed-pixel-array displays such as plasma display panels (PDP), liquid-crystal displays (LCD), Digital Light Processing (DLP) projectors, OLED displays, and similar technologies, and is simply the physical number of columns and rows of pixels creating the display (e.g. 1920 × 1080). A consequence of having a fixed-grid display is that, for multi-format video inputs, all displays need a "scaling engine" (a digital video processor that includes a memory array) to match the incoming picture format to the display.

For device displays such as phones, tablets, monitors and televisions, the use of the word resolution as defined above is a misnomer, though common. The term "display resolution" is usually used to mean pixel dimensions, the number of pixels in each dimension (e.g. 1920 × 1080), which does not tell anything about the pixel density of the display on which the image is actually formed: resolution properly refers to the pixel density, the number of pixels per unit distance or area, not total number of pixels. In digital measurement, the display resolution would be given in pixels per inch (PPI). In analog measurement, if the screen is 10 inches high, then the horizontal resolution is measured across a square 10 inches wide. [1] For television standards, this is typically stated as "lines horizontal resolution, per picture height";[2] for example, analog NTSC TVs can typically display about 340 lines of "per picture height" horizontal resolution from over-the-air sources, which is equivalent to about 440 total lines of actual picture information from left edge to right edge.[2]

This chart shows the most common display resolutions, with the color of each resolution type indicating the display ratio (e.g. red indicates a 4:3 ratio).
This chart shows the most common display resolutions, with the color of each resolution type indicating the display ratio (e.g. red indicates a 4:3 ratio).

Considerations

Progressive scan hdtv
1080p progressive scan HDTV, which uses a 16:9 ratio

Some commentators also use display resolution to indicate a range of input formats that the display's input electronics will accept and often include formats greater than the screen's native grid size even though they have to be down-scaled to match the screen's parameters (e.g. accepting a 1920 × 1080 input on a display with a native 1366 × 768 pixel array). In the case of television inputs, many manufacturers will take the input and zoom it out to "overscan" the display by as much as 5% so input resolution is not necessarily display resolution. Graphics wise, the input rate of resolution only changes frame rate by a little bit (e.g. 1080p - 720p = 5f).

The eye's perception of display resolution can be affected by a number of factors – see image resolution and optical resolution. One factor is the display screen's rectangular shape, which is expressed as the ratio of the physical picture width to the physical picture height. This is known as the aspect ratio. A screen's physical aspect ratio and the individual pixels' aspect ratio may not necessarily be the same. An array of 1280 × 720 on a 16:9 display has square pixels, but an array of 1024 × 768 on a 16:9 display has oblong pixels.

An example of pixel shape affecting "resolution" or perceived sharpness: displaying more information in a smaller area using a higher resolution makes the image much clearer or "sharper". However, most recent screen technologies are fixed at a certain resolution; making the resolution lower on these kinds of screens will greatly decrease sharpness, as an interpolation process is used to "fix" the non-native resolution input into the display's native resolution output.

While some CRT-based displays may use digital video processing that involves image scaling using memory arrays, ultimately "display resolution" in CRT-type displays is affected by different parameters such as spot size and focus, astigmatic effects in the display corners, the color phosphor pitch shadow mask (such as Trinitron) in color displays, and the video bandwidth.

Overscan and underscan

Fatty watching himself on TV
A 16:9-ratio television from October 2004
MacBookEeePCNintendoDS
Difference between screen sizes in some common devices, such as a Nintendo DS and two laptops shown here.

Most television display manufacturers "overscan" the pictures on their displays (CRTs and PDPs, LCDs etc.), so that the effective on-screen picture may be reduced from 720 × 576 (480) to 680 × 550 (450), for example. The size of the invisible area somewhat depends on the display device. HD televisions do this as well, to a similar extent.

Computer displays including projectors generally do not overscan although many models (particularly CRT displays) allow it. CRT displays tend to be underscanned in stock configurations, to compensate for the increasing distortions at the corners.

Current standards

Televisions

Televisions are of the following resolutions:

  • Standard-definition television (SDTV):
  • Enhanced-definition television (EDTV):
  • High-definition television (HDTV):
    • 720p (1280 × 720 progressive scan)
    • 1080i (1920 × 1080 split into two interlaced fields of 540 lines)
    • 1080p (1920 × 1080 progressive scan)
  • Ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV):
    • 4K UHD (3840 × 2160 progressive scan)
    • DCI 4K (4096 × 2160)
    • 8K UHD (7680 × 4320 progressive scan)

Computer monitors

Computer monitors have traditionally possessed higher resolutions than most televisions.

2000s

As of July 2002, 1024 × 768 eXtended Graphics Array was the most common display resolution.[3][4] Many web sites and multimedia products were re-designed from the previous 800 × 600 format to the layouts optimized for 1024 × 768.

The availability of inexpensive LCD monitors has made the 5:4 aspect ratio resolution of 1280 × 1024 more popular for desktop usage during the first decade of the 21st century. Many computer users including CAD users, graphic artists and video game players ran their computers at 1600 × 1200 resolution (UXGA) or higher such as 2048 × 1536 QXGA if they had the necessary equipment. Other available resolutions included oversize aspects like 1400 × 1050 SXGA+ and wide aspects like 1280 × 800 WXGA, 1440 × 900 WXGA+, 1680 × 1050 WSXGA+, and 1920 × 1200 WUXGA; monitors built to the 720p and 1080p standard are also not unusual among home media and video game players, due to the perfect screen compatibility with movie and video game releases. A new more-than-HD resolution of 2560 × 1600 WQXGA was released in 30-inch LCD monitors in 2007.

2010s

As of March 2012, 1366 × 768 was the most common display resolution.[5]

In 2010, 27-inch LCD monitors with the 2560 × 1440-pixel resolution were released by multiple manufacturers including Apple,[6] and in 2012, Apple introduced a 2880 × 1800 display on the MacBook Pro.[7] Panels for professional environments, such as medical use and air traffic control, support resolutions of up to 4096 × 2160 pixels.[8][9][10]

Common display resolutions

Standard Aspect ratio Width (px) Height (px) % of Steam users (January 2019) % of web users (January 2019)
nHD 16:9 640 360 n/a 4.26
SVGA 4:3 800 600 n/a 0.42
XGA 4:3 1024 768 0.64 3.29
WXGA 16:9 1280 720 0.42 3.15
WXGA 16:10 1280 800 0.82 3.88
SXGA 5:4 1280 1024 2.16 3.37
HD ~16:9 1360 768 1.95 1.65
HD ~16:9 1366 768 14.02 24.27
WXGA+ 16:10 1440 900 3.60 6.55
other 16:9 1536 864 0.25 5.52
HD+ 16:9 1600 900 3.60 4.81
WSXGA+ 16:10 1680 1050 2.54 2.52
FHD 16:9 1920 1080 60.48 19.20
WUXGA 16:10 1920 1200 0.90 1.20
QWXGA 16:9 2048 1152 n/a 0.46
other 21:9 2560 1080 0.96 n/a
QHD 16:9 2560 1440 3.97 2.09
other 21:9 3440 1440 0.48 n/a
4K UHD 16:9 3840 2160 1.48 n/a
Other 1.73 13.37
Notes
The Steam user statistics were gathered from users of the Steam network in its hardware survey of January 2019.[11]
The web user statistics were gathered from visitors to over two million websites during January 2019.[12]
The numbers are not representative of computer users in general.

When a computer display resolution is set higher than the physical screen resolution (native resolution), some video drivers make the virtual screen scrollable over the physical screen thus realizing a two dimensional virtual desktop with its viewport. Most LCD manufacturers do make note of the panel's native resolution as working in a non-native resolution on LCDs will result in a poorer image, due to dropping of pixels to make the image fit (when using DVI) or insufficient sampling of the analog signal (when using VGA connector). Few CRT manufacturers will quote the true native resolution, because CRTs are analog in nature and can vary their display from as low as 320 × 200 (emulation of older computers or game consoles) to as high as the internal board will allow, or the image becomes too detailed for the vacuum tube to recreate (i.e., analog blur). Thus, CRTs provide a variability in resolution that fixed resolution LCDs cannot provide.

In recent years the 16:9 aspect ratio has become more common in notebook displays. 1366 × 768 (HD) has become popular for most notebook sizes, while 1600 × 900 (HD+) and 1920 × 1080 (FHD) are available for larger notebooks.

As far as digital cinematography is concerned, video resolution standards depend first on the frames' aspect ratio in the film stock (which is usually scanned for digital intermediate post-production) and then on the actual points' count. Although there is not a unique set of standardized sizes, it is commonplace within the motion picture industry to refer to "nK" image "quality", where n is a (small, usually even) integer number which translates into a set of actual resolutions, depending on the film format. As a reference consider that, for a 4:3 (around 1.33:1) aspect ratio which a film frame (no matter what is its format) is expected to horizontally fit in, n is the multiplier of 1024 such that the horizontal resolution is exactly 1024•n points. For example, 2K reference resolution is 2048 × 1536 pixels, whereas 4K reference resolution is 4096 × 3072 pixels. Nevertheless, 2K may also refer to resolutions like 2048 × 1556 (full-aperture), 2048 × 1152 (HDTV, 16:9 aspect ratio) or 2048 × 872 pixels (Cinemascope, 2.35:1 aspect ratio). It is also worth noting that while a frame resolution may be, for example, 3:2 (720 × 480 NTSC), that is not what you will see on-screen (i.e. 4:3 or 16:9 depending on the orientation of the rectangular pixels).

Evolution of standards

Many personal computers introduced in the late 1970s and the 1980s were designed to use television receivers as their display devices, making the resolutions dependent on the television standards in use, including PAL and NTSC. Picture sizes were usually limited to ensure the visibility of all the pixels in the major television standards and the broad range of television sets with varying amounts of over scan. The actual drawable picture area was, therefore, somewhat smaller than the whole screen, and was usually surrounded by a static-colored border (see image to right). Also, the interlace scanning was usually omitted in order to provide more stability to the picture, effectively halving the vertical resolution in progress. 160 × 200, 320 × 200 and 640 × 200 on NTSC were relatively common resolutions in the era (224, 240 or 256 scanlines were also common). In the IBM PC world, these resolutions came to be used by 16-color EGA video cards.

One of the drawbacks of using a classic television is that the computer display resolution is higher than the television could decode. Chroma resolution for NTSC/PAL televisions are bandwidth-limited to a maximum 1.5 megahertz, or approximately 160 pixels wide, which led to blurring of the color for 320- or 640-wide signals, and made text difficult to read (see second image to right). Many users upgraded to higher-quality televisions with S-Video or RGBI inputs that helped eliminate chroma blur and produce more legible displays. The earliest, lowest cost solution to the chroma problem was offered in the Atari 2600 Video Computer System and the Apple II+, both of which offered the option to disable the color and view a legacy black-and-white signal. On the Commodore 64, the GEOS mirrored the Mac OS method of using black-and-white to improve readability.

The 640 × 400i resolution (720 × 480i with borders disabled) was first introduced by home computers such as the Commodore Amiga and, later, Atari Falcon. These computers used interlace to boost the maximum vertical resolution. These modes were only suited to graphics or gaming, as the flickering interlace made reading text in word processor, database, or spreadsheet software difficult. (Modern game consoles solve this problem by pre-filtering the 480i video to a lower resolution. For example, Final Fantasy XII suffers from flicker when the filter is turned off, but stabilizes once filtering is restored. The computers of the 1980s lacked sufficient power to run similar filtering software.)

The advantage of a 720 × 480i overscanned computer was an easy interface with interlaced TV production, leading to the development of Newtek's Video Toaster. This device allowed Amigas to be used for CGI creation in various news departments (example: weather overlays), drama programs such as NBC's seaQuest, The WB's Babylon 5, and early computer-generated animation by Disney for The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, and Aladdin.

In the PC world, the IBM PS/2 VGA (multi-color) on-board graphics chips used a non-interlaced (progressive) 640 × 480 × 16 color resolution that was easier to read and thus more useful for office work. It was the standard resolution from 1990 to around 1996. The standard resolution was 800 × 600 until around 2000. Microsoft Windows XP, released in 2001, was designed to run at 800 × 600 minimum, although it is possible to select the original 640 × 480 in the Advanced Settings window.

Programs designed to mimic older hardware such as Atari, Sega, or Nintendo game consoles (emulators) when attached to multiscan CRTs, routinely use much lower resolutions, such as 160 × 200 or 320 × 400 for greater authenticity, though other emulators have taken advantage of pixelation recognition on circle, square, triangle and other geometric features on a lesser resolution for a more scaled vector rendering.

C64 startup animiert

In this image of a Commodore 64 startup screen, the overscan region (the lighter-coloured border) would have been barely visible when shown on a normal television.

CGA CompVsRGB Text

A 640 × 200 display as produced by a monitor (left) and television

Torak

16-color (top) and 256-color (bottom) progressive images from a 1980s VGA card. Dithering is used to overcome color limitations.

Commonly used

The list of common display resolutions article lists the most commonly used display resolutions for computer graphics, television, films, and video conferencing.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Screen resolution? Aspect ratio? What do 720p, 1080p, QHD, 4K and 8K mean?". digitalcitizen.life. 2016-05-20. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  2. ^ a b Robin, Michael (2005-04-01). "Horizontal resolution: Pixels or lines". Broadcast Engineering. Archived from the original on 2012-08-15. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  3. ^ "Higher screen resolutions more popular for exploring the internet according to OneStat.com". OneStat.com. 2002-07-24. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  4. ^ "Screen resolution 800x600 significantly decreased for exploring the Internet according to OneStat.com". OneStat.com. 2007-04-18. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  5. ^ "Higher screen resolutions more popular for exploring the internet according to OneStat.com". techpowerup.com. 2012-04-12. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
  6. ^ Nelson, J.R. (2010-07-27). "Apple Releases New Cinema Display: 27 inches, 2560 × 1440 Resolution". DesktopReview. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  7. ^ "Apple announces iOS 6, MacBook with retina display at WWDC 2012". The Times of India. 2012-06-11. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  8. ^ "EIZO DuraVision FDH3601"
  9. ^ "EYE-LCD 6400-4K" Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Optik View DC801,DC802" Archived May 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "Steam Hardware & Software Survey". Valve. Archived from the original on 2019-02-11. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  12. ^ "Desktop Screen Resolution Stats Worldwide". StatCounter. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
1080i

1080i (also known as Full HD or BT.709) is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television (HDTV) and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen. The "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced"; this indicates that only the odd lines, then the even lines of each frame (each image called a video field) are drawn alternately, so that only half the number of actual image frames are used to produce video. A related display resolution is 1080p, which also has 1080 lines of resolution; the "p" refers to progressive scan, which indicates that the lines of resolution for each frame are "drawn" in on the screen sequence.

The term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9 (a rectangular TV that is wider than it is tall), so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels (2.1 million pixels) and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard.

The choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats.

576p

576p is the shorthand name for a video display resolution. The p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced, the 576 for a vertical resolution of 576 pixels, usually with a horizontal resolution of 720 or 704 pixels. The frame rate can be given explicitly after the letter.

720p

720p (1280×720 px; also called HD Ready or standard HD) is a progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1). All major HDTV broadcasting standards (such as SMPTE 292M) include a 720p format, which has a resolution of 1280×720; however, there are other formats, including HDV Playback and AVCHD for camcorders, that use 720p images with the standard HDTV resolution. The frame rate is standards-dependent, and for conventional broadcasting appears in 50 progressive frames per second in former PAL/SECAM countries (Europe, Australia, others), and 59.94 frames per second in former NTSC countries (North America, Japan, Brazil, others).

The number 720 stands for the 720 horizontal scan lines of image display resolution (also known as 720 pixels of vertical resolution). The p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. When broadcast at 60.00 frames/s frames per second, 720p features the highest temporal resolution possible under the ATSC and DVB standards. The term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, thus implying a resolution of 1280×720 px (0.9 megapixels).

720i (720 lines interlaced) is an erroneous term found in numerous sources and publications. Typically, it is a typographical error in which the author is referring to the 720p HDTV format. However, in some cases it is incorrectly presented as an actual alternative format to 720p. No proposed or existing broadcast standard permits 720 interlaced lines in a video frame at any frame rate.

8K resolution

8K resolution refers to any screen or display with around 8000 pixels width. 8K UHD, also known as Full UHD, FUHD, or Full Ultra HD is the current highest ultra high definition television (UHDTV) resolution in digital television, digital cinematography and digital signage. 8K in 8K UHD refers to the horizontal resolution of 7,680 pixels, forming the total image dimensions of (7680×4320), also known as 4320p, which refers to the vertical resolution.8K UHD has twice as many horizontal and twice as many vertical pixels as 4K UHD, as well as four times the linear resolution of 1080p (Full HD), and six times the linear resolution of 720p. 8K displays are able to produce images with such smooth gradients and high levels of sharpness that objects shown can appear even more realistic than in real world. This phenomenon is referred to as hyperrealism.High-resolution displays such as 8K allow for each pixel to be indistinguishable to the human eye when viewed at a typical distance from the screen. 8K resolution can also be used for the purpose of creating enhanced lower resolution videos through a combination of cropping techniques and/or with downsampling techniques used in video and film editing. Resolutions such as 8K allows filmmakers to shoot in a high resolution with a wide lens or at a further distance, in the case of potentially dangerous subjects (such as in wildlife documentaries), by being able to zoom and crop digitally in post-production. The technique involves taking a portion of the original 8K image and cropping it to match a smaller resolution such as the current industry standard for high-definition televisions (4K, 1080p, and 720p).8K display resolution is the successor to 4K resolution. TV manufacturers pushed to make 4K a new standard by 2017. The feasibility of a fast transition to this new standard is questionable in view of the absence of broadcasting resources. It is predicted that 8K-ready devices will still only account for 3% of UHD TVs by 2023 with global sales of 11 million units a year. However, TV manufacturers remain optimistic as the 4K market grew much faster than expected, with actual sales exceeding projections nearly 6-fold in 2016.As of 2018, few cameras had the capability to shoot video in 8K, with NHK being one of the only companies to have created a small broadcasting camera with an 8K image sensor. By 2018 Red Digital Cinema camera company had delivered three 8K cameras in both a Full Frame sensor and Super 35 sensor. Until major content sources are available, 8K is speculated to become a mainstream consumer display resolution around 2023 as mentioned in UHD forum Phase-B recommendations. Despite this,

filmmakers are pushing demand for 8K cameras due to their ability to capture better 4K footage.

Computer display standard

Computer display standards are a combination of aspect ratio, display size, display resolution, color depth, and refresh rate. They are associated with specific expansion cards, video connectors and monitors.

Graphics display resolution

The graphics display resolution is the width and height dimension of an electronic visual display device, such as a computer monitor, in pixels. Certain combinations of width and height are standardized and typically given a name and an initialism that is descriptive of its dimensions. A higher display resolution in a display of the same size means that displayed photo or video content appears sharper, and pixel art appears smaller.

IPad Mini (1st generation)

The first-generation iPad Mini (stylized and marketed as iPad mini) is a mini tablet computer designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. It was announced on October 23, 2012, as the fourth major product in the iPad line and the first of the iPad Mini line, which features a reduced screen size of 7.9 inches (20 cm), in contrast to the standard 9.7 inches (25 cm). It features similar internal specifications to the iPad 2, including its display resolution.

The first generation iPad Mini received positive reviews, with reviewers praising the device's size, design, and availability of applications, while criticizing its use of a proprietary power connector, its lack of expandable storage, and the lack of Retina display.

Image viewer

An image viewer or image browser is a computer program that can display stored graphical images; it can often handle various graphics file formats. Such software usually renders the image according to properties of the display such as color depth, display resolution, and color profile.

Although one may use a full-featured raster graphics editor (such as Photoshop or the GIMP or the StylePix) as an image viewer, these have many editing functionalities which are not needed for just viewing images, and therefore usually start rather slowly. Also, most viewers have functionalities that editors usually lack, such as stepping through all the images in a directory (possibly as a slideshow).

Image viewers give maximal flexibility to the user by providing a direct view of the directory structure available on a hard disk. Most image viewers do not provide any kind of automatic organization of pictures and therefore the burden remains on the user to create and maintain their folder structure (using tag- or folder-based methods). However, some image viewers also have features for organizing images, especially an image database, and hence can also be used as image organizers.

Some image viewers, such as Windows Photo Viewer that comes with Windows operating systems, change a JPEG image if it is rotated, resulting in loss of image quality; others offer lossless rotation.

List of Sega arcade system boards

The following is a list of arcade system boards released by Sega. For games running on these system boards, see List of Sega arcade games.

Motorola Q9m

The Motorola Q9m is a smartphone that uses Windows Mobile 6.0. This particular phone is for use with Verizon Wireless. It is capable of playing music, videos and photos. It also offers the V CAST service which was not previously available on the Motorola Q9c. It has a full qwerty keyboard and a 1.3-megapixel camera. It is also Bluetooth compatible. It has 64 MB of on board memory and can accept mini SDHC cards. Its display resolution is 320x240 widescreen. It features Office To Go for viewing and editing documents.

Nokia 3110 classic

The Nokia 3110 classic is a mobile phone handset, manufactured by Nokia in Hungary and released for sale in 2007. Although the phone bears the same model number as the 1997 Nokia 3110, it was not directly derived from (and has little similarity with) this model.

The Nokia 3110 classic is a "candybar" cameraphone which uses the Series 40 operating system and operates on GSM networks operating at 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, or 1900 MHz, supporting EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) connections. In some regions the phone was marketed as the Nokia 3110c, which is the same as the 3110 classic.

The phone also supports Bluetooth, FM radio, MP3, AAC and video playback, and supports microSD cards up to 2 GB.

The phone has large buttons in its keypad which make typing messages and e-mails easy. The 1.8-inch display supports a maximum display resolution of 128 × 160.

Nokia 6111

The Nokia 6111 is a mid-level GSM mobile phone released in June 2005. It sold in Asia, Europe, Australia, Brazil and in Mexico, but was not taken by any carriers in the United States.

The 6111 is a compact slider handset that features a megapixel camera with flash and video capture, Bluetooth, and EDGE high-speed data.

It was being one of first devices running Nokia Series 40 3rd Edition, along with Nokia 6233, Nokia 6270 and Nokia 6280 which also offers even QVGA display resolution and better multimedia support.

Nokia C2-02

The Nokia C2-02 is mobile telephone handset produced by Nokia. This is one of the first mobile phones released by Nokia that possesses a touchscreen in a "slider" form factor (the other one being Nokia C2-03 which is a dual-SIM variant).This phone is also known as Nokia C2-02 Touch and Type.

Pinebook

Pinebook is a lightweight and low cost notebook from company Pine64 that was announced in November 2016 and the production started in April 2017. It uses a single-board computer Pine A64 from Pine64 company and it costs 89 or 99 USD for 11,6" or 14" model. Its appearance resembles the MacBook Air.Unlike traditional notebooks it uses 64-bit quad-core CPU ARM 1.2 GHz Cortex A53, together with 2 GB RAM LPDDR3 and graphics processor Mali 400 MP2. Instead of a hard disk drive it uses 16 GB flash memory eMMC 5.0, expandable to 64 GB, the storage capacity can be extended using microSD card up to 256 GB.It supports WiFi 802.11bgn and Bluetooth 4.0 wireless networks, has 2 USB 2.0 ports, 1 mini HDMI port and a headphone jack. It also contains 2 downward-facing speakers. The TN LCD display resolution is 1366 x 768 and its weight is 1.04 kg (11,6"), or 1,26 kg (14") respectively.

The Pinebook supports Linux and Android operating systems. As of December 2017, the pinebook cannot be run solely on free software and the linux kernel choice is limited to an old no longer supported version (3.10) with binary blobs to support most of the hardware, including the Mali graphics or any kind of 2D or 3D acceleration. Work is underway to integrate support into mainline Linux kernel and, as of April 2018, Debian was successfully installed using a custom device tree and u-boot build. Mainline support was merged for Linux 4.19.

PlayStation VR

The PlayStation VR, known by the codename Project Morpheus during development, is a virtual reality headset developed by Sony Computer Entertainment, which was released in October 2016.It was designed to be fully functional with the PlayStation 4 home video game console. In certain games and demos for the VR, the player wearing the headset acts separately from other players without the headset. The PlayStation VR system can output a picture to both the PlayStation VR headset and a television simultaneously, with the television either mirroring the picture displayed on the headset, or displaying a separate image for competitive or cooperative gameplay. PlayStation VR works with either the standard DualShock 4 controller or the PlayStation Move controllers.The PlayStation VR has a 5.7 inch OLED panel, with a display resolution of 1080p. The headset also has a processor box which enables the Social Screen video output to the television, as well as process the 3D audio effect, and uses a 3.5mm headphone jack. The headset also has nine positional LEDs on its surface for the PlayStation Camera to track 360 degree head movement.As of August 16, 2018, PlayStation VR has sold-through over 3 million units worldwide, along with 21.9 million games and experiences.

Rec. 2100

ITU-R Recommendation BT.2100, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 2100 or BT.2100, defines various aspects of high dynamic range (HDR) video such as display resolution (HDTV and UHDTV), frame rate, chroma subsampling, bit depth, color space, and optical transfer function. It was posted on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) website on July 4, 2016. Rec. 2100 expands on several aspects of Rec. 2020.

Video

Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.Video was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by cathode ray tube (CRT) systems which were later replaced by flat panel displays of several types.

Video systems vary in display resolution, aspect ratio, refresh rate, color capabilities and other qualities. Analog and digital variants exist and can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast, magnetic tape, optical discs, computer files, and network streaming.

Video scaler

A video scaler is a system which converts video signals from one display resolution to another; typically, scalers are used to convert a signal from a lower resolution (such as 480p standard definition) to a higher resolution (such as 1080i high definition), a process known as "upconversion" or "upscaling" (by contrast, converting from high to low resolution is known as "downconversion" or "downscaling").

Video scalers are typically found inside consumer electronics devices such as televisions, video game consoles, and DVD or Blu-ray disc players, but can also be found in other AV equipment (such as video editing and television broadcasting equipment). Video scalers can also be a completely separate devices, often providing simple video switching capabilities. These units are commonly found as part of home theatre or projected presentation systems. They are often combined with other video processing devices or algorithms to create a video processor that improves the apparent definition of video signals.

Video scalers are primarily a digital device; however, they can be combined with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, or digitizer) and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) to support analog inputs and outputs.

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