Disciplinary repository

A disciplinary repository (or subject repository) is an online archive containing works or data associated with these works of scholars in a particular subject area.[1][2] Disciplinary repositories can accept work from scholars from any institution. A disciplinary repository shares the roles of collecting, disseminating, and archiving work with other repositories, but is focused on a particular subject area. These collections can include academic and research papers.

Disciplinary repositories can acquire their content in many ways. Many rely on author or organization submissions, such as SSRN. Others such as CiteSeerX crawl the web for scholar and researcher websites and download publicly available academic papers from those sites. AgEcon, established in 1995,[3] grew as a result of active involvement of academia and societies.

A disciplinary repository generally covers one broad based discipline, with contributors from many different institutions supported by a variety of funders; the repositories themselves are likely to be funded from one or more sources within the subject community.[4] Deposit of material in a disciplinary repository is sometimes mandated by research funders.

Disciplinary repositories can also act as stores of data related to a particular subject, allowing documents along with data associated with that work to be stored in the repository.

What was believed to be the first public Workshop on Disciplinary Repositories[5] was held on June 16 and 17, 2011, at the ACM Joint Conference on Digital Libraries in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.



  1. ^ "The Internet and Unrefereed Scholarly Publishing". 2003. Retrieved 2010-12-01.
  2. ^ "Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age". 2003. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
  3. ^ "AgEcon Search: An International Disciplinary Repository". 2009. Retrieved 2010-12-01.
  4. ^ "Development of Disciplinary Repositories: A Case Study of Open DOAR". 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-09-23. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
  5. ^ "Digital Repositories and Field-Specific Digital Libraries: Opportunities and Challenges". 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-22.

AGRIS (International System for Agricultural Science and Technology) is a global public domain database with more than 9 million structured bibliographical records on agricultural science and technology. It became operational in 1975 and The database is maintained by CIARD, and its content is provided by more than 150 participating institutions from 65 countries. The AGRIS Search system, allows scientists, researchers and students to perform sophisticated searches using keywords from the AGROVOC thesaurus, specific journal titles or names of countries, institutions, and authors.

Australian Research Repositories Online to the World

ARROW is a national demonstrator project funded by the Australian Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training, under the Research Information Infrastructure Framework for Australian Higher Education for the support of digital repositories of Australian content.

The ARROW project will identify and test a software solution or solutions to support best practice institutional digital repositories compris The National Library of Australia will develop a repository and associated metadata to support independent scholars (those not associated with institutions). A complementary activity of ARROW is the development and testing of national resource discovery services (developed by the National Library), using metadata harvested from the institutional repositories, and the exposing of metadata to provide services via protocols and toolkits.

This will include a potential path for the redevelopment of the Australian Digital Theses Program metadata repository incorporated into the National Library’s national resource discovery services. Initially ARROW will be tested in four consortium partner institutions, prior to it being offered more widely across the higher-education sector. Consortium members are:

Monash University (lead institution)

National Library of Australia

University of New South Wales

Swinburne University of TechnologyThe solution will be open standards-based, or will support open standards, and will facilitate interoperability within and between participating institutions.


CiteSeerx (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science. CiteSeer holds a United States patent # 6289342, titled "Autonomous citation indexing and literature browsing using citation context," granted on September 11, 2001. Stephen R. Lawrence, C. Lee Giles, Kurt D. Bollacker are the inventors of this patent assigned to NEC Laboratories America, Inc. This patent was filed on May 20, 1998, which has its roots (Priority) to January 5, 1998. A continuation patent was also granted to the same inventors and also assigned to NEC Labs on this invention i.e. US Patent # 6738780 granted on May 18, 2004 and was filed on May 16, 2001. CiteSeer is considered as a predecessor of academic search tools such as Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search. CiteSeer-like engines and archives usually only harvest documents from publicly available websites and do not crawl publisher websites. For this reason, authors whose documents are freely available are more likely to be represented in the index.

CiteSeer's goal is to improve the dissemination and access of academic and scientific literature. As a non-profit service that can be freely used by anyone, it has been considered as part of the open access movement that is attempting to change academic and scientific publishing to allow greater access to scientific literature. CiteSeer freely provided Open Archives Initiative metadata of all indexed documents and links indexed documents when possible to other sources of metadata such as DBLP and the ACM Portal. To promote open data, CiteSeerx shares its data for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons license.The name can be construed to have at least two explanations. As a pun, a 'sightseer' is a tourist who looks at the sights, so a 'cite seer' would be a researcher who looks at cited papers. Another is a 'seer' is a prophet and a 'cite seer' is a prophet of citations. CiteSeer changed its name to ResearchIndex at one point and then changed it back.

Data publishing

Data publishing (also data publication) is the act of releasing research data in published form for (re)use by others. It is a practice consisting in preparing certain data or data set(s) for public use thus to make them available to everyone to use as they wish.

This practice is an integral part of the open science movement.

There is a large and multidisciplinary consensus on the benefits resulting from this practice.The main goal is to elevate data to be first class research outputs.

There are a number of initiatives underway as well as points of consensus and issues still in contention.There are several distinct ways to make research data available, including:

publishing data as supplemental material associated with a research article, typically with the data files hosted by the publisher of the article

hosting data on a publicly-available website, with files available for download

hosting data in a repository that has been developed to support data publication, e.g. figshare, Dryad, Dataverse, Zenodo. A large number of general and specialty (such as by research topic) data repositories exist.

publishing a data paper about the dataset, which may be published as a preprint, in a journal, or in a data journal that is dedicated to supporting data papers. The data may be hosted by the journal or hosted separately in a data repository.Publishing data allows researchers to both make their data available to others to use, and enables datasets to be cited similarly to other research publication types (such as articles or books), thereby enabling producers of datasets to gain academic credit for their work.

The motivations for publishing data may range for a desire to make research more accessible, to enable citability of datasets, or research funder or publisher mandates that require open data publishing.

Dryad (repository)

Dryad is an international disciplinary repository of data underlying scientific and medical publications. Dryad is a curated general-purpose repository that makes data discoverable, freely reusable, and citable. The scientific, educational, and charitable mission of Dryad is to promote the availability of data underlying findings in the scientific literature for research and educational reuse.

The vision of Dryad is a scholarly communication system in which learned societies, publishers, institutions of research and education, funding bodies and other stakeholders collaboratively sustain and promote the preservation and reuse of data underlying the scholarly literature.

Dryad aims to allow researchers to validate published findings, explore new analysis methodologies, re-purpose data for research questions unanticipated by the original authors, and perform synthetic studies such as formal meta-analyses. For many publications, existing data repositories do not capture the whole data package. As a result, many important datasets are not being preserved and are no longer available, or usable, at the time that they are sought by later investigators.Dryad serves as a repository for tables, spreadsheets, flat files, and all other kinds of published data for which specialized repositories do not already exist. Optimally, authors submit data to Dryad in conjunction with article publication, so that links to the data can be included in the published article. All data files in Dryad are associated with a published article, and are made available for reuse under the terms of a Creative Commons Zero waiver.

Dryad is also a non-profit membership organization registered in the US, providing a forum for all stakeholders to set priorities for the repository, participate in planning, and share knowledge and coordinate action around data policies.

Dryad is listed in the Registry of Research Data Repositories re3data.org.


EconStor is a disciplinary repository for Economics and Business Studies which offers research literature in Open Access and makes it findable in various portals and search engines. The service is operated by the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.The majority of the publications originates from German institutions in economic research and is provided in accordance with usage agreements. Individual researchers can also submit their scholarly papers to EconStor.

EconStor maintains a list of influential journals publishing literature in economics . According to latest criteria toll access journals and open access journals can only be included in EconStor collections/archives on condition that they are indexed in Scopus or SSCI and DOAJ as well. EconStor also feed its data to other databases and portals like EconBiz, Google & Google Scholar, BASE — Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, WorldCat, and OpenAIRE . Report publishers and journals publishing quality research are archived with EconStor e.g., Journal of Choice Modelling, International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences, and Weekly Report - DIW Berlin.

Publications include mostly working papers, discussion papers and conference proceedings, but also articles in journals and theses.

The most important professional association for economists in Germany, the Verein für Socialpolitik (German Economic Association), has been using EconStor since 2010 to publish conference papers submitted for its Annual Meeting online.

One of the most important online dissemination channels for EconStor documents is the database RePEc, where EconStor is also one of the largest content providers.

EconStor counts among the largest repositories in its discipline and in Germany with more than 127,000 full-texts.

Institutional repository

An institutional repository is an archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution.An institutional repository can be viewed as a "...a set of services that a university offers to members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members." For a university, this includes materials such as monographs, eprints of academic journal articles—both before (preprints) and after (postprints) undergoing peer review—as well as electronic theses and dissertations. An institutional repository might also include other digital assets generated by academics, such as datasets, administrative documents, course notes, learning objects, or conference proceedings. Deposit of material in an institutional repository is sometimes mandated by that institution.

Some of the main objectives for having an institutional repository are to provide open access to institutional research output by self-archiving in an open access repository, to create global visibility for an institution's scholarly research, and to store and preserve other institutional digital assets, including unpublished or otherwise easily lost ("grey") literature such as theses, working papers or technical reports.

Lenus the Irish Health Repository

LENUS, the Irish Health Repository is an open access disciplinary repository managed by the Health Service Executive's Library and Information Service based in Dr. Steevens Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. It is hosted on "Open Repository" and is based on the DSpace open source repository software and digital asset management tool. It provides the HSE with an in-house repository for storing and disseminating its own research and publications as well as acting as a central repository for Irish health and social care research.


MyCoRe (portmanteau of My Content Repository) is an open source repository software framework for building disciplinary or institutional repositories, digital archives, digital libraries, and scientific journals. The software is developed at various German university libraries and computer centers. Although most MyCoRe web applications are located in Germany, there are English-language applications, such as "The International Treasury of Islamic Manuscripts" at the University of Cambridge (UK).

Open-access mandate

An open-access mandate is a policy adopted by a research institution, research funder, or government which requires researchers—usually university faculty or research staff and/or research grant recipients—to make their published, peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers open access (1) by self-archiving their final, peer-reviewed drafts in a freely accessible institutional repository or disciplinary repository ("Green OA") or (2) by publishing them in an open-access journal ("Gold OA") or both.

Open-access repository

An open-access repository or open archive is a digital platform that holds research output and provides free, immediate and permanent access to research results for anyone to use, download and distribute. To facilitate open access such repositories must be interoperable according to the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). Search engines harvest the content of open access repositories, constructing a database of worldwide, free of charge available research.As opposed to a simple institutional repository or disciplinary repository, open-access repositories provide free access to research for users outside the institutional community and are one of the recommended ways to achieve the open access vision described in the Budapest Open Access Initiative definition of open access. This is sometimes referred to as the self-archiving or "green" route to open access.

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