Disabled parking permit

A disabled parking permit, also known as a disabled badge, disabled placard, handicapped permit, handicapped placard, handicapped tag, and "Blue Badge" in the European Union, is displayed upon parking a vehicle permitting the operator of a vehicle to special privileges regarding the parking of that vehicle. These privileges include parking in a space reserved for persons with disabilities, or in some situations, permission to park in a time-limited space for a longer time, or to park at a meter without payment.

Disabled parking
A sign requesting permits be displayed for a disabled parking place in Canberra, Australia.

European Union

Miejsce parkingowe zarezerwowane dla osób niepełnosprawnych na parkingu osiedlowym w Tomaszowie Mazowieckim, grudzień 2018
Disabled parking place in Tomaszów Mazowiecki, Poland

In the European Union (EU), a disabled parking permit allows partial or total exemption from charges or penalties associated with the parking of a motor vehicle used by a badge-holder, and shows entitlement to use of dedicated parking bays and off-street parking (where they are provided). The concession extends in some places to partial or total exemption from tolls or general prohibitions on where a vehicle can be driven. Since 2000, all general disabled parking permits in the EU have been standardised to a common style and blue colour, leading to the officially-used designation "Blue Badge".[1][2] A Blue Badge issued in one country of the EU is generally given equal recognition in others with various exceptions as described for the countries below.

The privileges vary by area, but some include parking in no parking zones, extended time limit on time-limited parking areas, waived parking fees, and using pedestrian areas in urgent situations.[3]

United Kingdom

Disabled Parking Badge on Harley-Davidson
A UK "Blue Badge" Disabled Parking Permit in a custom permit holder for motorcycles, beside the license plate.

In the United Kingdom, this scheme of permits was originally introduced (using Orange Badges) by the Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act 1970. Badges are issued as a right if a person meets certain statutory requirements, most of which are associated with actually being in receipt of certain disability benefits from the national Social Security system; additionally, a local authority can make concessionary issues of badges to persons who have a permanent disability which does not fall directly within the more rigid statutory requirements but which seriously impairs their mobility.

General exceptions

The Great Britain Blue Badge scheme does not apply to parking away from public roads and local authority car parks, with the general concessions often not recognised at ports, airports and railway stations unless the operators have provided voluntary parking privileges.

Parking Maps

Until 2010 Directgov provided a service that covers country wide customised maps for Blue Badge Holders with different base colours reflecting councils policies on Blue Badge Holder's parking.[4] In addition to council policies this service also pin pointed the location of different features specific to disabled community. There are a few dedicated Blue Badge sat-navs available, mainly from the specialist sat-nav company Navevo. See BBNav publicity for a likely list of integral features.

Since the cessation of the directgov service maps have been provided by online services such as the crowd-sourced BlueBadgeParking.com which also provides free Sat-nav downloads.

Abuse

Abuse of Blue Badges in the UK can incur fines of up to £1,000. As of 2016, the Department for Transport found that 61 out of 152 authorities did not have a policy about prosecuting drivers fraudulently using Blue Badges. The number of prosecuted cases from 2015 is just under 1000.[5]

England and Wales

In England and Wales, Blue Badge holders are required (unless signs show otherwise) to display a Disabled Person's Parking Disc ("Clock") showing the time the vehicle was first parked so that a time limit can be enforced. Badge holders from elsewhere in the European Union will need to obtain a Clock (obtainable from their Issuing Office in the UK) to validate their badge otherwise the vehicle will be treated as if no badge were displayed.

Local differences in parking rules

In London, the volume of traffic has led to restrictions upon the national scheme in some areas with local colour schemes used to restrict standard concessions to local residents, for example the permits are green in Camden, white in Westminster, purple in Kensington and Chelsea, and red in the City of London. In these cities and boroughs special rules and parking spaces are provided for Blue Badge holders.

Similar local schemes operate in other large towns or cities in the UK, for example Norwich operates a 'green badge scheme'.

Northern Ireland

The standard scheme only generally applies to on-street parking and is outlined on the Roads Service Northern Ireland website.[6] A "White Badge" is required for access to Pedestrian Zones.

Scotland

In Scotland, a local authority Parking Attendant (in addition to police and traffic wardens) has the power to inspect a Blue Badge; failure to allow this inspection is an offence. There are also proposals to extend the issue of badges to small children and a wider range of (temporarily or permanently) disabled people.

United States

2008-07-30 Misoriented manhole cover in a handicapped parking space at UNC
Accessible parking space at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill

In the United States, reserved spaces are mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines.[7]

Disabled parking space requirements

HCSign3
Indicates parking is restricted to users with handicapped tag (plate) or placard

According to the Americans With Disabilities Act Handbook, "Accessible parking spaces should be at least 96 in (2440 mm) wide. Parking access aisles shall be part of an accessible route to the building or facility entrance..."[8]

2002 Virginia license plate SAM 123 handicapped
Example of a disability license plate
Handicapp
A temporary disability placard, usually issued to someone with a temporary disability.

Disabled parking permits generally take the form of either specially marked license plates or a placard that hangs from the rear-view mirror. Plates are generally used for disabled drivers on their personal vehicle, while the portable disability placard can be moved from one vehicle to another with the disabled person, both when driving or when riding with another driver.

The medical requirements to obtain a permit vary by state, but are usually confined to specific types of disabilities or conditions. These as a general rule include the use of any assistive device such as a wheelchair, crutches, or cane, as well as a missing leg or foot. Some states also include certain cardiovascular, pain, or respiratory conditions. About half of US states (26) include blindness as a qualifying disability enabling the person to obtain a disability parking permit for use as a passenger, and 14 states include a disabled hand as a qualifying disability. Four states include deafness, and two states (Virginia and New York) include mental illness or developmental disabilities as qualifying disabilities.[9][10]

Disability parking placards come in various colors with the significance varying from state to state.

The availability of specially reserved parking spaces is regulated by both federal and state laws. Generally at least one space is available at any public parking location, with more being required based on the size of the parking lot and in some cases the type of location, such as a health care facility. Parking spaces reserved for disabled people are typically marked with the International Symbol of Access, though in practice, the design of the symbol varies widely.[11] Often, the parking space is delineated with blue lines instead of the white or yellow lines used elsewhere in the lot. Anyone parking in such reserved spaces must have their disability plate or mirror placard displayed, or else the car can be ticketed for illegal parking. In some major US cities, local law also allows such vehicles to park for free at city parking meters and also exempts from time limits on time parked. In the US states of California, Maryland, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, and Virginia, holders of a Disabled parking permit are exempt from parking meter fees. In some states (including Virginia) accessible-designated parking meters exist, which, unless the permit holder is exempt, must be paid at the same rate as non-designated meters. One will also be subject to receiving a violation ticket if a valid disability license plate or placard is not displayed on the vehicle. Fraudulent use of another person's placard is heavily fined.

If traveling from other countries, requirements to obtain a parking permit vary from state to state. Some states will honour other country permits, while others require application as a visitor/tourist.[12]

Canada's provinces will honor a US state issued disabled plate or placard since US states will honor Canadian disabled plates and placards.

In all types of dwellings, United States federal law states that it is unlawful and discriminatory to refuse services that may assist in making reasonable accommodations for those with disabilities. This includes any services or facilities that are necessary in order for the occupant to inhabit their dwelling as deemed standard. [13] [14]

New York

Disabled drivers from outside New York City who possess state-issued disability parking permits have claimed illegal discrimination and civil rights violations on the part of New York City. In 1991 a disabled elderly man from New Jersey was issued a ticket while parking in Brooklyn while displaying his New Jersey-issued disability parking placard.[15] In 1997 a woman with multiple sclerosis using a wheelchair was similarly issued a ticket while parking in New York City for displaying a non-NYC issued disability parking placard.[16] Both drivers maintain that failure to recognize non-NYC disability parking placards is a violation of their civil rights.

The city does recognize valid placards from other jurisdictions for marked disabled parking spaces, all of which are in off-street lots.[17]

Integration with electric vehicle charging

In California alone, there are over 27,000 Plug in Electric Vehicles (PEV) with about 2,000 being added every month. While most PEV charging is done at home, the public charging infrastructure is also expanding, with 6218 public charging stations as of July 2013.[18] Although the number of PEVs is still a small portion of the cars on the road, and the number of PEVs with Handicap placards is much smaller still, the needs of handicap PEV drivers must be integrated with public charging spaces. Guidelines are that 1 in 25 PEV Charging Stations be made ADA space compliant.[19] Although not intuitively obvious, it's important to recognize that a PEV charging station is not parking space, rather a charging service, in the same manner that gas station fill up spots are not parking spaces. Electric vehicle charging stations that meet the ADA space requirements are not to be reserved exclusively for the use of persons with disabilities,[20] they are shared by any PEV needing to charge. Further more any PEV charging space, ADA space compliant or not, cannot be used by non-PEV vehicles, including those with handicap placards. Recommended signage, along with common courtesy, ask that ADA space compliant charging stations are to be used last.

Abuse

Disabled parking place
An example of a disabled parking place.

The abuse and misuse of disabled parking permits has been identified as a major problem in the US, with some estimates indicating the majority seen on the street are used or obtained fraudulently.[21] The substantial privilege and convenience granted by a permit provides a major incentive to use one illegally or obtain one fraudulently, and medical privacy law often confounds attempts to identify truly disabled individuals from abuses. In 1999, 19 of UCLA's current and former football players were charged with abuse of disabled parking placards.[22][23][24]

Abuse occurs under the following circumstances:

  • A non-disabled driver using the vehicle, plate or placard of another person who is disabled without transporting that person. This often occurs with family members of disabled people.[25]
  • Using an illegally purchased placard that originally was issued to another person.[25]
  • Forging a physician's signature on the form submitted to the motor vehicle department.[26]
  • Feigning or exaggerating symptoms of a medical condition in order to convince a physician to submit the form.

A related issue is physician approval of permits for medical conditions that don't actually qualify under that jurisdiction's requirements. Often this is simply an error on the physician's part due to not fully understanding the law. A common example is cognitive, psychiatric, or developmental conditions (such as autism), which in all but two states do not qualify for a permit. Such permits are still legal and valid, and most recipients honestly believe they have a qualifying disability. The result is far more permits than existing parking spaces can usually support, which often leaves more severely disabled individuals without a place to park.[27]

Disabled persons who hold parking permits but have invisible disabilities may be difficult to tell apart from fraudulent permit users.[28][29] On occasion, suspicion of fraud has led to hostility against legitimate permit holders.[30][31][32]

Oceania

Australia

In Australia, disabled parking permits are provided under the Australian Disability Parking Scheme,[33] which was established in September 2010 to harmonise disability permits across Australia.[34] Disabled parking permits are applied for through state and territory organisations, and rules for eligibility differ among jurisdictions.[33] If someone else parks in a disabled zone, he will be fined by either police or the council.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Neuer Parkausweis für Behinderte (English: New parking card for disabled". FAHRLEHRERVERBAND Baden-Württemberg e.V. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  2. ^ "Parking card for people with disabilities in the European Union: conditions in the member states" (PDF). European Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  3. ^ "Parking card for people with disabilities in the European Union: conditions in the Member States" (PDF). ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  4. ^ "Directgov Blue Badge map". Directgov. Archived from the original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  5. ^ Sawer, Patrick (31 December 2016). "Able-bodied motorists 'getting away' with disabled parking fraud". The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  6. ^ "Disabled Persons Badge Scheme for Northern Ireland". Roads Service Northern Ireland. Archived from the original on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  7. ^ "4.6 Parking and Passenger Loading Zones". ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG). United States Access Board. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  8. ^ U.S. Department of Justice (October 1991). Americans with Disabilities Act Handbook. Equal Opportunity Commission and the U.S. Department of Justice. p. 25.
  9. ^ "Disabled Parking Placards or License Plates Application" (PDF). Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  10. ^ "Application for a Parking Permit or License Plates, for Persons with Severe Disabilities" (PDF). New York State Department of Motor Vehicles. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  11. ^ "www.youcantparkhere.com (A gallery of accessible parking symbols)". Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  12. ^ "Disabled Parking Permits For Visitors To The United States". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  13. ^ https://www.tcpalm.com/story/money/real-estate/2017/07/30/condo-associations-required-allocate-handicap-parking/486490001/
  14. ^ https://cooperator.com/article/qa-parking-spaces-for-the-disabled
  15. ^ Hanley, Robert (5 June 1991). "New York Urged to Broaden Handicapped-Parking Rights". The New York Times.
  16. ^ Page, Jeffrey (5 December 1997). "ENCOUNTERING THE WOODEN HEART OF LITTLE OLD N.Y.". The Record.
  17. ^ "NYC DOT". nyc.gov.
  18. ^ Electric Vehicle Charging Station Locations
  19. ^ "Interim Disabled Access Guidelines for 97-03 Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations" (PDF).
  20. ^ "State of California Governor's Office of Planning and Research, Plug-In Electric Vehicles: Universal Charging Access Guidelines and Best Practices" (PDF).
  21. ^ Shoup, Donald. "Ending the Abuse of Disabled Parking Placards" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
  22. ^ Peters, Justin. "Handicapped-Parking Fraud Is Just About the Jerkiest Crime Imaginable". Slate. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  23. ^ Berthelsen, Christian (29 July 1999). "College Football; 9 Enter Pleas in U.C.L.A. Parking Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  24. ^ Wharton, David (14 September 1999). "Five More Charged in Parking Scandal". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  25. ^ a b Chirbas, Kurt (29 July 2015). "California DMV cracks down on misuse of disability parking placards". latimes.com. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  26. ^ TEGNA. "One out of every 8 California drivers now has a disabled parking placard". KPNX. Retrieved 27 February 2017. They also charged some drivers with fraud after they discovered forged doctor signatures on applications.
  27. ^ Chirbas, Kurt (29 July 2015). "California DMV cracks down on misuse of disability parking placards". latimes.com. Retrieved 27 February 2017. It brings to mind there are doctors out there who might be over-prescribing," said R. Michael Paravagna, a member of the Commission on Disability Access. "Maybe they are handing them out like candy.
  28. ^ Bernstein, Sharon (6 May 2003). "Handicap That Allows Parking Isn't Always Obvious". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  29. ^ Ayres, Ian. "How Can We Stop Handicap Fraud?". Freakonomics. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  30. ^ Invisible Disabilities Association (2004). "Looks Can be Deceiving". Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  31. ^ Cline, Katie. "People with invisible disabilities face discrimination while using parking passes". The Red & Black. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  32. ^ Fleshler, David. "Parking lot vigilantes abuse woman with 'invisible' disability". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  33. ^ a b "Australian Disability Parking Scheme". Government of Australia. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  34. ^ "Mobility Parking Scheme". Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 10 November 2012.

External links

Adapted automobile

An adapted automobile is an automobile adapted for ease of use by disabled people. Automobiles, whether a car or a van, can be adapted for a range of physical disabilities.

California Department of Motor Vehicles

The California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) is the state agency that registers motor vehicles and boats and issues driver's licenses in the U.S. state of California. It regulates new car dealers (through the New Motor Vehicle Board), commercial cargo carriers, private driving schools, and private traffic schools. The DMV works with the Superior Courts of California to promptly record convictions against drivers' licenses and subsequently suspends or revokes licenses when a driver accumulates too many convictions (as measured by a point-based system). It issues California license plates and driver's licenses. The DMV also issues identification cards to people who request one.

The DMV is part of the California State Transportation Agency. It is headquartered in Sacramento and operates local offices in nearly every part of the state. As of December 2017, the DMV employed over 8,900 people—35% at headquarters and 65% at 172 field offices (and various other locations). Also, as of December 2017, it maintained records for 30,112,927 persons, 33,993,857 driver's licenses and/or identification cards (there is overlap as some persons can and do hold both documents), and 35,391,347 vehicles. California has 26,957,875 licensed drivers.On July 23, 2019, Governor Gavin Newsom released a report by the California Government Operations Agency "DMV Reinvention Strike Team" detailing recommendations for improving DMV transparency, worker training and performance, speed of service, and overall consumer satisfaction. As part of the release of the report, Newsom announced the appointment of Steve Gordon as the director of the California DMV.

Disability in South Africa

South Africans with disabilities constitute a sizeable proportion of the population, and their status in society is extremely varied in a developing nation with socio-economic inequality and a history of apartheid. Wealthy city dwellers have access to a wide range of assistance, whereas the poor struggle for even the basic necessities of life.

Goody's Burger House (restaurant)

Goody's Burger House S.A. is Greece's largest fast food company. Its head office is in Building 14B, Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport in Spata, Attica.It was founded in 1975 by Ioannis Dionisiadis, Achilleas Folias and Nikolaos Pappas in Thessaloniki and has grown into one of the most well-reputed firms in Greece. It is the leading fast-food restaurant of Greece, having left behind the international chain McDonald's. In July 2001, after a hostile acquisition, Delta Holding S.A. became the major stakeholder in the company. In September 2006, Goody's along with Delta and a few more companies, started working under the umbrella of a parent company named Vivartia, owned by the Marfin Investment Group. It is now a subsidiary of Vivartia S.A., which is the leader of the food industry in Greece.

In January 2014, Goody's changed its name to Goody's Burger House, though some of its stores still retain the previous branding. The company has also released a child-friendly brand of meals, called Junior Goody's.Goody's serves over 160,000 customers daily, offering a variety of dining options, both for dine in and out-of-store in 5 countries. Goody's has restaurants in countries such as Armenia, Albania, North Macedonia, Indian Ocean (Mayotte), Australia, Kosovo and soon in Saudi Arabia. Free internet is provided by Vodafone.

Greater Nevada Field

Greater Nevada Field is a Minor League Baseball venue in the Western United States, located in Reno, Nevada. Opened in 2009, it is the home of the Triple-A Reno Aces of the Pacific Coast League and Reno 1868 FC of the USL Championship. Greater Nevada Field is on the north bank of the Truckee River and welcomes over 500,000 ticketed fans per year.

In Buddy's Eyes

"In Buddy's Eyes" is the 82nd episode of the ABC television series, Desperate Housewives. It is the twelfth episode of the show's fourth season and aired on April 20, 2008, in the United States. This is the first ever episode to feature complete (though not frontal) male nudity. The title comes from a song in the Stephen Sondheim musical, Follies.

Kim Fox

Kim Fox (also Fox-Hubbard) is a fictional character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders, played by Tameka Empson. She is the half-sister of Denise Fox (Diane Parish), and aunt to Chelsea Fox (Tiana Benjamin) and Libby Fox (Belinda Owusu). She first appeared as a guest character on 24 November 2009, and was reintroduced in 2010 as a regular character after piquing the interest of new executive producer Bryan Kirkwood. Empson took maternity leave in October 2013 and after appearing several times during her break via webcam, Kim returned to Albert Square on 30 December 2014. It was announced on 16 July 2019 that Empson would be taking a break from the show but will return at some point in the future. She departed on 23 July 2019.

Kim is described as "viscous and bubbly" on the outside, but hiding vulnerability and low self-esteem. The EastEnders website describes Kim as having big hair, a loud personality, hyperactive and a big heart. She is sharp, family-orientated and cares about her appearance, having a loud dress sense and being the life and soul of any party. She chooses the wrong men to have relationships with, but knows what she wants when it comes to love. Kim makes her first appearance for Denise's wedding to Lucas Johnson (Don Gilet). She briefly returns after Denise is presumed dead, but makes a more permanent return when she separates from her boyfriend Dexter Mulholland (Robbie Gee). Kim kisses Ricky Butcher (Sid Owen), sparking a brief feud with his wife, Bianca (Patsy Palmer). She establishes a short-lived speakeasy and later opens a bed and breakfast. Kim also goes through a HIV scare and has a relationship with Ray Dixon (Chucky Venn). Kim gave birth to a baby girl, Pearl, prematurely during EastEnders Live Week, which celebrated EastEnders' 30th anniversary. In later storylines, Kim has suffered a miscarriage and had to cope with becoming a single mother to her and Vincent's children, Pearl and Mica, following Vincent's mysterious disappearance in April 2018.

Kim is often shown in a comedic light and as a result, Empson earned a nomination for "Best Comedy Performance" at the 2011 British Soap Awards. That same year she won the "Funniest Performance" award at the Inside Soap Awards and again the following year. Ruth Deller from entertainment website Lowculture praised the character during her guest appearance in 2009 and later said Kim is a "big, ballsy, whirlwind", who provides some light relief to the show. Daniel Maier from The Guardian has criticised Kim's B&B venture, calling it a "holding pen for characters who are 'between homes' within Albert Square's hermetically sealed biosphere."

Motability

Motability is a charity in the United Kingdom. It oversees the Motability Scheme which is intended to enable disabled people, their families and their carers to lease a new car, scooter or powered wheelchair, using their disability benefit. Currently, the Motability scheme has more than 650,000 customers.

Motability was founded in 1977 by Lord Sterling of Plaistow and the late Lord Goodman and the Motability Scheme launched at Earl's Court, London, on 25 July 1978. It was initially targeted at motorists aged 16–19 years, with some 220 applications being processed at the beginning of the scheme.It is a partnership between the charitable sector, the UK government, leading banks, and the motor and insurance industries. Since 1978 over three million cars, scooters and powered wheelchairs have been provided to help disabled people with their mobility needs.

Queen Elizabeth II has been the Chief Patron of Motability since its foundation.

Parking

Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied. Parking on one or both sides of a road is often permitted, though sometimes with restrictions. Some buildings have parking facilities for use of the buildings' users. Countries and local governments have rules for design and use of parking spaces.

Parking meter

A parking meter is a device used to collect money in exchange for the right to park a vehicle in a particular place for a limited amount of time. Parking meters can be used by municipalities as a tool for enforcing their integrated on-street parking policy, usually related to their traffic and mobility management policies, but are also used for revenue.

Permit

Permit may refer to:

Permit (fish), a game fish of the western Atlantic Ocean belonging to the family Carangidae, Trachinotus falcatus

Various legal licenses:

License

Work permit, legal authorization which allows a person to take employment

Learner's permit, restricted license that is given to a person who is learning to drive

International Driving Permit, allows an individual to drive a private motor vehicle in another nation

Disabled parking permit, displayed upon a vehicle carrying a person whose mobility is significantly impaired

Protest permit, permission granted by a governmental agency for a demonstration

Construction permit, required in most jurisdictions for new construction, or adding onto pre-existing structures

Filming permit, required in most jurisdictions for filming motion pictures and television

Home Return Permit, Mainland (China) Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents

One-way Permit, document issued by the PRC allowing residents of mainland China to leave the mainland for Hong Kong

Thresher/Permit class submarine, a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines in service with the United States Navy

USS Permit (SS-178), a Porpoise-class submarine of the United States Navy

USS Permit (SSN-594), the lead ship of her class of submarine of the United States Navy

Permit (film), a 1979 Pakistani Punjabi film

Placard

A placard is a notice installed in a public place, like a small card, sign, or plaque. It can be attached to or hung from a vehicle or building to indicate information about the vehicle operator or contents of a vehicle or building. It can also refer to paperboard signs or notice carried by picketers or demonstrators.

Police ranks of the United Kingdom

Most of the police forces of the United Kingdom use a standardised set of ranks, with a slight variation in the most senior ranks for the Metropolitan Police Service and City of London Police. Most of the British police ranks that exist today were chosen by Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the Metropolitan Police, enacted under the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829. The ranks at that time were deliberately chosen so that they did not correspond with military ranking (with the exception of Sergeant), because of fears of a paramilitary force.

The ranks are listed below in ascending order:

Constable and Sergeant

Inspector and Chief Inspector

Superintendent and Chief Superintendent

Assistant Chief Constable, Deputy Chief Constable and Chief Constable (outside London only).See also: variations for the ranks in London, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man.

Road surface marking

Road surface marking is any kind of device or material that is used on a road surface in order to convey official information; they are commonly placed with road marking machines (or road marking equipment, pavement marking equipment). They can also be applied in other facilities used by vehicles to mark parking spaces or designate areas for other uses.

Road surface markings are used on paved roadways to provide guidance and information to drivers and pedestrians. Uniformity of the markings is an important factor in minimizing confusion and uncertainty about their meaning, and efforts exist to standardize such markings across borders. However, countries and areas categorize and specify road surface markings in different ways—white lines are called white lines mechanical, non-mechanical, or temporary. They can be used to delineate traffic lanes, inform motorists and pedestrians or serve as noise generators when run across a road, or attempt to wake a sleeping driver when installed in the shoulders of a road. Road surface marking can also indicate regulation for parking and stopping.

There is continuous effort to improve the road marking system, and technological breakthroughs include adding retroreflectivity, increasing longevity, and lowering installation cost.

Today, road markings are used to convey a range of information to the driver spanning navigational, safety and enforcement issues leading to their use in road environment understanding within advanced driver-assistance systems and consideration for future use in autonomous road vehicles.

State motorcyclists' rights organizations

State motorcyclists' rights organizations (SMROs) exist in about 32 US states, 25 of which call themselves "ABATE of (state name)," the rest going by various other names. SMROs advocate for a point of view in motorcycling that is, in general, opposed to mandatory helmet laws, required motorcycle safety inspections, mandatory rider training and licensing, and other similar regulation. Instead SMROs favor optional or voluntary motorcycle rider safety education, training, and licensing, and greater public awareness of motorcyclist safety issues. They also favor stronger penalties for car driver infractions such as right of way violations, or when drivers are at fault in accidents that harm motorcycle riders. SMRO activities include lobbying legislatures, letter writing campaigns, and paying for public service announcements and political advertisements. To carry out lobbying at the national level, a coalition of SMRO's created the Motorcycle Riders Foundation (MRF) to lobby in Washington DC. The SMROs and MRF are often allied with the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) on legislative issues.

Tehran (Sadeghiyeh) Metro Station

Tehran (Sadeghiyeh) Metro Station is the junction of Tehran Metro Line 2 and Tehran Metro Line 5. It is located in Sadeghiye neighborhood near Mohammad Ali Jenah Expressway and Tehran-Karaj Freeway. It is the west end of Line 2 and the east end of Line 5. The next station in Line 2 is Tarasht Metro Station and the next station in Line 5 is Eram-e Sabz Metro Station. It also has a big parking lot and is considered as the most crowded Tehran metro station. It is currently the only above ground station on Tehran Metro Line 2.

Traffic stop

A traffic stop, commonly called being pulled over, is a temporary detention of a driver of a vehicle by police to investigate a possible crime or minor violation of law.

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

Upper Skagit Indian Tribe

The Upper Skagit Indian Tribe is a federally recognized Native American tribe located in the state of Washington. Before European colonization, the tribe occupied lands along the Skagit River, from as far downstream as present-day Mount Vernon, Washington, and villages going north as far as Newhalem along the Skagit River, as well as lands on the Baker, and the Sauk rivers.Culturally, the Upper Skagit share characteristics with the Lower Skagit and the Coast Salish, as well as the Plateau Indians on the eastern side of the Cascade Mountains. They traditionally spoke Lushootseed, part of the Salishan language family. It was spoken by many coastal tribes of the Northwest.

Rules of the road
Road user guides
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Automotive safety
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