Dirk

A dirk is a long thrusting dagger.[1] Historically, it was a personal weapon of officers engaged in naval hand-to-hand combat during the Age of Sail[2] as well as the personal sidearm of Highlanders. It was also used by the officers, pipers, and drummers of Scottish Highland regiments around 1800[1] and by Japanese naval officers.[3]

Dirk (Japanese naval ww2)
Japanese WW2 naval dirk

Etymology

The term is associated with Scotland in the Early Modern Era, being attested from about 1600. The term was spelled dork or dirk during the 17th century,[4] presumably from the Dutch, Swedish and Danish dolk, and German dolch, tolch from a West Slavic Tillich. The exact etymology is unclear.[5][6][7][8] The modern spelling dirk is probably due to Samuel Johnson's 1755 Dictionary.[9] The term is also used for "dagger" generically, especially in the context of prehistoric daggers such as the Oxborough dirk.

Naval dirk

Кортики
WWII era Soviet naval officers' dirks. 1 - Soviet naval officer's dirk model 1940. 2 - Soviet naval officer's dirk of honour model 1945

A thrusting weapon, the naval dirk was originally used as a boarding weapon and functional fighting dagger.[2] It was worn by midshipmen and officers during the days of sail, gradually evolving into a ceremonial weapon and badge of office.[2] In the Royal Navy, the naval dirk is still presented to junior officers; their basic design has changed little in the last 500 years.[2]

The naval dirk (Polish kordzik, Russian кортик) became part of the uniform of naval officers and civilian officials in the Navy Department of the Russian Empire and in the Soviet navy an element of the dress uniform of officers. Later, it became an element of other uniforms as well, e.g. of officers in the Russian and Polish army and air force and of the police forces in some countries.

Highland dirk

George Sanders - George Gordon, 5th Duke of Gordon
Painting of George Gordon, 5th Duke of Gordon (1770–1836) in highland dress.

The Scottish dirk (also "Highland dirk", Scottish Gaelic: Biodag), as a symbolic traditional and ceremonial weapon of the Highland Cathairean (cateran or warrior), is worn by officers, pipers and drummers of Scottish Highland regiments. The development of the Scottish dirk as a weapon is unrelated to that of the naval dirk; it is a modern continuation of the 16th-century ballock or rondel dagger.

The traditional Scottish dirk is a probable development from the 16th century but like all medieval societies, the Highlander needed a knife for everyday use. The dirk became symbolic of a Highland man’s honour and oaths were sworn on the steel which was believed to be holy. The perceived holiness of the steel is likely to have originated in folk superstitions about the magic in the forging of Germanic steel, hence the reverence of Highlanders towards Solingen steel. The following highlights the importance of the dirk in Highland culture:

"The dirk occupies a unique niche in Highland culture and history. Many Highland Scots were too cash-poor to buy a sword, but virtually every male carried a dirk - and carried it everywhere! If in Japan the katana was the soul of the Samurai, in Scotland the dirk was the heart of the Highlander. In many warrior cultures oaths were sworn on one's sword. Among the Gael, however, binding oaths with the force of a geas (involving dire supernatural penalties for breaking such an oath) were sworn on one's dirk. The English, (British) aware of this, used the custom against the Highlanders after Culloden: When Highland dress was prohibited in 1747 those Gael who could not read or sign an oath were required to swear a verbal oath, "in the Irish (Scots Gaelic) tongue and upon the holy iron of their dirks", not to possess any gun, sword, or pistol, or to use tartan: "... and if I do so may I be cursed in my undertakings, family and property, may I be killed in battle as a coward, and lie without burial in a strange land, far from the graves of my forefathers and kindred; may all this come across me if I break my oath."[10]

During the period of proscription, only service in a British regiment permitted Highlanders to bear their traditional arms and dress. The 78th Fraser Highlanders, raised in 1757, wore full highland dress uniform;[11] their equipment was described by Major-General James Stewart in 1780 as including a "musket and broadsword, to which many soldiers added the dirk at their own expense."[11][12]

The modern development of the Scottish dirk into a ceremonial weapon occurred during the 19th century. The shape of the grip developed from the historical more cylindrical form to a shape intended to represent the thistle. Fancier fittings, often of silver, became popular shortly after 1800. The hilts of modern Scottish dirks are often carved from dark colored wood such as bog oak or ebony. Hilts and scabbards are often lavishly decorated with silver mounts and have pommels set with cairngorm stones. The blades measure 12" in length and are single edged with decorative file work known as "jimping" on the unsharpened back edge of the blade.[13] When worn, the dirk normally hangs by a leather strap known as a "frog" from a dirk belt, which is a wide leather belt having a large, usually ornate buckle, that is worn around the waist with a kilt.[14] Many Scottish dirks carry a smaller knife and fork which fit into compartments on the front of the sheath,[15] and a smaller knife known as a sgian dubh is also worn tucked into the top of the hose when wearing a kilt.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh (ed.), Dagger, The Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol. VII, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press (1910), p. 729
  2. ^ a b c d O'Brian, Patrick, Men-of-War: Life In Nelson's Navy, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., ISBN 0-393-03858-0 (1974), p. 35
  3. ^ The imperial Japanese navy, Author Frederick Thomas Jane, Publisher W. Thacker & co., 1904 P.276
  4. ^ Head, T.F. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology Oxford University Press (1996) ISBN 0-19-283098-8
  5. ^ Hoad, T.F. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology Oxford University Press (1996) ISBN 0-19-283098-8
  6. ^ Hensleigh Wedgwood, A dictionary of English etymology, 1859.
  7. ^ Collins English Dictionary 21st Century Edition Harper Collins (2001) ISBN 0-00-472529-8
  8. ^ Robinson, M. (ed) The Concise Scots Dictionary Chambers 1985 ISBN 0-08-028491-4
  9. ^ Johnson, Samuel (1755-04-15). A Dictionary of the English Language: In which the Words are Deduced from Their Originals; and Illustrated in Their Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers. To which are Prefixed, a History of the Language, and an English Grammar. 1 (1 ed.). 17 Gough Square, London: W. Strahan. 597. DIRK. n. s. [an Earse word.] A kind of dagger used in the Highlands of Scotland.  In vain thy hungry mountaineers Come forth in all their warlike geers, The shield, the pistol, the dirk, and dagger, In which they daily wont to swagger.       Tickell
  10. ^ Seago, Dale. THE WEAPONS AND FIGHTING METHODS OF THE HIGHLAND SCOTS - A study of the historical swordsmanship and warfare practices of the Scottish Highlanders. 1999
  11. ^ a b Browne James, A History of the Highlands and of the Highland Clans, Vol. IV, Edinburgh, Scotland: A. Fullarton & Co. (1838), p. 250
  12. ^ Grant, James, British Battles on Land and Sea, Vol. II, London: Cassell, Petter & Galpin (1873), p. 82
  13. ^ Fisher, Jay. "Custom Knife Embellishment". Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  14. ^ Van Witsen, Leo, Costuming for Opera: Who Wears What and Why, Volume 2, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-8108-2933-9 (1994), p. 133
  15. ^ Whitelaw, C.E., Scottish History & Life: Scottish Weapons, Glasgow, Scotland: James Maclehose & Sons (1902), p. 238
  16. ^ MacGregor, Geddes, Scotland: An Intimate Portrait (1st ed.), Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co., ISBN 0-395-56236-8, ISBN 978-0-395-56236-9 (1980), p. 40

External links

2010–11 Dallas Mavericks season

The 2010–11 Dallas Mavericks season was the 31st season of the franchise in the National Basketball Association (NBA).

This season would prove to be the most successful season for the Mavericks. In the playoffs, the Mavericks defeated the Portland Trail Blazers in six games in the First Round, then swept the defending two-time NBA champion Los Angeles Lakers in four games in the Semifinals, before defeating the Oklahoma City Thunder in five games in the Conference Finals to reach the NBA Finals for the first time since 2006. In the NBA Finals, the Mavericks faced off against the Miami Heat in a rematch of the 2006 NBA Finals, where they beat the Heat in six games, and the Heat were led by their Big Three of LeBron James, Dwyane Wade, and Chris Bosh.

The Mavericks would go on to defeat the Heat in six games in the NBA Finals, winning their first NBA championship in franchise history.The Mavericks' championship was the first major sports championship in the Dallas-Fort Worth area since the Dallas Stars in 1999, and the first title in Mavericks franchise history. The Mavericks became the third team to win an NBA title in the state of Texas, joining the Houston Rockets and San Antonio Spurs. The Mavericks are also the third team to win a major sports championship in the Dallas-Fort Worth area, joining the Dallas Cowboys and the Dallas Stars. The Mavericks championship parade was held on June 16, 2011 in downtown Dallas.

2011 NBA Finals

The 2011 NBA Finals was the championship series of the 2010–11 season of the National Basketball Association (NBA) in which the Western Conference champion Dallas Mavericks defeated the Eastern Conference champion Miami Heat 4 games to 2 to win their first NBA championship. The series was held from May 31 to June 12, 2011. German player Dirk Nowitzki was named the Finals MVP, becoming the second European to win the award after Tony Parker (2007) and the first German player to do so. The series was a rematch of the 2006 NBA Finals, which the Heat had won in six games.

Going into the series, the Heat were heavy favorites with their newly acquired superstars LeBron James and Chris Bosh along with returning superstar Dwyane Wade.The Dallas Mavericks became the first team in NBA history since the institution of the 2–3–2 format to enter Game 3 tied at one, lose Game 3 and still win the Finals. The previous 11 times this occurred, the Game 3 winner went on to win the series. The Mavericks also became just the 7th team, and the first since 1988, to come back and win the Finals after being down in the series two or more separate times (one game to none, and later two games to one). The previous six times this happened, the Finals ended in seven games; Dallas became the first team in NBA history to do it in six games.

ABC averaged a 10.1 rating, 11.7 million households and nearly 17.3 million viewers with the 2011 Finals, according to Nielsen.

Boogie Nights

Boogie Nights is a 1997 American drama film written, produced and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson. It is set in Los Angeles' San Fernando Valley and focuses on a young nightclub dishwasher who becomes a popular star of pornographic films, chronicling his rise in the Golden Age of Porn of the 1970s through to his fall during the excesses of the 1980s. The film is an expansion of Anderson's mockumentary short film The Dirk Diggler Story (1988), and stars Mark Wahlberg, Julianne Moore, Burt Reynolds, Don Cheadle, John C. Reilly, William H. Macy, Philip Seymour Hoffman and Heather Graham.

The film premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival on September 11, 1997 and was released on October 10, 1997, garnering critical acclaim. It was also nominated for three Academy Awards, including Best Original Screenplay for Anderson, Best Supporting Actress for Moore and Best Supporting Actor for Reynolds. The film's soundtrack has also received acclaim.

Clive Cussler

Clive Eric Cussler (born July 15, 1931) is an American adventure novelist and underwater explorer. His thriller novels, many featuring the character Dirk Pitt, have reached The New York Times fiction best-seller list more than 20 times. Cussler is the founder and chairman of the National Underwater and Marine Agency (NUMA), which has discovered more than 60 shipwreck sites and numerous other notable underwater wrecks. He is the sole author or lead author of more than 70 books.

County of Holland

The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1648 onward the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795. The territory of the County of Holland corresponds roughly with the current provinces of North Holland and South Holland in the Netherlands.

Cyclone Dirk

Cyclone Dirk was a large and deep European windstorm that affected Western Europe from the Iberian Peninsula to Iceland from 22 December 2013.

Dallas Mavericks

The Dallas Mavericks (often referred to as the Mavs) are an American professional basketball team based in Dallas, Texas. The Mavericks compete in the National Basketball Association (NBA) as a member club of the league's Western Conference Southwest Division. The team plays its home games at the American Airlines Center, which it shares with the National Hockey League's Dallas Stars.

As of the 2017 season, the Mavericks have sold out 704 consecutive games since December 15, 2001, the longest currently running sellout streak in North American major league sports.Since their inaugural 1980–81 season, the Mavericks have won three division titles (1987, 2007, 2010), two conference championships (2006, 2011), and one NBA championship (2011).

Dirk Benedict

Dirk Benedict (born Dirk Niewoehner on March 1, 1945) is an American movie, television and stage actor and author. He is best known for playing the characters Lieutenant Templeton "Faceman" Peck in The A-Team television series and Lieutenant Starbuck in the original Battlestar Galactica film and television series. He is the author of Confessions of a Kamikaze Cowboy and And Then We Went Fishing.

Dirk Bogarde

Sir Derek Jules Gaspard Ulric Niven van den Bogaerde (28 March 1921 – 8 May 1999), known professionally as Dirk Bogarde, was an English actor and writer. Initially a matinée idol in films such as Doctor in the House (1954) for the Rank Organisation, he later acted in art-house films. In a second career, he wrote seven best-selling volumes of memoirs, six novels and a volume of collected journalism, mainly from articles in The Daily Telegraph.

Bogarde came to prominence in films including The Blue Lamp in the early 1950s, before starring in the successful Doctor film series (1954–63). He twice won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role; for The Servant (1963) and Darling (1965). His other notable film roles included Victim (1961), Accident (1967), The Damned (1969), Death in Venice (1971), The Night Porter (1974), A Bridge Too Far (1977) and Despair (1978). He was appointed a Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters in 1990 and a Knight Bachelor in 1992.

Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency

Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency is a humorous detective novel by English writer Douglas Adams, first published in 1987. It is described by the author on its cover as a "thumping good detective-ghost-horror-who dunnit-time travel-romantic-musical-comedy-epic".

The book was followed by a sequel, The Long Dark Tea-Time of the Soul. The only recurring major characters are the eponymous Dirk Gently, his secretary Janice Pearce and Sergeant Gilks. Adams also began work on another novel, The Salmon of Doubt, with the intention of publishing it as the third book in the series, but died before completing it.

A BBC Radio 4 adaptation of six episodes was broadcast from October 2007. A second series based on the sequel was broadcast from October 2008. A 2010 television adaptation for BBC Four borrowed some of the characters and some minor plot elements of the novel to create a new story, and a 2016 television adaptation for BBC America served as a continuation of the books.

Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (TV series)

Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency is a BBC America comic science fiction detective television series created and primarily written by Max Landis. The two seasons are inspired by the novel series of the same name by Douglas Adams. The series is co-produced and distributed by BBC America and Netflix, along with AMC Studios, Ideate Media and IDW Entertainment. Filming primarily took place in Vancouver, British Columbia.

The series features an ensemble cast, including Samuel Barnett as the "holistic detective" Dirk Gently, and Elijah Wood as his reluctant sidekick Todd. Other main cast members include Hannah Marks as Todd's sister Amanda, Jade Eshete as security officer Farah Black, Fiona Dourif as "holistic assassin" Bart, and Mpho Koaho as computer technician Ken. The first season is set in Seattle, Washington whilst the second season is set in the fictional town of Bergsberg, Montana.

The eight-episode first season premiered on BBC America on October 22, 2016, to positive reviews, before concluding on December 10, 2016. All episodes were made available on Netflix (outside of the United States) on December 11, 2016. On November 21, 2016, BBC America renewed the series for a 10-episode second season which premiered on 14 October 2017.Following the broadcast of the second season finale, BBC America announced the show's cancellation. The decision to cancel the series sparked outrage among fans of the show, and a petition was started to renew the series. The petition has received over 130,000 signatures.

Dirk Jenny

Dirk Jenny (born 30 August 1972) is a German lightweight rower. He won a gold medal at the 1996 World Rowing Championships in Motherwell with the lightweight men's eight.

Dirk Kempthorne

Dirk Arthur Kempthorne (born October 29, 1951) is an American politician who was the United States Secretary of the Interior from 2006 to 2009, serving under President George W. Bush. A Republican, Kempthorne previously served as a United States Senator from Idaho from 1993 to 1999 and as the 30th Governor of Idaho from 1999 to 2006. He is known for his conservative views, particularly on economic issues.

Kempthorne was first elected to public office as mayor of Boise in 1985, where he served for seven years.

Kempthorne serves as a co-chair of the Democracy Project at the Bipartisan Policy Center. In November 2010, he was appointed president and CEO of the American Council of Life Insurers.

Dirk Kuyt

Dirk Kuyt (Dutch: Dirk Kuijt; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈdɪrk ˈkœyt] (listen); born 22 July 1980) is a Dutch former professional footballer. Originally starting out as a striker, he played much of his career as a winger.

Kuyt began his professional career with Utrecht in 1998 and quickly became part of its first team. He spent five years at the club, and in his final season he won his first senior honour, the KNVB Cup, and was chosen as the season's Dutch Golden Shoe Winner. Following this, he left Utrecht in a €1 million transfer to Feyenoord. He became the club captain in 2005 and was a prolific goalscorer at the Rotterdam club; he was the club's top scorer for three consecutive seasons, the top goalscorer in the 2004–05 Eredivisie season, and the 2005–06 Dutch Footballer of the Year. Kuyt missed only five games over seven seasons from 1999 until 2006 and appeared in 179 consecutive matches between 2001–06, striking up a fruitful partnership with fellow Feyenoord teammate Salomon Kalou.

He left Feyenoord after three years, having scored 71 league goals in 101 appearances, and joined Premier League side Liverpool for £10 million. He made his Premier League debut late in 2006 and became part of the first team squad. He scored in his first ever UEFA Champions League final with Liverpool against Milan.

Kuyt scored several important goals for Liverpool elsewhere, including seven goals in the 2007–08 Champions League, including a goal in the quarter-final against Arsenal at Emirates Stadium and in the semi-final against Chelsea, and two penalty kicks against Everton in the derby the same season. He scored his first hat-trick for Liverpool against Manchester United in March 2011. After coming on as a substitute, his extra time goal at Wembley for Liverpool against Cardiff City in the 2012 League Cup Final helped win the trophy for Liverpool, and was also his only trophy as a Liverpool player.

Kuyt made his international debut in 2004 and has represented the Netherlands at five major international tournaments, the 2006, 2010, and 2014 FIFA World Cups and the 2008 and 2012 UEFA European Championships. On 3 October 2014, he announced his retirement from international football.Kuyt announced his retirement from football on 17 May 2017, having scored a hat-trick in the last game of the season to secure Feyenoord their first title since 1999 three days earlier. Kuyt came out of retirement on 6 April 2018, to help out Quick Boys, where he already was the assistant-manager, to fix their shortage on strikers for the remainder of the season.

Dirk Nowitzki

Dirk Werner Nowitzki (German pronunciation: [ˈdɪʁk ˈvɛʁnɐ noˈvɪtski]) (born June 19, 1978) is a German professional basketball player for the Dallas Mavericks of the National Basketball Association (NBA). An alumnus of Röntgen Gymnasium and the DJK Würzburg basketball club, Nowitzki was chosen as the ninth pick in the 1998 NBA draft by the Milwaukee Bucks and was immediately traded to the Mavericks, where he has played since.

Listed at 7 ft 0 in (2.13 m), Nowitzki is considered one of the greatest power forwards of all time. Nowitzki has led the Mavericks to 15 NBA playoff appearances (2001–2012; 2014–2016), including the franchise's first Finals appearance in 2006 and its only NBA championship in 2011. Known for his scoring ability, his versatility, his accurate outside shooting, and his trademark fadeaway jump shot, Nowitzki won the NBA Most Valuable Player Award in 2007 and the NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award in 2011.

Nowitzki's NBA career has been filled with accomplishments. He is the only player ever to play for a single franchise for 21 seasons. Nowitzki is a 14-time All-Star, a 12-time All-NBA Team member, the first European player to start in an All-Star Game, and the first European player to receive the NBA Most Valuable Player Award. Nowitzki is the highest-scoring foreign-born player in NBA history. He is the first Maverick voted onto an All-NBA Team and holds several all-time Mavericks franchise records. On December 10, 2012, he became the first non-American player to receive the Naismith Legacy Award. As of January 25, 2019, Nowitzki stood seventh on the list of National Basketball Association career scoring leaders.Nowitzki's career in international play is also noteworthy. He led the German national basketball team to a bronze medal in the 2002 FIBA World Championship and silver in EuroBasket 2005, and was the leading scorer and MVP in both tournaments.

Dirk Schreyer

Dirk Schreyer (born 28 July 1944) is a competition rower and Olympic champion for West Germany.

Schreyer won a gold medal in the eight at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, as a member of the rowing team from West Germany.

Dragon's Lair

Dragon's Lair is a video game franchise created by animator and film director Don Bluth. The series is famous for its western animation-style graphics and convoluted decades-long history of being ported to many platforms and being remade into television and comic book series.

The first game in the series is titled Dragon's Lair, originally released for the arcades in 1983 by Cinematronics. It uses laserdisc technology, offering greatly superior graphics compared to other video games at the time. The game was ported to several other platforms, but as no home system technology of that era could accommodate the graphical quality of laserdisc, several abridged versions of the original game were released under different names. The first true sequel, Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp, would only appear in 1991. While its graphics were once again praised, the poor controls and limited interactivity kept it from reaching the popularity of the original.The two main games in the series are considered gaming classics and are constantly re-released for each new generation of consoles. In 2010, they were bundled alongside the unrelated 1984 Bluth Group game Space Ace in the Dragon's Lair Trilogy which was made available across numerous platforms.The series' forays into other media include a short-lived cartoon series that aired on ABC in 1984 and a comic-book miniseries released in 2003. Plans for a feature-length film have existed since the 1980s and have resurfaced in 2015, when Bluth launched a crowd-funding campaign to secure funds for a Dragon's Lair movie pitch. After an initially unsuccessful bid on Kickstarter, a second Indiegogo campaign managed to reach its target in early 2016.

Hogwarts staff

The following fictional characters are staff members and denizens of Hogwarts in the Harry Potter books written by J. K. Rowling.

Wrecker (comics)

The Wrecker (Dirk Garthwaite) is a fictional character, a supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

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