Director of National Intelligence

The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government Cabinet-level official—subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President of the United States—required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to:

The Director produces the President's Daily Brief (PDB), a top-secret document including intelligence from all the various agencies, given each morning to the President of the United States.[1] The PDB is seen by the President and those approved by the President.

On July 30, 2008, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13470,[2] amending Executive Order 12333 to strengthen the DNI's role.[3] Further, by Presidential Policy Directive 19 signed by Barack Obama in October 2012, the DNI was given overall responsibility for Intelligence Community whistleblowing and source protection.

Under 50 U.S.C. § 403-3a, "under ordinary circumstances, it is desirable" that either the Director or the Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence be an active-duty commissioned officer in the armed forces or have training or experience in military intelligence activities and requirements. Only one of the two positions can be held by a military officer at any given time. The statute does not specify what rank the commissioned officer will hold during his or her tenure in either position.

Dan Coats swearing in
Coats being sworn in as Director of National Intelligence by Vice President Mike Pence on March 16, 2017.

The DNI is appointed by the President and is subject to confirmation by the Senate, and serves at the pleasure of the President. The current DNI is Dan Coats, who was nominated for the office on January 5, 2017, by then-President-elect Donald Trump.[4] The DNI and Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence both resigned with effect on January 20, Trump's Inauguration day. Pending Coats' confirmation, Mike Dempsey was acting DNI from January 20, and became a member of President Trump's Cabinet on February 8,[5][6] the first time that the DNI was a Cabinet-level position. The United States Senate Intelligence Committee held Coats' confirmation hearing on February 28,[7] which approved Coats on March 9, by a 13–2 vote.[8] The Senate confirmed his nomination with an 85–12 vote on March 15, and he was sworn into office the next day.[9]

Director of National Intelligence
Seal of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Seal of the Director of National Intelligence
Dan Coats official DNI portrait
Incumbent
Dan Coats

since March 16, 2017
United States Intelligence Community
Member ofCabinet
National Security Council (NSC)
Reports toPresident of the United States
SeatWashington, D.C.
AppointerThe President
with Senate advice and consent
Constituting instrument50 U.S.C. § 3023
PrecursorDirector of Central Intelligence (DCI)
FormationApril 22, 2005
First holderJohn Negroponte
DeputySusan M. Gordon, Principal Deputy Director
Websitewww.dni.gov

History

Founding

Before the DNI was formally established, the head of the Intelligence Community was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), who concurrently served as the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

The 9/11 Commission recommended establishing the DNI position in its 9/11 Commission Report, not released until July 22, 2004, as it had identified major intelligence failures that called into question how well the intelligence community was able to protect U.S. interests against foreign terrorist attacks.

Senators Dianne Feinstein, Jay Rockefeller and Bob Graham introduced S. 2645 on June 19, 2002, to create the Director of National Intelligence position. Other similar legislation soon followed. After considerable debate on the scope of the DNI's powers and authorities, the United States Congress passed the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 by votes of 336–75 in the House of Representatives, and 89–2 in the Senate. President George W. Bush signed the bill into law on December 17, 2004. Among other things, the law established the DNI position as the designated leader of the United States Intelligence Community and prohibited the DNI from serving as the CIA Director or the head of any other Intelligence Community element at the same time. In addition, the law required the CIA Director to "report" his agency's activities to the DNI.

Critics say compromises during the bill's crafting led to the establishment of a DNI whose powers are too weak to adequately lead, manage and improve the performance of the US Intelligence Community.[10] In particular, the law left the United States Department of Defense in charge of the National Security Agency (NSA), the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). (The limited DNI role in leading the US Intelligence Community is discussed on the Intelligence Community page.)

Appointments

The first Director of National Intelligence was US Ambassador to Iraq John Negroponte who was appointed on February 17, 2005, by President George W. Bush, subject to confirmation by the Senate. It was reported that President Bush's first choice for DNI was former Director of Central Intelligence Robert M. Gates, who was serving as president of Texas A&M University, but who declined the offer.[11] Negroponte was confirmed by a Senate vote of 98 to 2 in favor of his appointment on April 21, 2005, and he was sworn in by President Bush on that day.

On February 13, 2007, John Michael McConnell became the second Director of National Intelligence, after Negroponte was appointed Deputy Secretary of State.

Donald M. Kerr was confirmed by the U.S. Senate to be Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence on October 4, 2007, and sworn in on October 9, 2007. Kerr, from Virginia, was most recently the Director of the National Reconnaissance Office, and previously the Duty Director for Science and Technology at the US CIA and earlier in his career the Assistant Director of the Justice Department's FBI.

Declan McCullagh at News.com wrote on August 24, 2007, that the DNI site was configured to repel all search engines to index any page at DNI.gov. This effectively made the DNI website invisible to all search engines and in turn, any search queries.[12] Ross Feinstein, Spokesman for the DNI, said that the cloaking was removed as of September 3, 2007. "We're not even sure how (the robots.txt file]) got there" – but it was again somehow hidden the next day. Another blog entry by McCullagh on September 7, states that the DNI site should now be open to search engines.[13] This explanation is plausible because some software used for web development has been known to cause servers to automatically generate and re-generate robots.txt, and this behavior can be difficult to turn off. Therefore, if the web developers working for the DNI had tried to solve the issue by simply removing robots.txt, it would have looked like it worked at first, but then fail once the server had undergone a self-check for the robots.txt file.[14] robots.txt has been configured to allow access to all directories for any agent.

In September 2007, the Office of the DNI released "Intelligence Community 100 Day & 500 Day Plans for Integration & Collaboration". These plans include a series of initiatives designed to build the foundation for increased cooperation and reform of the U.S. Intelligence Community.[15]

On July 20, 2010, President Obama nominated retired Lt. (three-star) Gen. James R. Clapper for the position. Clapper was confirmed by the Senate on August 5, and replaced acting Director David C. Gompert. The prior DNI was retired Navy four-star admiral Dennis C. Blair, whose resignation became effective May 28, 2010.[16]

Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)

The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 established the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) as an independent agency to assist the DNI. The ODNI's goal is to effectively integrate foreign, military and domestic intelligence in defense of the homeland and of United States interests abroad.[17] The budget for the ODNI and the Intelligence Community for fiscal year 2013 was $52.6 billion[18] and the base request for fiscal year 2014 was $48.2 billion.[19] The Military Intelligence Program (MIP) base budget request for fiscal year 2014, excluding overseas contingency funds, is $14.6 billion, which together with the NIP, comprise an Intelligence Community budget request of $62.8 billion for fiscal year 2014.[20] The ODNI has about 1,750 employees.[21]

On March 23, 2007, DNI Mike McConnell announced organizational changes, which include:

  • Elevating acquisition to a new Deputy DNI position
  • Creating a new Deputy DNI for Policy, Plans, and Requirements (replacing the Deputy DNI for Requirements position)
  • Establishing an Executive Committee
  • Designating the Chief of Staff position as the new Director of the Intelligence Staff

The ODNI continued to evolve under succeeding directors, culminating in a new organization focused on intelligence integration across the community. The ODNI has six centers and 15 Offices that, together with the centers, support the Director of National Intelligence as the head of the Intelligence Community (IC) in overseeing and directing implementation of the NIP and acting as the principal advisor to the President, the National Security Council, and the Homeland Security Council for intelligence matters related to national security. The six ODNI centers include:

  • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA)
  • Information Sharing Environment (ISE)
  • National Counterproliferation Center (NCPC)
  • National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)
  • National Intelligence Council (NIC)
  • Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (ONCIX).

ODNI organization

The ODNI is divided into core, enabling, and oversight offices. The Principal Deputy Director (PDDNI) to the DNI, in a role similar to that of a Chief Operating Officer, oversees operation of ODNI offices, manages Intelligence Community (IC) coordination and information sharing, reinforces the DNI's intelligence-integration initiatives, and focuses on IC resource challenges.

Core mission

The core mission functions of the ODNI are organized under the Deputy DNI for Intelligence Integration (DDNI/II). The DDNI/II facilitates information sharing and collaboration through the integration of analysis and collection, and leads the execution of core mission functions. These include:

Mission enablers

Mission enablers include policy, engagement, acquisition, resource, human capital, financial, and information offices.

Oversight

Oversight offices include the General Counsel, civil liberties, public affairs, Inspector General, Equal Employment Opportunity, and legislative affairs functions.[17]

Directors

Status
No. Director Term of Office President(s) served under
Position succeeded the Director of Central Intelligence
1 John Negroponte official portrait State John Negroponte April 21, 2005 – February 13, 2007 George W. Bush
2 Mike McConnell, official ODNI photo portrait Mike McConnell February 13, 2007 – January 27, 2009
3 Dennis Blair official Director of National Intelligence portrait Dennis C. Blair January 29, 2009 – May 28, 2010 Barack Obama
David Gompert official portrait David Gompert
Acting
May 28, 2010 – August 5, 2010
4 James R. Clapper official portrait James R. Clapper August 5, 2010 – January 20, 2017
Michael Dempsey Mike Dempsey
Acting
January 20, 2017 – March 16, 2017 Donald Trump
5 Dan Coats official DNI portrait Dan Coats March 16, 2017 – present

Directors by time in officedagger

# In Office Director Days Rank by Length of Term President
4
James R. Clapper
2,360 days (6 years, 168 days)
1
Obama
2
John Michael McConnell
714 days (1 year, 349 days)
2
G. W. Bush
1
John Negroponte
663 days (1 year, 298 days)
3
G. W. Bush
3
Dennis C. Blair
484 days (1 year, 119 days)
4
Obama
  • daggerList does not include Acting Directors.

Line of succession

The line of succession for the Director of National Intelligence is as follows:[22]

  1. Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence
  2. Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Intelligence Integration
  3. Director of the National Counterterrorism Center
  4. National Counterintelligence Executive
  5. Inspector General of the Intelligence Community

Subordinates

Principal Deputy Directors of National Intelligence

Name Term of Office President(s) served under
Michael Hayden April 21, 2005 – May 26, 2006 George W. Bush
Ronald L. Burgess Jr. June 2006 – January 2007 George W. Bush
Donald Kerr October 2007 – January 2009 George W. Bush
Ronald L. Burgess Jr.
Acting
January 2009 – February 2009 Barack Obama
David C. Gompert November 10, 2009 – August 2010 Barack Obama
Stephanie O'Sullivan February 18, 2011 – January 20, 2017 Barack Obama
Susan M. Gordon August 7, 2017 – present Donald Trump

Chief Operating Officer

Name Term of Office President(s) served under
Deirdre Walsh February 2018 – Present Donald Trump

Director of the Intelligence Staff/Chief Management Officer

Name Term of Office President(s) served under
Ronald L. Burgess Jr. May 2007 – February 2009 George W. Bush, Barack Obama
John Kimmons February 2009 – October 2010 Barack Obama
Mark Ewing November 2010 – n/a Barack Obama, Donald Trump

Intelligence Community Inspector General

Name Term of Office President(s) served under
Charles McCullough November 2011 – May 2018 Barack Obama, Donald Trump
Michael Atkinson May 2018 – Present Donald Trump

Deputy Directors of National Intelligence

Name Office Term of Office President(s) served under
Robert Cardillo Intelligence Integration (oversees collection and analysis) September 2010 – October 2014 Barack Obama
Peter Lavoy Analysis December 2008 – n/a George W. Bush
Vacant Collection April 2010 – n/a Barack Obama
David Shedd Policy, Plans, and Requirements May 2007 – n/a George W. Bush
Dawn Meyerriecks Acquisition and Technology September 2009 – n/a Barack Obama
Dawn Eilenberger April 2017 – present Donald Trump

Assistant Directors of National Intelligence

Name Office Term of Office President(s) served under
Deborah Kircher ADNI for Human Capital October 2011 – present Barack Obama
Al Tarasiuk Intelligence Community Chief Information Officer February 2011 – 2015 Barack Obama
Marilyn A. Vacca Chief Financial Officer April 2009 – present Barack Obama
L. Roger Mason Jr. ADNI for Systems and Resource Analyses May 2009 – present Barack Obama
Dawn Meyerriecks ADNI for Acquisition, Technology and Facilities n/a – present Barack Obama

Assistant Deputy Directors of National Intelligence

Name Office Term of Office President(s) served under
Dan Butler Assistant Deputy Director for Open Source April 2008 – n/a George W. Bush, Barack Obama
Andrew Hallman Assistant Deputy Director for Intelligence Integration September 2010 – present Barack Obama, Donald Trump

See also

References

  1. ^ "CIA to Cede President's Brief to Negroponte", February 19, 2005, The Washington Post
  2. ^ "Executive Order 13470". Federal Register. National Archives and Records Administration. July 30, 2008. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  3. ^ "Bush Orders Intelligence Overhaul". The New York Times. Associated Press. July 31, 2008.
  4. ^ "Trump selects former Indiana Sen. Coats for top intelligence post". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  5. ^ "President Donald J. Trump Announces His Cabinet". whitehouse.gov. 2017-02-08. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  6. ^ "President Trump announces his full Cabinet roster". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  7. ^ Matt Smith (February 28, 2017). "Former Sen. Dan Coats to face questions during nomination hearing for director of national intelligence". Fox59. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  8. ^ Matt McKinney (March 9, 2017). "Former U.S. Sen. Dan Coats' nomination as director of national intelligence advances to full Senate". The Indy Channel. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  9. ^ "Dan Coats Sworn in as National Intelligence Director". Bloomberg.com. 2017-03-16. Retrieved 2017-05-22.
  10. ^ Kaplan, Fred (7 December 2004). "You Call That a Reform Bill?". Slate.
  11. ^ "Robert M. Gates profile". The Washington Post. November 8, 2006. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  12. ^ McCullagh, Declan (2007-08-24). "Feds use robots.txt files to stay invisible online. Lame". CNET. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
  13. ^ McCullagh, Declan (2007-09-07). "National Intelligence Web site no longer invisible to search engines". CNET. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
  14. ^ "Auto generated robots.txt file in WordPress". Codegrad. February 10, 2013. Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-12.
  15. ^ "Director of National Intelligence Moves Forward with Intelligence Reform" (PDF). ODNI News Release No. 20-07. DNI.gov. September 13, 2007.
  16. ^ Miller, Greg (May 21, 2010). "Dennis C. Blair to resign as Director of National Intelligence". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  17. ^ a b "Public Affairs Office, ODNI". Office of the Director of National Intelligence. ODNI. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  18. ^ "National Intelligence Program" (PDF). Budget for Fiscal Year 2013. US Government Publishing Office. p. 85. Retrieved 14 Apr 2013.
  19. ^ "National Intelligence Program" (PDF). The Budget for Fiscal Year 2014. US Government Publishing Office. p. 75. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  20. ^ "DoD Releases MIP Base Request for FY 2014". Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  21. ^ Clark, Charles (September 2012). "Lifting the Lid". Government Executive. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  22. ^ "Designation of Officers of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence To Act as Director of National Intelligence". Federal Register. 78 FR 59159. 2013-09-25. Retrieved 2016-10-30.

External links

Articles

American SAFE Act of 2015

The SAFE Act (full title American Security Against Foreign Enemies Act of 2015) was a United States legislative proposal for Syrian and Iraqi refugees that would require extra background investigation before entry into the US.

Additional procedure to authorize admission for each refugee

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) certifies they received a background investigation sufficient to determine whether the refugee is a U.S. security threat, to both the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Director of National Intelligence.

The Department of Homeland Security, FBI and Director of National Intelligence unanimously certify to Congress that the refugee not such a threat.The bill was first introduced in the House on November 17th, 2015, H.R. 4038 by Michael McCaul. It was passed by the House, but on January 20th, 2016 it failed cloture in the senate (also known as a filibuster.)

Associate Director of National Intelligence and Chief Information Officer

In the United States the Associate Director of National Intelligence and Chief Information Officer (Intelligence Community CIO, ADNI/CIO or IC CIO) is charged with directing and managing activities relating to information technology for the Intelligence Community (IC) and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). The IC CIO reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). John Shermanassumed the position of IC Chief Information Officer effective September 11, 2017.

Boren–McCurdy proposals

The Boren-McCurdy intelligence reform proposals are two legislative proposals from Senator David Boren and Representative Dave McCurdy in 1992 (102nd Congress). Both pieces of legislation propose the creation of a National Intelligence Director. Neither bill passed into law.

Dan Coats

Daniel Ray Coats (born May 16, 1943) is an American politician and former diplomat. Since 16 March 2017, he has served as the Director of National Intelligence in the Trump Administration. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as a United States Senator from Indiana from 1989 to 1999 and again from 2011 to 2017. He was the United States Ambassador to Germany from 2001 to 2005, and was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1981 to 1989. Coats served on the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence while in the U.S. Senate.

Born in Jackson, Michigan, Coats graduated from Wheaton College in Illinois and Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law. He served in the U.S. Army (1966–1968). Before serving in the U.S. Senate, Coats was a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Indiana's 4th congressional district from 1981 to 1989. He was appointed to fill the Senate seat vacated by Dan Quayle following Quayle's election as Vice President of the United States. Coats won the 1990 special election to serve the remainder of Quayle's unexpired term, as well as the 1992 election for a full six-year term. He did not seek reelection in 1998 and was succeeded by Democrat Evan Bayh.

After retiring from the Senate, Coats served as the U.S. Ambassador to Germany from 2001 to 2005 and then worked as a lobbyist in Washington, D.C. He was reelected to the Senate by a large margin in 2010, succeeding Bayh, who announced his own retirement shortly after Coats declared his candidacy. Coats declined to run for reelection in 2016 and was succeeded by Todd Young.

On January 5, 2017, Coats was announced as U.S. President-elect Donald Trump's nominee for the post of Director of National Intelligence, to succeed James R. Clapper. His term in office commenced on March 16, 2017.

Dennis C. Blair

Dennis Cutler Blair (born February 4, 1947) is the former United States Director of National Intelligence and is a retired United States Navy admiral who was the commander of U.S. forces in the Pacific region. Blair was a career officer in the U.S. Navy and served in the White House during the presidencies of both President Jimmy Carter and President Ronald Reagan. Blair retired from the Navy in 2002 as an Admiral. In 2009, Blair was selected as President Barack Obama’s first Director of National Intelligence, but after a series of bureaucratic battles, he resigned on May 20, 2010.He currently serves as a member of the Energy Security Leadership Council of Securing America's Future Energy, and is on the boards of Freedom House, the National Bureau of Asian Research, and the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations. He also serves as co-chair of the annual Pacific Energy Summit.He also serves as a senior advisor to Ron Wahid, Chairman of Arcanum, a global strategic intelligence company and subsidiary of Magellan Investment Holdings.

Director of the Central Intelligence Agency

The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) is a statutory office (50 U.S.C. § 3036) that functions as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which in turn is a part of the United States Intelligence Community. Since February 2017, the D/CIA has been a Cabinet-level position.

The Director reports to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) and is assisted by the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Director is a civilian or a general/flag officer of the armed forces nominated by the President, with the concurring or nonconcurring recommendation from the DNI, and must be confirmed by a majority vote of the Senate.

James Clapper

James Robert Clapper Jr. (born March 14, 1941) is a retired lieutenant general in the United States Air Force and is the former Director of National Intelligence. Clapper has held several key positions within the United States Intelligence Community. He served as director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) from 1992 until 1995. He was the first director of defense intelligence within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and simultaneously the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence. He served as the director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) from September 2001 until June 2006.

On June 5, 2010, President Barack Obama nominated Clapper to replace Dennis C. Blair as United States Director of National Intelligence. Clapper was unanimously confirmed by the Senate for the position on August 5, 2010.

Following the June 2013 leak of documents detailing the NSA practice of collecting telephone metadata on millions of Americans' telephone calls, Clapper was accused of perjury for telling a congressional committee hearing that the NSA does not collect any type of data on millions of Americans earlier that year. One senator asked for his resignation, and a group of 26 senators complained about Clapper's responses under questioning. In November 2016, Clapper resigned as director of national intelligence, effective at the end of President Obama's term. In May 2017, he joined the Washington, D.C.–based think tank the Center for a New American Security (CNAS) as a Distinguished Senior Fellow for Intelligence and National Security.

John Michael McConnell

John Michael "Mike" McConnell (born July 26, 1943) is a former vice admiral in the United States Navy. During his naval career he served as Director of the National Security Agency from 1992 to 1996. His civilian career includes serving as the United States Director of National Intelligence from 20 February 2007 to 27 January 2009 during the Bush administration and seven days of the Obama administration. He is currently Vice Chairman at Booz Allen Hamilton.

Michael Hayden (general)

Michael Vincent Hayden (born March 17, 1945) is a retired United States Air Force four-star general and former Director of the National Security Agency, Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence, and Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Hayden currently co-chairs the Bipartisan Policy Center's Electric Grid Cyber Security Initiative. In 2017, Hayden became a national security analyst for CNN.He was Director of the National Security Agency (NSA) from 1999 to 2005. During his tenure as director, he oversaw the controversial NSA surveillance of technological communications between persons in the United States and alleged foreign terrorist groups, which resulted in the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy.

On April 21, 2005, then Lt. Gen Hayden, was confirmed by the United States Senate as the first Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence and awarded his fourth star-making him "the highest-ranking military intelligence officer in the armed forces". He served in this position under DNI John Negroponte until May 26, 2006.

On May 8, 2006, Hayden was nominated for the position of Director of the Central Intelligence Agency following the resignation of Porter J. Goss, and on 23 May the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence voted 12–3 to send the nomination to the Senate floor. His nomination was confirmed by the United States Senate on 26 May by a vote of 78–15. On May 30, 2006, and again the following day at the CIA lobby with President George W. Bush in attendance, Hayden was sworn in as the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.

On July 1, 2008, Hayden retired from the Air Force after over 41 years of service and continued to serve as Director of the CIA until February 12, 2009. He received an honorary doctorate from The Institute of World Politics in Washington, D.C. in 2009. He is currently a principal at the Chertoff Group, a security consultancy co-founded by former Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff. Hayden also serves as a Distinguished Visiting Professor at George Mason University's Schar School of Policy and Government. He was elected to the Board of Directors of Motorola Solutions effective January 4, 2011.

National Counterterrorism Center

The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) is a United States government organization responsible for national and international counterterrorism efforts. It is based in Liberty Crossing, a modern complex near Tysons Corner in McLean, Virginia. NCTC advises the United States on terrorism.

Part of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the group brings together specialists from other federal agencies, including the CIA, the FBI, and the Department of Defense.In 2012, the United States Attorney General Eric Holder granted the agency the authority to collect, store, and analyze extensive data collections on U.S. citizens compiled from governmental and non-governmental sources for suspicious behavior through pattern analysis and to share the databases with foreign states. The effort has drawn controversy for its pre-crime effort, which has been likened to the Information Awareness Office and its proposed mass surveillance.

National Intelligence Council

The National Intelligence Council (NIC) is the center for midterm and long-term strategic thinking within the United States Intelligence Community (IC). It was formed in 1979. According to its official website:

It leads the IC's effort to produce National Intelligence Estimates and other documents;

It supports (and reports to) the Director of National Intelligence;

It serves as a focal point for policymakers' questions;

It contributes to the effort to allocate IC resources in response to policy changes; and

It communicates with experts in academia and the private sector to broaden the IC's perspective;The NIC's goal is to provide policymakers with the best information: unvarnished, unbiased and without regard to whether the analytic judgments conform to current U.S. policy.

One of the NICs most important analytical projects is a Global Trends report produced for the incoming US president. The report is delivered to the incoming president between Election Day and Inauguration Day, and it assesses critical drivers and scenarios for global trends with an approximate time horizon of fifteen years. The Global Trends analysis provides a basis for long-range strategic policy assessment for the White House and the intelligence community. The NIC's most recent Global Trends report, "Global Trends: Paradox of Progress" was released in January 2017.On February 2, 2007, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, and the National Intelligence Council released the National Intelligence Estimate (NIE)—"'Prospects for Iraq's Stability: A Challenging Road Ahead' Unclassified Key Judgments".

National Intelligence Estimate

National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) are United States federal government documents that are the authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) on intelligence related to a particular national security issue. NIEs are produced by the National Intelligence Council and express the coordinated judgments of the United States Intelligence Community, the group of 17 U.S. intelligence agencies. NIEs are classified documents prepared for policymakers.

Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive

The Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (ONCIX) leads national counterintelligence (CI) for the United States government and serves as the director of the National Counterintelligence and Security Center under the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI).

Open-source intelligence

Open-source intelligence (OSINT) is data collected from publicly available sources to be used in an intelligence context. In the intelligence community, the term "open" refers to overt, publicly available sources (as opposed to covert or clandestine sources). It is not related to open-source software or collective intelligence.

OSINT under one name or another has been around for hundreds of years. With the advent of instant communications and rapid information transfer, a great deal of actionable and predictive intelligence can now be obtained from public, unclassified sources.

Open Source Center

The Director of National Intelligence Open Source Center (OSC) is a U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) intelligence center located in Reston, Virginia, which provides analysis of open-source intelligence materials, including gray literature, through OSC's headquarters and overseas bureaus. Established on November 1, 2005, by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, OSC is tasked with improving the availability of open sources to intelligence officers and other government officials. OSC provides material to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) and other government officials through the online news service World News Connection.

Ronald L. Burgess Jr.

Lieutenant General Ronald Lee Burgess Jr., United States Army (born September 16, 1952) is a retired United States Army Lieutenant General. His last military assignment was as the 17th Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency and Commander of the Joint Functional Component Command for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (JFCC-ISR). Prior to that, he was Director of the Intelligence Staff in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.From August 2005 to May 2007 he was the Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Customer Outcomes (Requirements).

On May 17, 2007, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence announced that LTG Burgess had been nominated to be the Director of the Intelligence Staff (DIS) for the Office of the DNI. While the DIS position does not require Senate confirmation, it does require the Senate Armed Services Committee to confirm Burgess' 3-Star Rank as the DIS.After the resignation of Gen. Michael Hayden as Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence, Burgess was selected by President George W. Bush in June 2006 to fill the position in an acting capacity until October 2007. During this time, he was still serving at the Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Customer Outcomes (Requirements) and transitioned to the Director of the Intelligence Staff. He served as the Acting Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence for a second time from January 2009 to February 2009.

United States Intelligence Community

The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a federation of 16 separate United States government intelligence agencies and a 17th administrative office, that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States. Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments. The IC is overseen by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) making up the seventeen-member Intelligence Community, which itself is headed by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), who reports to the President of the United States.Among their varied responsibilities, the members of the Community collect and produce foreign and domestic intelligence, contribute to military planning, and perform espionage. The IC was established by Executive Order 12333, signed on December 4, 1981, by U.S. President Ronald Reagan.The Washington Post reported in 2010 that there were 1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies in 10,000 locations in the United States that were working on counterterrorism, homeland security, and intelligence, and that the intelligence community as a whole includes 854,000 people holding top-secret clearances. According to a 2008 study by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, private contractors make up 29% of the workforce in the U.S. intelligence community and account for 49% of their personnel budgets.

United States Joint Intelligence Community Council

The Joint Intelligence Community Council (JICC) assists the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) in implementing a joint, unified national intelligence effort to protect national and homeland security and advise the DNI on setting requirements, managing finances, establishing uniform intelligence policies, and monitoring and evaluating performance of the Intelligence Community.

United States National Security Council

The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Since its inception under Harry S. Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies. The Council has counterparts in the national security councils of many other nations.

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