Director-General of the World Trade Organization

The Director-General of the World Trade Organization is responsible for supervising the administrative functions of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Because World Trade Organizations' decisions are made by member states (through either a Ministerial Conference or through the General Council), the Director-General has little power over matters of policy - the role is primarily advisory and managerial. The Director-General supervises the WTO secretariat of about 700 staff and is appointed by WTO members for a term of four years.[1]

The current Director-General is Roberto Azevêdo of Brazil, since 1 September 2013.[2]

Before the creation of the WTO, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade had a series of Directors-General. Peter Sutherland was the last DG of GATT and the first of the WTO.

Director-General of the World Trade Organization
Roberto Azevedo cropped
Roberto Azevêdo

since 1 September 2013
World Trade Organization
StyleMr. Director-General
His Excellency
StatusChief Administrative Officer
Reports toGeneral Council
SeatCentre William Rappard, Geneva, Switzerland
AppointerGeneral Council
Term lengthFour years, renewable
Constituting instrumentWTO organization chart
Formation1 July 1993
First holderPeter Sutherland
DeputyDeputy Director-Generals

Past Directors-General

This is a list of former holders of the office of director-general. The post was created in 1995, although the earlier office of Executive Secretary is often seen as a direct equivalent.[3]

Name Portrait Took office Left office Country
1 Peter Sutherland
1 July 1993 1 May 1995 Republic of Ireland Ireland
2 Renato Ruggiero
Renato Ruggiero
1 May 1995 1 September 1999 Italy Italy
3 Mike Moore
Mike Moore
1 September 1999 1 September 2002 New Zealand New Zealand
4 Supachai Panitchpakdi
Supachai Panitchpakdi
1 September 2002 1 September 2005 Thailand Thailand
5 Pascal Lamy
Photo P Lamy-2
1 September 2005 1 September 2013 France France
6 Roberto Azevedo
Roberto Azevedo cropped
1 September 2013 incumbent Brazil Brazil


  1. ^ See document WT/L/509, accessible from [1]
  2. ^ McClanahan, Paige (8 May 2013). "Roberto Azevêdo to be named new World Trade Organisation chief". Guardian. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
  3. ^ "Previous GATT and WTO Directors-General". WTO. Retrieved 8 May 2013.

External links

1949 in New Zealand

The following lists events that happened during 1949 in New Zealand.

Most New Zealanders became New Zealand citizens in addition to being British subjects, as the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 came into effect.

The National government of Sydney Holland was elected in the New Zealand general election, 1949.

Alejandro Jara

Alejandro Jara (born 1949 in Santiago, Chile) was a Deputy Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO). He served in this position from 2005 to 2013. His career began in 1976 when he joined the Foreign Service of Chile to primarily focus on international economic relations. From 1979 to 1984, he served in the Delegation of Chile to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and was seconded to the Economic System for Latin America (SELA) in Caracas as Coordinator for Trade Policy Affairs. He was appointed Director for Bilateral Economic Affairs in 1993 and Director for Multilateral Economic Affairs in 1994. From 1996 to 1997, he was also Chile's senior official to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and Deputy Chief Negotiator for the Chile-Canada Free Trade Agreement and Chile-Mexico Free Trade Agreement. In 1999, he was designated Director General for International Economic Relations. He was appointed in 2000 as Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Chile to the World Trade Organization in Geneva. From 2000 to 2005 he held various diplomatic and ministerial positions, including Chairperson of the Committee on Trade and Environment of the WTO in 2001 and Chairman of the Special Session of the Council for Trade in Services in 2002. He's written a variety of papers on international trade.

Deputy Director-General

Deputy Director-General is a job title used in many organizations around the world, and is a deputy for a director-general.

It may refer to:

Soumya Swaminathan, a Deputy Director-General of the World Health Organization

Jane Ellison, a Deputy Director-General of the World Health Organization

Yonov Frederick Agah, a Deputy Director-General of the World Trade Organization

Karl Brauner, a Deputy Director-General of the World Trade Organization

Alan Wolff, a Deputy Director-General of the World Trade Organization

Yi Xiaozhun, a Deputy Director-General of the World Trade Organization

Friends of Europe

Friends of Europe is a Brussels-based, not-for-profit think-tank for European Union policy analysis and debate. The organisation, established in 1999, has no political or national allegiance and is independent of the EU institutions. Its declared goal is to foster open discussion and to stimulate new thinking on the issues facing Europe and its citizens. It is located in the Bibliothèque Solvay in Leopold Park.

The organisation's activities focus in particular on six thematic areas:


Energy and the environment

The future of Europe

Internal market

The EU and its neighbours

Social challengesFriends of Europe's board of trustees is composed of people who hold, or have held, positions of responsibility in European affairs. Its President is Etienne Davignon, a politician, businessman and former vice-president of the European Commission. Other members of the Praesidium are:

Pat Cox, President of the European Movement International and former President of the European Parliament

Jean-Luc Dehaene, former Prime Minister of Belgium and vice-president of the Convention on the Future of Europe

Daniel Janssen, former Director of Fortis

Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and former European Commissioner for Trade

Guy Verhofstadt, former Prime Minister of Belgium

António Vitorino, former European Commissioner for Justice and Home Affairs and former Portuguese Defence Minister and Deputy Prime MinisterFriends of Europe's Secretary-General is Giles Merritt, a former Brussels correspondent of the Financial Times.

Mari Elka Pangestu

Mari Elka Pangestu (traditional Chinese: 馮慧蘭; simplified Chinese: 冯慧兰; pinyin: Féng Huìlán; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Phang Hoei Lan; born 23 October 1956) was the Minister of Trade of Indonesia from October 2004 to October 2011. In a cabinet reshuffle in October 2011 she was appointed to the newly created position of minister of Tourism and Creative Economy, a post she held until the term of the administration of president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono finished on 20 October 2014.In late December 2012 the Indonesian Government nominated Mari Pangestu as a candidate for the position of Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to succeed the incumbent Director-General, Pascal Lamy, whose term ends in 2013. The General Council of the WTO considered nominations from various countries in early 2013. The selection process went through various rounds and in late April 2013 eliminated all three candidates from the Asia-Pacific region. Mari Pangestu issued a gracious statement accepting the outcome of the process.

Mexico–Uganda relations

Mexico–Uganda relations refers to the diplomatic relations between the United Mexican States and the Republic of Uganda. Both nations are members of the United Nations.

Mike Moore (New Zealand politician)

Michael Kenneth Moore (born 28 January 1949), commonly known as Mike Moore, is a former New Zealand politician and union organiser. In the Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand he served in several portfolios including Minister of Foreign Affairs, and became the Prime Minister for 59 days before the October 1990 general election. Following Labour's defeat in that election, Moore served as Leader of the Opposition until the 1993 election, after which Helen Clark successfully challenged him for the Labour Party leadership.

Following his retirement from New Zealand politics, Moore was the Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 1999 to 2002. He has also held the post of New Zealand Ambassador to the United States from 2010 to 2015.

Pascal Lamy

Pascal Lamy (born 8 April 1947) is a French political consultant and businessman. He was the Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) until 1 September 2013. His appointment took effect on 1 September 2005 for a four-year term. In April 2009, WTO members reappointed Lamy for a second four-year term, beginning on 1 September 2009. He was then succeeded by Roberto Azevêdo. Pascal Lamy was also European Commissioner for Trade and is an advisor for the transatlantic think-tank European Horizons, as well as currently serving as the Honorary President of the Paris-based think tank, Notre Europe.

Peter Sutherland

Peter Denis Sutherland (25 April 1946 – 7 January 2018) was an Irish businessman, barrister and politician who served as UN Special Representative for International Migration from 2006 to 2017, Chairman of Goldman Sachs from 1995 to 2015, Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 1993 to 1995, European Commissioner for Competition from 1985 to 1989 and Attorney General of Ireland from 1981 to 1982 and 1982 to 1994.

He was a barrister by profession and was a Senior Counsel of the Irish Bar. He was known for serving in a variety of international organisations, political and business roles.

Sutherland was the United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary-General for International Migration until March 2017. Appointed in January 2006, he was responsible for the creation of the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD). He served as President of the International Catholic Migration Commission, as well as member of the Migration Advisory Board of the International Organisation for Migration.

Sutherland previously served as Attorney General of Ireland (1981–84), European Commissioner responsible for Competition Policy (1985–89); Founding Director-General of The World Trade Organization, formerly GATT (1993–95), and former Chairman of Goldman Sachs International (1995–2015). He received numerous awards including European Person of the Year Award (1988).

Renato Ruggiero

Renato Ruggiero (9 April 1930 – 4 August 2013) was an Italian politician. He was Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 1995 to 1999 and briefly served as Italy's Foreign Minister in 2001.

Roberto Azevêdo

Roberto Carvalho de Azevêdo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʁoˈbɛʁtu kaʁˈvaʎu dʒi azeˈvedu]; born 3 October 1957) is a Brazilian career diplomat and the current Director-General of the World Trade Organization. Azevêdo was elected to succeed Pascal Lamy as Director-General of the World Trade Organization in May 2013. He assumed office on 1 September 2013. He is paid a salary of 300,000 Swiss francs and an allowance of 200,000.

Roy Ferguson

Roy Neil Ferguson, , is the former New Zealand Ambassador to the United States. He was replaced by former New Zealand Prime Minister and Director-General of the World Trade Organization Mike Moore in 2010. Ferguson replaced John Wood in the role in 2006. He was Director of the Americas Division in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade from 2002 to 2005, and has served on the Boards of the New Zealand-United States Council, Fulbright New Zealand, the Ian Axford Fellowships, and the New Zealand Centre for Latin American Studies. Ferguson previously served in Washington as Deputy Chief of Mission between 1991 and 1995. From 1999–2002 he served as the New Zealand Ambassador to South Korea and concurrently served as Ambassador to North Korea from 2001. He has also served in Manila and Canberra.

Ferguson received an MA in History and Political Science from the University of Canterbury, and was awarded the Canterbury Fellowship and a Fulbright Travel Grant which enabled him to study at the University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with an MA in International Relations. He attended the six-week Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School.In the 2014 Queen's Birthday Honours, Ferguson was appointed a Companion of the Queen's Service Order, for services to the State.

Rufus Yerxa

Rufus Hawkins Yerxa (born 1951) is an American lawyer and former U.S. government and international official. He is currently President of the National Foreign Trade Council. He served as Deputy United States Trade Representative during the George H.W. Bush and Clinton Administrations, and served for 11 years as Deputy Director General of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Socialist Party (France)

The Socialist Party (French: Parti socialiste [paʁti sɔsjalist], PS) is a social-democratic political party in France and was, for decades, the largest party of the French centre-left. The PS used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic, along with the Republicans. The Socialist Party replaced the earlier French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) in 1969, and is currently led by First Secretary Olivier Faure. The PS is a member of the Party of European Socialists (PES), the Socialist International (SI) and the Progressive Alliance.

The PS first won power in 1981, when its candidate François Mitterrand was elected President of France in the 1981 presidential election. Under Mitterrand, the party achieved a governing majority in the National Assembly from 1981 to 1986 and again from 1988 to 1993. PS leader Lionel Jospin lost his bid to succeed Mitterrand as president in the 1995 presidential election against Rally for the Republic leader Jacques Chirac, but became prime minister in a cohabitation government after the 1997 parliamentary elections, a position Jospin held until 2002, when he was again defeated in the presidential election.

In 2007, the party's candidate for the presidential election, Ségolène Royal, was defeated by conservative UMP candidate Nicolas Sarkozy. Then, the Socialist party won most of regional and local elections and it won control of the Senate in 2011 for the first time in more than fifty years. On 6 May 2012, François Hollande, the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, was elected President of France, and the next month, the party won the majority in the National Assembly.

During his term, Hollande battled with high unemployment, poor opinion ratings and a splinter group of left-wing Socialist MPs known as "frondeurs". On 1 December 2016, Hollande declined to seek re-election and the PS subsequently organized a presidential primary. Left-wing Benoit Hamon was designated as the Socialist candidate after defeating former PM Manuel Valls. Facing the emergence of centrist Emmanuel Macron and leftist Jean-Luc Mélenchon, he failed to re-establish the PS leadership on the center-left and finished 5th in the 2017 French presidential election, gathering only 6.36 percent of the votes. The party then lost the majority of its MPs in the 2017 legislative election, securing 26 seats and becoming the fourth-biggest group in the National Assembly.

The PS also formed several figures who acted at the international level: Jacques Delors, who was the eighth President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1994 and the first person to serve three terms in that office, was from the Socialist Party, as well as Dominique Strauss-Kahn, who was the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from 2007 to 2011, and Pascal Lamy, who was Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 2005 to 2013.The party had 42,300 members in 2016, down from 60,000 in 2014 and 173,486 members in 2012.

Supachai Panitchpakdi

Supachai Panitchpakdi (Thai: ศุภชัย พานิชภักดิ์, RTGS: Supphachai Phanitchaphak, pronounced [sùp.pʰā.t͡ɕʰāj pʰāː.nít.t͡ɕʰā.pʰák]; born 30 May 1946 in Bangkok, Thailand) is a Thai politician and professor. He was Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) from 1 September 2005 to 31 August 2013. Prior to this, he was the Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) from 1 September 2002 to 1 September 2005. He was succeeded by Pascal Lamy.In 1986 Supachai Panitchpakdi was appointed as Thailand's Deputy Minister of Finance, but when parliament was dissolved in 1988 he left politics and became president of Thai Military Bank. In 1992 he returned to politics and became deputy prime minister until 1995, responsible for trade and economics. During the Asian financial crisis in November 1997 he returned to be deputy prime minister and also became minister of commerce.

In September 1999 he was elected to become Director-General of the World Trade Organization, sharing the post with Mike Moore when a decision could not be reached. Taking the second half of the six-year term, he entered office on 1 September 2002.

In March 2005 he was appointed Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) following his term at the WTO, a post he took up in late-2005. He was appointed for a second four-year term in September 2009. Keen to reform and revitalise the organisation, he has established a Panel of Eminent Persons to oversee the start of reform of UNCTAD.Supachai received his master's degree in economics, development planning and his PhD in economic planning and development at the Netherlands School of Economics (now known as Erasmus University) in Rotterdam. In 1973, he completed his doctoral dissertation under supervision of Professor Jan Tinbergen, the first Nobel laureate in economics. In the same year, he went to Cambridge University as a visiting fellow to conduct research on development models.

He published numerous books, including Educational Growth in Developing Countries (1974), Globalization and Trade in the New Millennium (2001) and China and the WTO: Changing China, Changing World Trade (2002, co-authored with Mark Clifford).

World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2011

The WTO General Council held an eighth WTO ministerial conference session in Geneva from 15–3 December 2011.

Membership agreement where made for Russia, Samoa, and Montenegro, dependent on the ratification of those countries. The consent of Russia`s membership was seen as important, since the country had been the largest major economy outside the organization since the accession of China in 2001.


Yerxa may refer to:

Donald A. Yerxa, author co-director of The Historical Society (THS) at Boston University (BU)

Rufus Yerxa, Deputy Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Cabot's Pueblo Museum, a California historic site built by Cabot Abram Yerxa (1883-1965)


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