Direct election

Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the persons, or political party that they desire to see elected. The method by which the winner or winners of a direct election are chosen depends upon the electoral system used. The most commonly used systems are the plurality system and the two-round system for single-winner elections, such as a presidential election, and party-list proportional representation for the election of a legislature.

Examples of directly elected bodies are the European Parliament (since 1979) and the United States House of Representatives. The MPs (members of parliament), MLAs (members of legislature) and members of the local bodies are elected by direct election.

By contrast, in an indirect election, the voters elect a body which in turn elects the officeholder in question.

In a double direct election, the elected representative serves on two councils, typically a lower tier municipality and an upper tier regional district or municipality.

See also

1935 Philippine general election

The 1935 Philippine general election was the first general election of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. This was also the first direct election of the President of the Philippines and Vice President of the Philippines, positions created by the 1935 constitution. Furthermore, members of the National Assembly of the Philippines, that replaced the Philippine Legislature were elected.

The Nacionalista Party, which was split into two camps supporting Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña, and reconciled prior to the election, maintained its electoral superiority, with Quezon winning the presidency, Osmeña the vice presidency, and majority of the National Assembly seats.

1981 Greater London Council election

There was an election to the Greater London Council held on 7 May 1981. Councillors were elected to serve until elections in May 1985. Those elections were cancelled and the term was extended until 1 April 1986.The leader of the Labour GLC group Andrew McIntosh led the party into the election. Within 24 hours of the result, however, McIntosh's leadership was toppled by Ken Livingstone; a member of the party's left-wing. Livingstone was then elected GLC leader.This was the last election to the GLC. The Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher soon took the decision to abolish the council in the mid-1980s, out of concern that it would defy conservative policies. For more information on this see the article, Greater London Council. Following the abolition of the GLC, there was a direct election to the Inner London Education Authority in 1986.

Elections by country

For each de jure and de facto sovereign state and dependent territory an article on elections in that entity has been included and information on the way the head of state, head of government, and the legislature is selected. Merged cells for "head of state" and "head of government" indicate the office is the same for that country; merged cells for "lower house" and "upper house" indicate a unicameral legislature. The linked articles include the results of the elections. For a chronological order, see the electoral calendar.

Elections in Moldova

Moldova elects a legislature at national level. The Parliament (Parlamentul) has 101 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation with a 6% electoral threshold.[1] The President used to be elected for a four-year term by a constitutional majority of 60% members of the Parliament, but a Constitutional Court's ruling on March 4, 2016, reverted the election method of the President to a two-round system direct election.

List of Justices of the Supreme Court of California

This is a list of Justices of the Supreme Court of California. The Supreme Court of California is the highest judicial body in the state and sits at the apex of the judiciary of California. Its membership consists of the Chief Justice of California and six Associate Justices who are nominated by the Governor of California and appointed after confirmation by the California Commission on Judicial Appointments. The Commission consists of the Chief Justice, the Attorney General of California, and the state's senior presiding justice of the California Courts of Appeal; the senior Associate Justice fills the Chief Justice's spot on the commission when a new Chief Justice is nominated. Justices of the Supreme Court serve 12-year terms and receive a salary which is currently set at $250,075 per year for the Chief Justice and between $228,703 and $236,260 per year for each Associate Justice.Under the 1849 Constitution of California, the Supreme Court had a Chief Justice and two Associate Justices, with six-year terms of office. An 1862 constitutional amendment expanded the Court to a Chief Justice and four Associate Justices, with 10-year terms. Since the adoption of the 1879 Constitution, the Court has had a Chief Justice and six Associate Justices, with 12-year terms.The 1849 Constitution specified that the first Supreme Court justices would be appointed by the Legislature and that the justices would be subject to partisan direct elections from that point forward. The Governor could appoint justices in the event of a vacancy on the Court in between the elections. In 1910, elections for the Supreme Court became nonpartisan. In 1934, the state implemented the present system of gubernatorial appointment with retention elections, replacing the direct election of justices.

List of mayors of Avellino

The Mayor of Avellino is an elected politician who, along with the Avellino's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Avellino in Campania, Italy. The position has been held by a special commissioner since 27 November 2018, when the Mayor Vincenzo Ciampi resigned after a motion of no confidence.

List of mayors of Cuneo

The Mayor of Cuneo is an elected politician who, along with the Cuneo's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Cuneo in Piedmont, Italy. The current Mayor is Federico Borgna, a centre-left independent, who took office on 23 May 2012.

List of mayors of Foggia

The Mayor of Foggia is an elected politician who, along with the Foggia's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Foggia in Apulia, Italy. The current Mayor is Franco Landella, a member of the centre-right party Forza Italia, who took office on 11 June 2014.

List of mayors of Nuoro

The Mayor of Nuoro is an elected politician who, along with the Nuoro's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Nuoro in Sardinia, Italy. The current Mayor is the independent Andrea Soddu, who took office on 16 June 2015.

List of mayors of Oristano

The Mayor of Oristano is an elected politician who, along with the Oristano's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Oristano in Sardinia, Italy. The current Mayor is Andrea Lutzu, a member of the centre-right party Forza Italia, who took office on 26 June 2017.

List of mayors of Perugia

The Mayor of Perugia is an elected politician who, along with the Perugia's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Perugia in Umbria, Italy, the capital city of the region. The current Mayor is Andrea Romizi from the Forza Italia, the first centre-right mayor of the city since the end of World War II, who took office on 12 June 2014.

List of mayors of Trento

The Mayor of Trento is an elected politician who, along with the Trento's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Trento in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy, the capital city of the region. The current Mayor is Alessandro Andreatta from the Democratic Party, elected on May 2009 and re-elected for a second term on May 2015.

List of mayors of Verbania

The Mayor of Verbania is an elected politician who, along with the Verbania's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Verbania in Piedmont, Italy. The current Mayor is Silvia Marchionini, a member of the Democratic Party, who took office on 9 June 2014.

List of mayors of Vercelli

The Mayor of Vercelli is an elected politician who, along with the Vercelli's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Vercelli in Piedmont, Italy. The current Mayor is Andrea Corsaro, a member of the centre-right party Forza Italia, who took office on 12 June 2019.

List of members of the European Parliament for Slovakia, 2004

This is the list of appointed members to the Members of the European Parliament for Slovakia from 1 May 2004 till the first direct election on 13 June 2004.

Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies (however in some countries the head of state, regardless of whether the country's system is a parliamentary republic or a constitutional monarchy, has 'reserve powers' given to use at their discretion in order to act as a non-partisan 'referee' of the political process and ensure the nation's constitution is upheld). Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.

For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other governments and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.

Prime Minister of Israel

The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; Arabic: رئيس الحكومة‎, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government and chief executive of Israel.

Israel is a republic with a President as head of state. However, the President's powers are largely ceremonial; the Prime Minister holds the real power. The official residence of the Prime Minister, Beit Aghion, is in Jerusalem. The current Prime Minister is Benjamin Netanyahu of Likud, the ninth person to hold the position (excluding caretakers).

Following an election, the President nominates a member of the Knesset to become Prime Minister after asking party leaders whom they support for the position. The nominee has 42 days to put together a viable coalition. He then presents a government platform and must receive a vote of confidence from the Knesset in order to become Prime Minister. In practice, the Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the governing coalition. Between 1996 and 2001, the Prime Minister was directly elected, separately from the Knesset.Unlike most prime ministers in parliamentary republics, the Prime Minister is both de jure and de facto chief executive. This is because the Basic Laws of Israel explicitly vest executive power in the government, of which the Prime Minister is the leader.

Semi-parliamentary system

A semi-parliamentary system (also described as a neo-parliamentary or prime-ministerial system) is a classification of systems of government proposed by Maurice Duverger, in which citizens directly elect at the same time the legislature and the prime minister, possibly with an electoral law ensuring the existence of a parliamentary majority for the prime minister-elect. As in a parliamentary system, the prime minister is responsible to the legislature and can be dismissed by it: this however effectively causes a snap election for both the prime minister and the legislature (a rule commonly expressed by the brocard aut simul stabunt aut simul cadent, Latin for "they will either stand together, or fall together").

Like semi-presidential systems, semi-parliamentary systems are a strongly rationalized form of parliamentary systems. After Israel decided to abolish the direct election of prime ministers in 2001, there are no semi-parliamentary countries in the world; however, a semi-parliamentary system is used in Israeli and Italian cities and towns to elect mayors and councils.

Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States senators by the people of the states. The amendment supersedes Article I, §3, Clauses 1 and 2 of the Constitution, under which senators were elected by state legislatures. It also alters the procedure for filling vacancies in the Senate, allowing for state legislatures to permit their governors to make temporary appointments until a special election can be held.

The amendment was proposed by the 62nd Congress in 1912 and became part of the Constitution on April 8, 1913 on ratification by three-fourths (36) of the state legislatures. Sitting senators were not affected by the Amendment's provisions until their existing terms expired, so the Amendment took six years to fully implement. The transition began with two special elections in 1913 and 1914 - the first in Maryland and the second in Alabama. The transition then began in earnest with the November 1914 election, and was complete on 4 March 1919 when the senators chosen at the November 1918 election took office.

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