Direct-controlled municipality

A direct-controlled municipality is the highest level classification for cities used by unitary states, with status equal to that of the provinces in the respective countries. A direct-controlled municipality is similar to, but not the same as, a federal district, a common designation in various countries for a municipality that is not part of any state, and which usually hosts some governmental functions. Usually direct-controlled municipality are under central government control with limited power.

Many countries have adopted this system with some different variations. Geographically and culturally, many of the municipalities are enclaves in the middle of provinces. Some occur in strategic positions in between provinces.

Country Municipalities Main article
 Belarus Minsk
 Cambodia Kep, Pailin, Phnom Penh, Sihanoukville
 China (PRC) Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin Direct-administered municipalities of China
 Kazakhstan Almaty, Nur-Sultan, Baikonur
 North Korea Pyongyang, Nampho, Rason Special cities of North Korea
 South Korea Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon, Ulsan, Sejong Special cities of South Korea
 Kyrgyzstan Bishkek, Osh
 Laos Vientiane
 Moldova Chişinău, Bălţi, Bender
 Mongolia Ulaanbaatar
 Philippines Highly urbanized cities: Manila, Angeles, Bacolod, Baguio, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Caloocan, Cebu City, Davao City, General Santos, Iligan, Iloilo City, Lapu-Lapu, Las Piñas, Lucena, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Olongapo, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, San Juan, Tacloban, Taguig, Valenzuela, Zamboanga City;
Independent component cities: Cotabato City, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, Santiago
Independent municipality: Pateros
Cities of the Philippines § Independent cities
 Taiwan (ROC) Taipei,[1] Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taoyuan Special municipality (Taiwan)
 Turkmenistan Ashgabat
 Ukraine Kiev, Sevastopol (disputed)
 Uzbekistan Tashkent
 Vietnam Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Can Tho Municipalities of Vietnam


  1. ^ Taipei City Government, Taipei Yearbook (2008).

See also

Bank of Beijing

Bank of Beijing Co., Ltd. (abb. BOB) is an urban commercial bank based in Beijing, China. According to the bank, most of the revenue came from Beijing, despite that the banking group had more than half of the branches located outside the direct-controlled municipality (As of 31 December 2017, 302 out of 559 branches were located outside Beijing). Beijing Municipal People's Government and the Netherlands-based multinational bank ING Bank were the major shareholders of the bank.

As of April 2018, the bank, as a listed company, is a constituent of SSE 180 Index, as well as its sub-index, the blue chip SSE 50 Index. It was also part of pan-China indexes such as FTSE China A50 Index and CSI 100 Index.

Beijing Municipal Administration of Prisons

The Beijing Municipal Administration of Prisons (simplified Chinese: 北京市监狱管理局; traditional Chinese: 北京市監獄管理局; pinyin: Běijīng Shì Jiānyù Guǎnlǐ Jú) is an agency of the direct-controlled municipality of Beijing, operating prisons.

It is a part of the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Justice.

Chongqing Broadcasting Group

Chongqing Broadcasting Group (CBG; (Chinese: 重庆广播电视集团; pinyin: Chóngqìng Guǎngbō Diànshì Jítuán) is a government-owned television network based in the city of Chongqing in southwestern China. Established in 1981, Chongqing Television has been the leading broadcasting network in Chongqing and its affiliated counties and districts. After Chongqing became a direct-controlled municipality in 1997, Chongqing Television became the official TV program to represent and propagate the cultures and development of Chongqing. Chongqing Television became a subdivision of Chongqing Broadcasting Group (along with People's Radio Broadcasting Station of Chongqing and many other subdivisions) in 2004 with a headquarter in Jiulongpo District. Its main channel, CTV (formerly CQTV) is carried on cable systems in urban areas throughout mainland China and is available nationwide on both analogue and digital satellites.

Chongqing Municipal Administration of Prisons

Chongqing Municipal Administration of Prisons (重庆市监狱管理局) is the prison service agency of Chongqing, a direct-controlled municipality in China. Its headquarters are in Yubei District.

Direct-administered municipalities of China

A municipality (simplified Chinese: 直辖市; traditional Chinese: 直轄市; pinyin: zhíxiáshì; literally: 'direct-controlled city'), formally as municipality under the direct administration of central government, is the highest level of classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China. These cities have the same rank as provinces, and form part of the first tier of administrative divisions of China.

A municipality is a "city" (Chinese: 市; pinyin: shì) with "provincial" (Chinese: 省级; pinyin: shěngjí) power under a unified jurisdiction. As such it is simultaneously a city and a province of its own right.

A municipality is often not a "city" in the usual sense of the term (i.e., a large continuous urban settlement), but instead an administrative unit comprising, typically, a main central urban area (a city in the usual sense, usually with the same name as the municipality), and its much larger surrounding rural area containing many smaller cities (districts and subdistricts), towns and villages. The larger municipality spans over 100 kilometres (62 mi). To distinguish a "municipality" from its actual urban area (the traditional meaning of the word city), the term "urban area" (Chinese: 市区) is used.

Flying Pigeon

Flying Pigeon (Chinese: 飞鸽; Pinyin: fēigē) is a Chinese bicycle company based in Tianjin, a direct-controlled municipality, in Northeastern China. More than 500 million Flying Pigeon PA-02 bicycles have been made since 1950, more, as of 2007, than any other model of vehicle. The next closest vehicle model is the Honda Super Cub motorcycle, which passed 60 million in 2008, and 100 million in 2017.

G1503 Shanghai Ring Expressway

The Shanghai Ring Expressway (Chinese: 上海绕城高速公路; pinyin: Shànghǎi Ràochéng Gāosù Gōnglù), designated G1503, formerly designated as A30 and G1501, and also known as the Shanghai Suburb Ring Expressway (Chinese: 上海郊环高速公路; pinyin: Shànghǎi Jiāohuán Gāosù Gōnglù), is a 209.22-kilometre-long ring expressway (130.00 mi) that encircles Shanghai, a direct-controlled municipality in the People's Republic of China. It is entirely in Shanghai, except for a small section in the nearby province of Jiangsu at its northwest end.

It forms the final ring in a series of four orbital roads around the city of Shanghai, with the others being the Inner Ring Road, Middle Ring Road, and the S20 Outer Ring Expressway. Part of G1503 Shanghai Ring Expressway in northern Pudong New Area is concurrent with the third ring, the S20 Outer Ring Expressway, due to the nature of the coastline of Shanghai with the East China Sea.

Huang Xingguo

Huang Xingguo (simplified Chinese: 黄兴国; traditional Chinese: 黃興國; pinyin: Huáng Xīngguó; born October 1954) was the Mayor of Tianjin, and, between 2015 and 2016, the acting Communist Party Secretary of Tianjin. Huang is originally from Zhejiang province, and previously served as party chief of Ningbo, and the party chief of Taizhou. In 2016, he was investigated by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and subsequently expelled from the Communist Party of China for breaking party regulations. He was sentenced to 12 years in prison upon being convicted on charges of bribery.

Huaxia Elevated Road

The Huaxia Elevated Road (Chinese: 华夏高架路) is a 15.6-kilometre (9.7 mi) long elevated expressway entirely in the Pudong New Area of Shanghai, a direct-controlled municipality in the People's Republic of China. It opened to traffic on 25 December 2009, and connects the Middle Ring Road with the Yingbin Expressway. It serves as a new roadway from Shanghai Pudong International Airport to the city centre. It makes the journey from Shanghai Pudong International Airport to the city centre in 30 minutes, and to Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport, via the Middle Ring Road, in 60 minutes. The route normally takes 70 percent of traffic flow to Shanghai Pudong International Airport.

Li Xueju

Li Xueju (simplified Chinese: 李学举; traditional Chinese: 李學舉; pinyin: Lǐ Xuéjǔ; born April 1945) is a politician of the People's Republic of China, and the former Minister of Civil Affairs of PRC.Born in Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, Li joined the Communist Party of China in January 1966, and started working in May 1966. In early years, he served in various posts in local commune. In 1975, he was promoted to Secretary of Communist Youth League committee in Siping region of Jilin. From 1978, he served as vice section chief, vice director and later, director of organization department of CYL central committee. From 1984 to 1986, he studied at CPC Central Party School. In 1986, he was appointed as the director of general office of CYL central committee. He was a member of 10th CYL central committee, and a standing member of 11th and 12th CYL central committee.

From 1988, Li served in Ministry of Civil Affairs. In September 1996, he was transferred to Chongqing (then part of Sichuan Province) and became a standing committee member and the head of organization department of CPC Chongqing municipal committee. In June 1997, when Chongqing became a direct-controlled municipality, Li was a standing committee member of CPC committee. From 1998 to July 2001, he served as vice secretary of CPC Chongqing committee. In July 2001, he was appointed as vice Minister of Civil Affairs. From March 2003 to June 2010, he served as Minister of Civil Affairs and the Party chief of the Ministry.

Li was a member of 17th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, which was in session from 2002 to 2007.

Municipalities of Vietnam

On the First Tier, Vietnam is divided into 58 provinces (Vietnamese: tỉnh) and 5 municipalities (Vietnamese: thành phố trực thuộc trung ương). Municipalities are the highest-ranked cities in Vietnam. Municipalities are centrally-controlled cities and have special status equal to the Province.

The municipalities are divided into Urban Districts, Towns and Rural Districts as the Second Tier units. At the Third Tier, Urban Districts are divided into Wards, Towns are divided into Wards and Communes, while Rural Districts are divided into Townships (thị trấn) and Communes.


A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district.

The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).

A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.

The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass

only one populated place such as a city, town, or village

several of such places (e.g., early jurisdictions in the U.S. state of New Jersey (1798–1899) as townships governing several villages, Municipalities of Mexico, Municipalities of Colombia)

only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile.

Shanghai Municipal Prison Administration

The Shanghai Municipal Prison Administration (Chinese: 上海市监狱管理局) is an agency of the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Justice of Shanghai, China, a direct-controlled municipality.

Shanghai Women's Prison

Shanghai Women’s Prison (上海市女子监狱), also called Songjiang Women's Prison, is a women's prison in Songjiang District, Shanghai, China. It is a part of the Shanghai Prison Administrative Bureau.

It has over 1,000 prisoners and is the only such correctional city for women in the direct-controlled municipality. Its prisoners had committed murder, embezzlement, theft, fraud, assault, drug offenses, and other crimes.The prison has a mother and daughter program for young women who are incarcerated. This program began in 2014.A fire occurred in 2013.

Shanghai–Changzhou Expressway

The Shanghai–Changzhou Expressway (Chinese: 上海–常州高速公路), commonly referred to as the Huchang Expressway (Chinese: 沪常高速公路), is a partially completed 170.7-kilometre-long Chinese expressway (106.1 mi) that connects the cities of Shanghai and Changzhou. In Shanghai, it is designated S26, and in Jiangsu, it is designated S58. It connects the cities of Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, and Changzhou and serves as an important expressway between the province of Jiangsu and the direct-controlled municipality of Shanghai.

The Shanghai portion of the expressway will be 25.7 km (16.0 mi) in length, of which 18.4 km (11.4 mi) has already been completed. The Jiangsu portion will be 145 km (90 mi) in length, of which 75 km (47 mi) has been completed. The expressway is currently complete between the cities of Shanghai and Suzhou.

Special municipality (Taiwan)

A special municipality (Chinese: 直轄市; pinyin: zhíxiáshì; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ti̍t-hat-chhī) is an administrative division unit in Taiwan. Under the administrative structure of Taiwan, it is the highest rank of division and is equivalent to a province. Since the streamlining of provinces in 1998, the special municipalities along with provincial cities and counties have all been directly under the central government. Currently there are six special municipalities in Taiwan: Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei and Taoyuan.

Tan Shaowen

Tan Shaowen (Chinese: 谭绍文; July 4, 1929 – February 3, 1993) was a Chinese politician. He served as the Communist Party Chief and top leader of the direct-controlled municipality of Tianjin, and was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, one of the most powerful political bodies in the People's Republic of China. However, he died in 1993 before completing the full term of his office.

Wanzhou District

Wanzhou District (simplified Chinese: 万州区; traditional Chinese: 萬州區; pinyin: Wànzhōu Qū) is Chongqing's second most populated urban core area on the upper reaches of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River in China. It is currently governed as a district of Chongqing Municipality, bordering Sichuan to the northwest and Hubei to the southeast. It was formerly known as Wanxian or Wan County (simplified Chinese: 万县; traditional Chinese: 萬縣; pinyin: Wànxiàn). Prior to Chongqing's formation as a direct-controlled municipality, Wanzhou was part of Sichuan province. The urban core of Wanzhou is 228 km (142 mi) away from Chongqing's city proper.

"Wanzhou" literally means "myriad-prefecture", where "a myriad rivers converge and a myriad traders gather" (万川毕汇、万商云集). Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, 47% of Wanzhou's old urban area will be underwater by the time the reservoir is filled. Buildings in the submerged area have been torn down and new ones rebuilt on higher ground.

Yeonhui-dong, Incheon

Yeonhui-dong is an administrative division and dong located in Seo District, Incheon Korea. Yeonhui-dong is a mixed rural and urban use area based on flower gardens and farming, and was formed for commerce with the native farming region of Gongcheon-dong.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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