The Intelligence Directorate (Spanish: Dirección de Inteligencia, DI), commonly known as G2 and, until 1989, named Dirección General de Inteligencia (DGI), is the main state intelligence agency of the government of Cuba. The DI was founded in late 1961 by Cuba's Ministry of the Interior shortly after the Cuban Revolution. The DI is responsible for all foreign intelligence collection and comprises six divisions divided into two categories, which are the Operational Divisions and the Support Divisions. Manuel "Redbeard" Piñeiro was the first director of the DI in 1961, and his term lasted until 1964. Another top leader who directed the famous office, located on Linea and A, Vedado, was the now retired Div. General, Jesús Bermúdez Cutiño. He was transferred from being the chief of the Army Intelligence (DIM) to the Ministry of Interior after the corruption trials and executions of Arnaldo Ochoa and José Abrantes Fernández in 1989. The current head of the DI is Brig. Gen. Eduardo Delgado Rodríguez. The total number of people working for the DI is about 15,000.
|Dirección de Inteligencia |
(DI / G2)
|Jurisdiction||Ministry of the Interior (MININT)|
New recruits do research within the ministry, mostly on counterintelligence fields (which has its own five years career academy) and also, over regular college students, who are recruited around the second year on their programs. Those students mostly study languages, history, communications, and sociology. Once they get their diplomas, they undergo several months of official intelligence training, and a year or so after, they receive the rank of lieutenant.
The Soviet Union's KGB and the Cuban DI had a complex relationship, marked by times of extremely close cooperation and by periods of extreme competition. The Soviet Union saw the new revolutionary government in Cuba as an excellent proxy agent in areas of the world where Soviet involvement lacked popular local-level support. Nikolai Leonov, the KGB chief in Mexico City, one of the first Soviet officials to recognize Fidel Castro's potential as a revolutionary, urged the Soviet administration to strengthen ties with the new Cuban leader. Moscow saw Cuba as having far more appeal with new revolutionary movements, western intellectuals, and members of the New Left with Cuba's perceived David and Goliath struggle against U.S. imperialism. Shortly after the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, Moscow invited 1,500 DI agents, including Che Guevara, to the KGB's Moscow Center for intensive training in intelligence operations.
Dismayed by Cuban debâcles in Zaire (1977 and 1978) and in Bolivia (1966–67) as well as by a perceived growing independence from Moscow, the Soviets sought a more active role in shaping the DI. In 1970 a team of KGB advisers led by Gen. Viktor Semyonov was sent to the DI to purge it of officers and agents considered anti-Soviet by the KGB. Manuel Piñeiro, becoming increasingly upset at the co-option of the DI by the Soviets, was removed during the 1970 purge and replaced with the pro-Soviet José Méndez Cominches as head of the DI.
Semyonov also took this opportunity to oversee a rapid expansion of the DI's "western" operations. By 1971, 70 percent of the Cuban diplomats in London were actually DI agents and proved invaluable to Moscow after the British government's mass expulsion of Soviet intelligence officers.
In 1962 the Soviet Union opened its largest foreign SIGINT site in Lourdes, Cuba, approximately 30 miles (50 km) from Havana. The Lourdes facility is reported to cover a 28 square-mile (73 km2) area, with 1,000 to 1,500 Soviet and later solely Russian engineers, technicians, and military personnel working at the base. Those familiar with the Lourdes facility have confirmed that the base has multiple groups of tracking dishes and its own satellite system, with some groups used to intercept telephone calls, faxes, and computer communications in general, and with other groups used to cover targeted telephones and devices.
Throughout its 40-year history the DI has been actively involved in aiding leftist movements, primarily in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. There have also been allegations that Cuban DI agents interrogated U.S. POWs held at the Cu Loc POW camp in North Vietnam.
Shortly after the election of Salvador Allende as president of Chile in November 1970, the DI worked extremely closely to strengthen Allende's increasingly precarious position. The Cuban DI station chief Luis Fernández Oña married Allende's daughter Beatriz, who later committed suicide in Cuba.
Shortly after a popular bloodless coup in Grenada, led by Maurice Bishop, the Cuban DI sent advisers to the island nation to assist the new government. The DI was also instrumental in persuading the Soviet Union to aid Grenada, aid that Grenadian general Hudson Austin called essential to the success of the Caribbean anti-imperialist movement. The DI coordinated 780 Cuban engineers and intelligence operatives.
Beginning in 1967 the DI had begun to establish ties with various Nicaraguan revolutionary organizations. The Soviets were upset at what they saw as Cuba upstaging the KGB in Nicaragua. By 1970 the DI had managed to train hundreds of Sandinista guerrilla leaders and had vast influence over the organization. In 1969 the DI had financed and organized an operation to free the jailed Sandinistan leader Carlos Fonseca from his prison in Costa Rica. Fonseca was captured shortly after the jail break, but after a plane carrying executives from the United Fruit Company was hijacked by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), he was freed and allowed to travel to Cuba.
The DI, with Fidel Castro's personal blessing, also collaborated with the FSLN on the botched assassination attempt of Turner B. Shelton, the U.S. ambassador in Managua and a close friend to the Somoza family. The FSLN managed to secure several hostages, exchanging them for safe passage to Cuba and a $1 million ransom. After the successful ousting of Anastasio Somoza, DI involvement in the new Sandinista government expanded rapidly. An early indication of the central role that the DI would play in the Cuban–Nicaraguan relationship a meeting in Havana on 27 July 1979, at which diplomatic ties between the two countries were re-established after over 25 years. Julián López Díaz, a prominent DI agent, was named ambassador to Nicaragua.
Cuban military and DI advisers initially brought in during the Sandinistan insurgency, would swell to over 2,500 and operated at all levels of the new Nicaraguan government. Sandinista defector Álvaro Baldizón confirmed that Cuban influence in Nicaragua's Interior Ministry (MINT) was more extensive than was widely believed at the time, and Cuban "advice" and "observations" were treated as though they were orders.
The DI sought to aid the growing Puerto Rican separatist movement. Dr. Daniel James testified before a U.S. Senate subcommittee that the DGI, working through Filiberto Ojeda Ríos, organized and trained the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña (FALN) in 1974. In October 1974, Ojeda was arrested and charged with terrorist acts against American hotels in Puerto Rico. Authorities found a substantial amount of Cuban government documents and secret codes in his possession. Shortly after his release on bail he disappeared but was credited with the 1979 unification of Puerto Rico's five principal terrorist groups into the Cuban-directed National Revolutionary Command (CRN). According to the former chief investigator of the U.S. Senate, Alfonso Tarabochia, the DGI began directing criminal activities in Puerto Rico and the eastern and midwestern United States as early as 1974. That June the secretary general of the Puerto Rican Socialist Party, Juan Marí Bras, met in Havana with Fidel Castro to consolidate party solidarity.
Beginning in September 1974, the incidence of bombings by Puerto Rican extremists, particularly the FALN, escalated sharply. Targets included U.S. companies and public places. The FALN was responsible for a bombing that killed four and wounded dozens at the historic Fraunces Tavern in lower Manhattan on January 25, 1975. Later that year, Fidel Castro sponsored the First World Solidarity Conference for the Independence of Puerto Rico in Havana.
Ríos was killed by the FBI on Friday, September 23, 2005, in the town of Hormigueros, Puerto Rico.
Basclay Humberto Zapata Reyes (22 October 1946, Chillán – 3 December 2017, Santiago) was a Chilean military officer and agent of the secret police of Augusto Pinochet.Dim
Dim may refer to:
Dim (album), the fourth studio album by Japanese rock band The Gazette
Dim, Iran, a village in South Khorasan Province
Nickname of John Wooldridge (1919–1958), British film music composer and Second World War bomber pilot
A keyword in most versions of the BASIC programming languageThe abbreviation dim may refer to:
Dimension, a measure of how many parameters is sufficient to describe an object in mathematics
Dimension (vector space), the number of vectors needed to describe the basis in a vector space, in linear algebra
Diminished triad, a dissonant chord with a minor third and diminished fifth to the root in music theory
Diminuendo, a word indicating changes of dynamics in music
Diminutive, a formation of a wordDIM may refer to:
Corporación Deportiva Independiente Medellín, a Colombian football club
3,3'-Diindolylmethane, an anticarcinogen compound
Dirección de Inteligencia Militar, the military intelligence agency of VenezuelaDirección General de Contrainteligencia Militar
The Directorate General of Military Counterintelligence (DGCIM) is the military counterintelligence agency of Venezuela whose function is to prevent intelligence or espionage internally and externally enemy by military and civilians.Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional
The Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (English: National Intelligence Directorate) or DINA was the Chilean secret police in the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, and has been called Pinochet's Gestapo. The DINA was established in November 1973 as a Chilean Army intelligence unit headed by Colonel Manuel Contreras and vice-director Raúl Iturriaga. It was separated from the army and made an independent administrative unit in June 1974, under the auspices of Decree 521.
The DINA existed until 1977, after which it was renamed the Central Nacional de Informaciones (CNI) (National Information Center).
In 2008, the Chilean Army presented a list of 1,097 DINA agents to Judge Alejandro Solís.Enrique Arancibia Clavel
Enrique Arancibia (13 October 1944 – 28 April 2011) was a Chilean DINA security service agent who assassinated General Carlos Prats and his wife in 1974. General Prats, who had been commander-in-chief of the armed forces during the administration of Salvador Allende, had strongly criticized Pinochet's 1973 coup which deposed Allende; Prats went into voluntary exile in Argentina.
Aranciba was working for the government of Augusto Pinochet. He was convicted of the assassinations in Argentina. After serving 20 years in prison, Aranciba was paroled in July 2007. He was found stabbed to death in his apartment in Buenos Aires, Argentina in April 2011.General Counterintelligence Office
The General Counterintelligence Office is the military intelligence agency of Venezuela.
According to the New York Times, the agency was replaced by the Dirección de Inteligencia Militar in 2008.Juan Maino
Juan Bosco Maino Canales (died 1976?) was a photographer, political activist, and opponent of Augusto Pinochet's regime in Chile. He was a leader in the Movimiento de Acción Popular Unitaria (United Popular Action Movement). He was detained on May 26, 1976 by agents of Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (DINA) agents and disappeared.Manuel Contreras
Juan Manuel Guillermo "Mamo" Contreras Sepúlveda (4 May 1929 – 7 August 2015) was a Chilean Army officer and the former head of the National Intelligence Directorate (DINA), Chile's secret police during the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet. In 1995, he was sentenced to seven years in prison for the murder in Washington, D.C. of Chilean diplomat Orlando Letelier, which he served until 2001.
At the time of his death in August 2015, Contreras was serving 59 unappealable sentences totaling 529 years in prison for kidnapping, forced disappearance and assassination.Marcelo Moren Brito
Marcelo Luis Manuel Moren Brito (July 27, 1935 – September 11, 2015) was a Chilean retired Army colonel and former agent of the Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (DINA), the defunct Chilean secret police, during the Pinochet dictatorship from 1973 to 1990. During the rule of President Augusto Pinochet, Moren Brito, who was nicknamed "el Coronta" and "el Ronco," was the chief of operations at DINA, as well as the head of the Villa Grimaldi, DINA's feared detention center in Peñalolén, where thousands of political prisoners were interrogated and tortured. He was a member of a death squad of Chilean Army officers who carried out the 1973, Caravan of Death, in which at least 75 individuals in military custody were executed, including the singer Víctor Jara.Moren Brito was accused of the widespread abductions, disappearances, murder and the torture of political opponents of the Pinochet regime. La Tercera, the daily Chilean newspaper, wrote that Moren Briten was "associated with some of the cruelest actions of repression against dissidents of the military government of Augusto Pinochet."Moren Brito was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to more than 300 years in prison. He was incarcerated for life at Punta Peuco Prison, which was constructed in 1995 specifically for individuals convicted of human rights abuses.He died from multiple organ failure at Hospital Militar de Santiago, where he had been admitted earlier in the week due to declining health, on September 11, 2015, at the age of 80.Michael Townley
Michael Vernon Townley (born December 5, 1942) is a former agent of the Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional currently living under terms of the US federal witness protection program. An operative of the Chilean secret police, Townley confessed, was convicted, and served 62 months in prison in the United States for the 1976 Washington, D.C., assassination of Orlando Letelier, former Chilean ambassador to the United States. As part of his plea bargain, Townley received immunity from further prosecution; he was not extradited to Argentina to stand trial for the 1974 assassination of Chilean general Carlos Prats and his wife.In 1993, Townley was also convicted, in absentia, by an Italian court for carrying out the 1975 Rome murder attempt on Bernardo Leighton. Townley worked in producing chemical weapons for Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet's use against political opponents along with Colonel Gerardo Huber and the DINA biochemist Eugenio Berríos.Miguel Krassnoff
Miguel Krassnoff Martchenko (born 15 February 1946 in Tyrol, Austria) is a Chilean military official involved in the 1973 putsch against president Salvador Allende. He held several high-ranking positions in the Pinochet regime, including in the Chilean intelligence agency, DINA. As such, he was responsible for the interrogation, torture, and disappearance of political prisoners at the detention center, Villa Grimaldi. After Pinochet's demise, Krassnoff was convicted by Chilean courts of Crimes Against Humanity.Military Counterintelligence Directorate
Dirección de Contra-Inteligencia Militar is the military intelligence department of the Ministry of the Revolutionary Armed Forces (MINFAR) of Cuba.
The non-military intelligence agency of Cuba is the Dirección de Inteligencia.Operation Toucan (KGB)
Operation TOUCAN was a KGB/DGI public relations and disinformation campaign directed at the military government of Chile led by Augusto Pinochet, particularly the Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (DINA). According to former KGB officer Vasili Mitrokhin, the plot was originally conceived by Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov. It was approved in August 10, 1976. The plot's twofold task was to organize sympathetic human rights activists to pressure the United Nations and generate negative press for the Pinochet regime.Osvaldo Romo
Osvaldo Romo Mena (c. 1938 – 4 July 2007) was an agent of the Chilean Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (DINA) from 1973 to 1990, during the rule of Augusto Pinochet. Involved in the forced disappearance of more than a hundred people, including Christians for Socialism and MIR members Diana Aron Svigilsky, Manuel Cortez Joo and Ofelio Lazo. He was sentenced to life imprisonment, but several of these sentences were suspended by the Chilean Supreme Court.Paul Schäfer
Paul Schäfer Schneider (4 December 1921 – 24 April 2010) was the founder and former leader of a sect and agricultural commune of German immigrants called Colonia Dignidad (Dignity Colony)—later renamed Villa Baviera—located in the south of Chile, about 340 km (210 miles) south of Santiago, where Schneider committed sexual abuse of children.Raúl Iturriaga
Raúl Eduardo Iturriaga Neumann (born January 23, 1938) is a Chilean Army general and a former deputy director of the DINA, the Chilean secret police under the Augusto Pinochet military dictatorship. He was in charge of a secret detention center known as La Venda Sexy ("Sexy Blindfold") and La Discothèque — because of the sexual abuse inflicted on blindfolded prisoners as loud music masked their screams. An aide to General Manuel Contreras, head of the DINA, he was in charge of several assassinations carried out as part of Operation Condor. He has been condemned in absentia in Italy for the failed murder of Christian-Democrat Bernardo Leighton, and is wanted both in Spain and in Argentina. In the latter country, he is accused of the assassination of General Carlos Prats.In June 2007 Iturriaga went into hiding as a result of the 10-year prison sentence handed out to him by judge Alejandro Solís (reduced to five years by the Chilean Supreme Court) for the sequestration of Revolutionary Left Movement member Luis San Martín. He was finally captured in August 2007 in Viña del Mar.Sergio Arellano Stark
Sergio Arellano Stark (10 June 1921 – 9 March 2016) was a Chilean military officer. He led the so-called “Caravan of Death,” which killed 97 Chileans from helicopters and established Augusto Pinochet’s hold on power.Villa Grimaldi
Villa Grimaldi is considered the most important of DINA’s (Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional, the Chilean secret police) many complexes that were used for the interrogation and torture of political prisoners during the governance of Augusto Pinochet. It is located at Avenida José Arrieta 8200 (now 8401) in Peñalolén, on the outskirts of Santiago, and was in operation from mid-1974 to mid-1978. About 4,500 detainees were brought to Villa Grimaldi during this time, at least 240 of whom "disappeared" or were killed by DINA. It was also the location of the headquarters of the Metropolitan Intelligence Brigade (BIM). The head of Villa Grimaldi during the Pinochet dictatorship, Marcelo Moren Brito, was later convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to more than 300 years in prison.Virgilio Paz Romero
Virgilio Pablo Paz Romero (born November 20, 1951) is a Cuban exile and militant who was involved in the 1976 assassination of former Chilean ambassador Orlando Letelier in Washington, D.C. Paz Romero was one of two people accused of detonating a remote-controlled car bomb that killed Letelier and a colleague in Washington's Sheridan Circle.
Cuban security forces
National intelligence agencies