Diospyros melanoxylon

Diospyros melanoxylon, the Coromandel ebony or East Indian ebony, is a species of flowering tree in the family Ebenaceae native to India and Sri Lanka; it has a hard, dry bark. Its common name derives from Coromandel, the coast of southeastern India. Locally it is known as temburini or by its Hindi name tendu. In Odisha, Jharkhand, and Assam, it is known as kendu. The leaves can be wrapped around tobacco to create the Indian beedi,[3] which has outsold conventional cigarettes in India.[4]

Diospyros melanoxylon Tendu
Tendu patta (leaf) collection
Coromandel ebony
Bark of Diospyros melanoxylon
Bark of the Coromandel ebony
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Ebenaceae
Genus: Diospyros
Species:
D. melanoxylon
Binomial name
Diospyros melanoxylon
Roxb.[1]
Synonyms[2]
  • Diospyros dubia Wall. ex A.DC.
  • Diospyros exsculpta Bedd.
  • Diospyros exsculpta Dalzell & Gibson
  • Diospyros montana B.Heyne ex A.DC.
  • Diospyros roylei Wall. ex A.DC.
  • Diospyros rubiginosa Roth
  • Diospyros tupru Buch.-Ham.
  • Diospyros wightiana Wall. nom. inval.

Pharmacology

The leaf of the tree contains valuable flavones.[5] The pentacyclic triterpenes found in the leaves possess antimicrobial properties,[6] while the bark shows antihyperglycemic activity.[7] The bark of four Diospyros species found in India has been determined to have significant antiplasmodial effects against Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria in humans.[8]

Method of collection

Tendu leaves are used as a wrapper for Beedi. During the summer fresh leaves are produced by the suckers coming up from the soil. This is also enhanced by setting fire beneath Tendu tree. The fresh leaves are hand-picked by the tribals and dried in sun for 10 days. This practice is seen in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Chhattisgarh states of India. The State Government gives the license for collection and processing of the tendu leaves through tender every year.[9]

References

  1. ^ "Diospyros melanoxylon". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 9 April 2009.
  2. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species".
  3. ^ Lal, Pranay (25 May 2009). "Bidi – A short history" (PDF). Current Science. Bangalore, India: Current Science Association. 96 (10): 1335–1337. Retrieved 5 May June 2013. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. ^ "...bidis command 48 percent of the market while chewing tobacco commands 38 percent and cigarettes 14 percent..." Archived 6 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, "The Tax Treatment of Bidis", tobaccofreeunion.org
  5. ^ NEW FLAVONOIDS FROM THE LEAVES OF DIOSPYROS MELANOXYLON, Uppuluri V. Mallavadhani and Anita Mahapatra
  6. ^ Antimicrobial Activity of Some Pentacyclic Triterpenes and Their Synthesized 3-O-Lipophilic Chains, Uppuluri Venkata MALLAVADHANI,*, a Anita MAHAPATRA, a Kaiser JAMIL, b and Peddi Srinivasa REDDY, Biol. Pharm. Bull. 27(10) 1576—1579 (2004) Vol. 27, No. 10
  7. ^ Antihyperglycemic effect of Diospyros melanoxylon (Roxb.) bark against Alloxan-induced diabetic rats Jadhav J. K*.Masirkar V. J., Deshmukh V. N.International Journal of PharmTech Research CODEN( USA): IJPRIF ISSN 0974-4304, Vol.1, No.2, pp 196-200, April–June 2009
  8. ^ Investigation of Indian Diospyros Species for Antiplasmodial Properties, V. S. Satyanarayana Kantamreddi and Colin W. Wright. eCAM 2008;5(2)187–190
  9. ^ "Working Plan of central Chanda forest division, Chandrapur" (PDF). mahaforest.nic.in. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
Beedi

A beedi (also spelled bidi or biri) is a thin cigarette or mini-cigar filled with tobacco flake and commonly wrapped in a Tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon) or Piliostigma racemosum leaf tied with a string or adhesive at one end. It originates from the Indian subcontinent. The name is derived from the Marwari word beeda—a mixture of betel nuts, herbs, and spices wrapped in a leaf.A traditional method of tobacco use throughout South Asia and parts of the Middle East, today beedies are popular and inexpensive in India, where beedi consumption outpaces that of conventional cigarettes, accounting for 48% of Indian tobacco consumption in 2008.Beedies deliver more nicotine, carbon monoxide, and tar and carry a greater risk of oral cancers. As with many other types of smoking, beedis increase the risk of certain kinds of cancers, heart disease, and lung disease. They may also be more harmful than other forms of tobacco consumption.Frequency of ventilatory abnormalities was highest in the cigarette smokers. A lower prevalence of chronic bronchitis and abnormal ventilatory measurements in beedi smokers, as compared with cigarette smokers, was thought to be primarily due to low total consumption of tobacco. Some added influence of smoke produced by burning of the wrapper leaf and type of tobacco used in beedis could not be ruled out.

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary in Bihar in the south west of Munger district near Jamui district.

Bori Wildlife Sanctuary

The Bori Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary in Hoshangabad District of Madhya Pradesh state in central India.

Bori Wildlife Sanctuary includes India's oldest forest preserve, the Bori Reserve Forest, established in 1865 along the Tawa River.

The sanctuary covers an area of 518 km2 (200 sq mi), located in the northern foothills of the Satpura Range. It is bounded by the Satpura National Park to the north and east, and by the Tawa River to the west. The sanctuary, together with Satpura National Park and the Pachmarhi Sanctuary, forms the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.

The sanctuary is mostly covered in mixed deciduous and bamboo forests, part of the Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests ecoregion. It is an important transition zone between the forests of western and eastern India. Dominant trees include teak (Tectona grandis), dhaora (Anogeissus latifolia), tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon), among others. Large mammal species include tiger, leopard, wild boar, muntjac deer, gaur (Bos gaurus), chital deer (Axis axis), sambar (Cervus unicolor), and rhesus macaques.

Chambal River

The Chambal River is a tributary of the Yamuna River in central India, and thus forms part of the greater Gangetic drainage system. The river flows north-northeast through Madhya Pradesh, running for a time through Rajasthan, then forming the boundary between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh before turning southeast to join the Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh state.It is a legendary river and finds mention in ancient scriptures. The perennial Chambal originates at janapav, south of Mhow town, near manpur Indore, on the south slope of the Vindhya Range in Madhya Pradesh. The Chambal and its tributaries drain the Malwa region of northwestern Madhya Pradesh, while its tributary, the Banas, which rises in the Aravalli Range, drains southeastern Rajasthan. It ends a confluence of five rivers, including the Chambal, Kwari, Yamuna, Sind, Pahuj, at Pachnada near Bhareh in Uttar Pradesh state, at the border of Bhind and Etawah districts.

The Chambal River is considered pollution free, and hosts an amazing riverine faunal assemblage including 2 species of crocodilians – the mugger and gharial, 8 species of freshwater turtles, smooth-coated otters, gangetic river dolphins, skimmers, black-bellied terns, sarus cranes and black-necked storks, amongst others.

Diospyros

Diospyros is a genus of over 700 species of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs. The majority are native to the tropics, with only a few species extending into temperate regions. Individual species valued for their hard, heavy, dark timber, are commonly known as ebony trees, while others are valued for their fruit and known as persimmon trees. Some are useful as ornamentals and many are of local ecological importance.

Euthalia monina

Euthalia monina, the powdered baron or Malay baron is a species of nymphalid butterfly.

Euthalia nais

Euthalia nais, the baronet, is a species of Nymphalid butterfly found in South Asia.

Flora of Bihar

The Indian state of Bihar contains sub-Himalayan foothills and mountains with moist deciduous forests. Rainfall may exceed 1600 millimeters per year. Common trees include Shorea robusta (sal), Toona ciliata, Diospyros melanoxylon (kendu), Boswellia serrata (salai), Terminalia tomentosa (asan), Terminalia bellirica (bahera), Terminalia arjuna (arjun), Pterocarpus marsupium (paisar), Madhuca indica (mahua).Plants of Bihar include:

Holarrhena antidysenterica

Flemingia chappar

Ziziphus xylopyrus

Bauhinia vahlii

Smilex protifrera

Butea superba

Butea parviflora

Kuno National Park

Kuno National Park is a protected area in Madhya Pradesh that received the status of national park in 2018. The protected area was established in 1981 as a wildlife sanctuary with an area of 344.686 km2 (133.084 sq mi) in the Sheopur and Morena districts. It was also known as Kuno-Palpur and Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary. It is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion.

List of Diospyros species

As of July 2014 the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families and The Plant List recognise about 750 accepted taxa (of species and infraspecific names) in the plant genus Diospyros.

Madhav National Park

Madhav National Park is situated in Shivpuri District of Gwalior division in northwest Madhya Pradesh, India. It was named after Madho Rao Scindia, the Maharaja of Gwalior belonging to the Scindia dynasty of the Marathas. It is the ancestral home of the line of ęAli Khan, a region based in Punjab, and most famous for the laws of commonly credited with defining modern day jurisprudence. Shivpuri town is located at 25°40' North, 77°44' East on Agra to Bombay National Highway-3. Shivpuri is steeped in the royal legacy of its past, when it was the summer capital of the Scindia rulers of Gwalior. Earlier its dense forests were the hunting grounds of the Mughal emperors and Maratha royals. Emperor Akbar captured herds of elephants for his stables while returning from Mandu in year 1564. It has a large number of leopard also. Two major lakes are also located in this national park .Located in the ecoregion of Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests, this national park has a varied terrain of forested hills and flat grasslands around the lake and is thus rich in biodiversity.

Miresa albipuncta

Miresa albipuncta is a moth of the family Limacodidae first described by Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer in 1854. It is found in Sri Lanka, India and Nepal.

Adult wingspan is 40 mm. Palpi not reaching beyond frontal tuft. Male antennae of male half-serrated distally. Mid and hind tibiae have terminal spur pairs. Head yellowish. Thorax fulvous yellow, whereas abdomen ochreous fulvous. Forewings reddish brown. A silvery-white spot found beyond the lower angle of cell. An ill-defined faint silver postmedial line present. Hindwings ochreous. Underside also ochreous. Both wings are suffused with reddish brown towards costa.Eggs hatch 2 to 5 days after laying, usually between July and October. The caterpillar undergoes five instars and completes the stage after 18–32 days. Then it undergo 2–3 days of prepupal stage and then 7–14 days of pupal stage. Emergence of adults was observed in July. The caterpillar is a pest on Diospyros melanoxylon.

Nakshatravana

Nakshatravana, also referred to as Nakshatravanam or Nakshatravan, is a sacred grove consisting of 27 trees that are related to 27 Nakshatras of Indian Astrology. The Nakshatras and the trees are as below:

Considering the diversity of plants involved, their medicinal value, and association with Nakshatras, many organisations are popularizing the creation of Nakshatravanam.

Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests

The Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests are a tropical dry forest ecoregion of central India. The ecoregion lies mostly in Madhya Pradesh state, but extends into portions of Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh states.

Protocatechuic acid

Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a dihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid. It is a major metabolite of antioxidant polyphenols found in green tea. It has mixed effects on normal and cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo studies.

Sambalpur district

Sambalpur District is a district in the western part of state of Odisha, India. The historic city of Sambalpur is the district headquarters.

The district is located in the Mahanadi River basin. It has a total area of 6,702 km2 (2,588 sq mi), of which almost 60% of the district is covered in dense forest. The district is bounded by Deogarh District to the east, Bargarh and Jharsuguda districts to the west, Sundergarh District to the north, and Subarnapur and Angul districts in the south.

Sambalpur City is the connecting city between Chhattisgarh and Odisha. Whereas it used to be known for its importance as a diamond trading centre, nowadays it is mainly known for its textiles, especially the Sambalpuri Saree.

Tendu

Tendu means "stretched" or "pulled" in French. It also may refer to:

Tendu, Indre, a commune in France

Tendu, local name of the tree Diospyros melanoxylon (East Indian Ebony)

battement tendu, a dance or ballet movement

Tendu, climbing technique

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