Dionisio Ridruejo

Dionisio Ridruejo Jiménez (12 October 1912 – 29 June 1975) was a Spanish poet and political figure associated with the Generation of '36 movement and a member of the Falange political party. He was co-author of the words to the Falangist anthem Cara al Sol.[1] In later years he fell from favour with the Francoist State and eventually became associated with opposition groups.

Dionisio Ridruejo
Mandos militares españoles en una estación de tren mue-209893 (cropped)
Dionisio Ridruejo Jiménez

12 October 1912
Died29 June 1975 (aged 62)
Known forPolitical activist
Notable work
Cara al Sol,
Escrito en España
Political partyFalange


Ridruejo was born in Burgo de Osma-Ciudad de Osma, Soria. A close friend of Ramón Serrano Suñer, his tireless work as a propagandist, as well as his short stature and swarthy appearance, earned him the early nickname of the "Spanish Joseph Goebbels".[2] Under Serrano Súñer's influence he was appointed as Minister of Propaganda to the cabinet of Francisco Franco in 1938.[3] A strong Falangist and as a result sometimes in conflict with the military tendency within Francoism, he was censured during the Spanish Civil War by General Álvarez-Arenas for producing propaganda leaflets in the Catalan language, with the military elite deciding that Spain's minority languages should be crushed rather than courted.[4]

Ridruejo's uneasiness with the conservative military elements of Franco's government was to prove his undoing. Thus his dismissal from the post of Propaganda Minister was secured in 1941 by his Cabinet colleague Colonel Valentín Galarza Morante after Ridruejo had published an article in Arriba condemning the hold that he felt the Colonel had over Franco. Galarza used his influence to ensure the dismissal of Ridruejo and he would not return to government thereafter.[5] He was also damaged by the fact that he had been active in support of Nazi Germany as other pro-Nazis such as Sancho Dávila y Fernández de Celis and Pedro Gamero del Castillo were dismissed at the same time.[6] Ridruejo volunteered for the Spanish Blue Division sent to fight as part of the German Army on the Eastern Front in Russia. He served from 1941 to 1942 before being invalided out.[7]

Anti-Franco activity

In 1955 the disillusioned Ridruejo set up a semi-clandestine club bringing together 'authentic' Falangists with communists, socialists and democrats (such as Enrique Múgica, Fernando Sánchez Dragó, Ramón Tamames, José María Ruiz Gallardón, and others) in a loose alliance united only by opposition to Francoist Spain.[8] His opposition activity saw him jailed briefly the following year and again in 1957 when he told the Cuban radical journal Bohemia that he was active in the illegal opposition.[8] By this point he had become involved with the Partido Social de Acción Democrática, an illegal opposition group that supported democratisation and a liberal cultural outlook, as well as left-wing economic ideas.[9]

By the early 1960s Ridruejo's opposition activity saw him living in exile in South America.[10] He published his autobiography, Escrito en España in Argentina in 1962 with the book also detailing his conversion from Falangism to social democracy which had occurred around this time.[11] He returned to Spain late in life and died in Madrid in 1975.


Ridruejo was a devotee of classical Spanish literature, as well as Dante and Plutarch and he produced poetry in a number of forms, ranging from Garcilaso de la Vega-styled sonnets to blank verse.[12] In the 1940s he was particularly noted for the religious tone of much of his poetry, often giving praise to God for His mercy.[13] His later works are marked by a growing theme of existential angst, inspired by his disillusionment with Franco and his increasingly impoverished circumstances due to his fall from grace.[9]

See also


  1. ^ E. de Blaye, Franco and the Politics of Spain, Penguin, 1976, p. 189
  2. ^ Walter Laqueur, Fascism: A Reader's Guide, Penguin, 1979, p. 316
  3. ^ Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-39, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006, p. 284
  4. ^ Beevor, p. 421
  5. ^ de Blaye, pp. 147-8
  6. ^ Philip Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, 1990, p. 145
  7. ^ https://www.revistadelibros.com/blogs/viaje-a-siracusa/los-cuadernos-de-rusia-de-dionisio-ridruejo
  8. ^ a b de Blaye, p. 189
  9. ^ a b Esther Nelson, "Ridruejo, Dionisio", in Germán Bleiberg, Maureen Ihrie, Janet Pérez (eds.), Dictionary of the Literature of the Iberian Peninsula, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1993, p. 1375
  10. ^ de Blaye, p. 388
  11. ^ Laqueur, p. 317
  12. ^ Nelson in Bleiberg et al., p. 1374
  13. ^ G.G. Brown, A Literary History of Spain - The Twentieth Century, Ernest Benn, 1974, p. 153
1912 in Spain

Events in the year 1912 in Spain.

Antonio Pagudo

Antonio Pagudo (2 February 1977) is a Spanish actor.

Café Gijón

Café Gijón (Also known as Gran Café de Gijón) is a culturally significant coffeehouse situated at No. 21, in the principal boulevard of central Madrid, Spain, which is known as Paseo de Recoletos. The café is opposite both a railway station of the same name and the National Library of Spain (BNE). The terrace in front is on the central walkway of the Paseo.

Café Novelty

The Café Novelty (Coffeehouse Novelty) is the oldest café in the city of Salamanca (Spain), which was founded in 1905 and is situated in the main square of the city, Plaza Mayor de Salamanca. Its first owners were the García brothers. From the beginning of the Spanish Civil War to 1964 it was named Café Nacional. It was 4 times bigger than it is nowadays and it very soon became a favorite meeting place for writers, artists and politicians, due to its privileged position in the city.The most outstanding patrons of the Café Novelty are Miguel de Unamuno, the Spanish philosopher that organized the literary social gathering (tertulia), Ortega y Gasset, Antonio Tovar, Juan Benet, Pedro Laín Entralgo, Francisco Umbral, Carmen Martín Gaite, Gonzalo Torrente Ballester and Víctor García de la Concha.

At its tables, in 1923, Dionisio Ridruejo decided to found the Football Club of Salamanca, and also the Spanish National Radio, between 1936 and 1937.From 1999, with the help of the members of the cultural society of Salamanca, a magazine of the café, "Los papeles del Novelty", has been published.

Cara al Sol

Cara al Sol (English: Facing the Sun) is the anthem of the Falange Española de las JONS. The lyrics were written in December 1935 and are usually credited to the leader of the Falange, José Antonio Primo de Rivera. The music was composed by Juan Tellería and Juan R. Buendia.

The circumstances of its creation are unusual. The Falangists needed a stirring song of their own to counter the popular appeal of El Himno de Riego (the official anthem of the Second Spanish Republic) and A las barricadas (a very popular Anarchist song).

To solve the problem, Primo de Rivera formed a committee [1], meeting on 2 December 1935 in the home of Marichu de la Mora Maura. Those present included José María Alfaro, Rafael Sánchez Mazas, Agustín (Así) de Foxá, Mourlane Michelena, Dionisio Ridruejo, Agustín Aznar, and Luis Aguilar. The result of their efforts, following a period of sub-committee review (at the Cueva del Orkompon, a Basque bar in Calle Miguel Moya, Madrid) was provisionally entitled the Himno de Falange Española. It was first performed in Madrid in 1936.

Its popularity was boosted by Primo de Rivera's execution on 20 November 1936 and his subsequent glorification by the Spanish Nationalists.

During the Spanish Civil War the Falange, which was since its inception quite military or paramilitary, like other equivalent youth parties in countries under totalitarian regimes, became an important part of the National Army (or National Movement), both ideologically and militarily, still as an independent organization but strengthening the regular insurgent army in the combat lines, which caused plenty of Falangist casualties, and Cara al sol was their anthem throughout "the war days", the lyrics acquiring an even more special signification for its remembering of the "fallen comrades".

In Francoist Spain, the Falange was merged with other far-right groups to form the "Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS", the only legal political party. Cara al Sol became an official hymn together with the Oriamendi, the hymn of the Carlist movement, often played alongside the official anthem, the Marcha Real, and was regarded as the battle song of the Spanish far right.

Since the transition to democracy, the song has often been played at far-right gatherings and rallies.


Falangism (Spanish: falangismo) was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the "Falange") as well as derivatives of it in other countries. Under the leadership of Francisco Franco, it largely became a authoritarian, conservative ideology connected with Francoist Spain.Opponents of Franco's changes to the party included former Falange leader Manuel Hedilla. Falangism places a strong emphasis on Catholic religious identity, though it has held some secular views on the Church's direct influence in society as it believed that the state should have the supreme authority over the nation. Falangism emphasized the need for total authority, hierarchy and order in society. Falangism is anti-communist, anti-democratic and anti-liberal; under Franco, the Falange abandoned its original anti-capitalist tendencies, declaring the ideology to be fully compatible with capitalism.The Falange's original manifesto, the "Twenty-Seven Points", declared Falangism to support the unity of Spain and the elimination of regional separatism, the establishment of a dictatorship led by the Falange, utilizing violence to regenerate Spain, and promoting the revival and development of the Spanish Empire. The manifesto supported a social revolution to create a national syndicalist economy that creates national syndicates of both employees and employers to mutually organize and control the economic activity, agrarian reform, industrial expansion and respect for private property with the exception of nationalizing credit facilities to prevent capitalist usury. It supports criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers as illegal acts. Falangism supports the state to have jurisdiction of setting wages. The Franco-era Falange supported the development of cooperatives such as the Mondragon Corporation because it bolstered the Francoist claim of the nonexistence of social classes in Spain during his rule.The Spanish Falange and its affiliates in Hispanic states across the world promoted a form of panhispanism known as hispanidad that advocated both cultural and economic union of Hispanic societies around the world.Falangism has attacked both the political left and the right as its "enemies", declaring itself to be neither left nor right, but a syncretic third position. However, scholarly sources reviewing Falangism place it on the far right.


El Garcilasismo (also known as Juventud Creadora or Creative Youth) is one of the main themes of Spanish post-civil-war poetry whose followers met in Café Gijón, Madrid.

The movement took its name from a magazine entitled "Garcilaso" which was first published in 1943, Garcilaso de la Vega was a Spanish soldier and poet who first introduced the Italian Renaissance verse forms into Spanish poetry in the early 16th Century. The first three editions of the magazine were edited by Jose Garcia Nieto. It enjoyed only a short life (up to number 36) and ceased publication in April 1946.

The Garcilasismo genre falls within a wider category of contemporary Spanish poetry which Damaso Alonso dubbed "poesía arraigada" (indicating "root" or primitive poetry).

Generation of '36

The Generation of '36 (Spanish: Generación del 36) is the name given to a group of Spanish artists, poets and playwrights who were working about the time of the Spanish Civil War (1936 and 1939).

The Generation of '36 was a literary movement that suffered harsh criticism and persecution that followed from the division of neighbors into winners and losers in the various battles of that struggle, as well as the physical hardships and moral miseries arising from social instability and political chaos. These were the ingredients that gave strength to their essentially existentialist philosophy.Ricardo Gullón listed some of the authors associated with this movement, since he was closely associated both as a contributor and literary critic of the genre.

Generation '36 membership criteria are not rigid, but the label provides a convenient portfolio of the cultural and literary style of the contemporary period, covering individual works, literary collections, magazines, journals newspapers, and other publications that document the experiences of creative people working during a difficult and frighting civil war.

Jordi Amat Fusté

Jordi Amat Fusté (born 1978, Barcelona) is a Spanish essayist, philologist, editor and cultural critic, expert in the 20th-century intellectual history of Catalonia and the rest of Spain. He writes in both the Catalan and Spanish languages.

José Caballero

José Caballero (11 June 1915 – 26 May 1991) was a Spanish painter.

He was one of the most varied artists (in technique, style and theme). His way of understanding painting during the surrounding the civil war showed little similarities during the period.

Juana Mordó

Juana Mordó (April 26, 1899 – March 12, 1984) was born in Thessaloniki, Greece and was an art dealer and gallery director in Madrid, Spain.

Levante Offensive

The Levante Offensive, launched near the end of March 1938, was an attempt by Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco to capture the Republican held city of Valencia during the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalists occupied the province of Castellón, but the offensive failed due to bad weather and the dogged resistance of the Republican troops at the XYZ defensive line.

List of people of the Spanish Civil War

This is a list of notable people associated with the Spanish Civil War.

Paulita Sedgwick

Paulita Sedgwick (7 December 1943 – 18 December 2009) was an artist, actress, and independent filmmaker best known for her performances on stage and roles in several films by Ismail Merchant and James Ivory.Paulita Sedgwick was born on 7 December 1943 in Washington, DC, the third of five children of Samuel Cabot Sedgwick and Paula Knipe Sedgwick. The Sedgwick family were well established in Massachusetts, and she was descended from Robert Sedgwick, the first Major General of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Oliver Cromwell, William Ellery, who was a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence, Judge Theodore Sedgwick, famously the first person to successfully plead for the freedom of a female slave (Elizabeth Freeman, also known as Mum Bett), and was related to Catharine Sedgwick, the novelist. She was also a cousin of the actresses Edie Sedgwick and Kyra Sedgwick, and her grandfather Ellery Sedgwick was the editor and then owner of The Atlantic magazine.Sedgwick's father served as a diplomat with the US State Department, and her early years were spent in Haiti, Spain, France, Colombia, Costa Rica, Japan, and the United States. During this time she learned to speak fluent Spanish and began a lifelong interest in travel and foreign cultures. In her teenage years she studied Islamic Art at the University of Madrid in Spain, where she lived with the family of the anti-Francist Dionisio Ridruejo, reportedly drawing the attention of the authorities (although this is not substantiated). Later she attended the Webber Douglas School of Singing and Dramatic Art in London, England, lodging with the family of Colonel Sir Piers Bengough.

Her interest in Islamic and other ancient arts was part of a greater fascination with antiquity and mythology, which Sedgwick used as inspiration for her own art. She wrote and illustrated two books which saw commercial success in the US during the 1970s, Circus ABC and Mythological Creatures, and also illustrated two more: the A to Z of Egyptian Mythology by Barbara Pradel Price and The Pluperfect of Love by Dorothy Crayder.

In the early 1970s Sedgwick moved to New York City, where she became a member of a fringe theatre group called the Hot Peaches and performed in numerous stage productions. During this time she became a lifelong friend of Isabelle Collin Dufresne (better known as Ultra Violet), and through Dufresne and her cousin Edie Sedgwick got to know Andy Warhol, although she never became a follower of The Factory. While in New York she dated Jimmy Hall, another stage actor, and in 1974 they had a son, Angel Sedgwick, who was to be her only child. During the mid 70s, Sedgwick and her son moved to Europe, where she spent a year travelling and performing street theatre. In 1977, they moved to Paris, where she learned French and began acting in films as well as stage productions, including supporting roles in Savages (1971), Quartet (1981), Les Uns et Les Autres (1981) and The Bunker (1981).

Throughout most of her adult life Sedgwick lived on the family's Santa Fe Ranch near Nogales, Arizona, but travelled extensively throughout South and Central America, Europe, the former Soviet Union, North Africa and South-East Asia. From the early 80s onwards she was an increasingly regular visitor to London, England, and became a doyenne of London's alternative scene whilst also becoming a member of such diverse institutions as the Royal Geographical Society, the Royal Horticultural Society, The Chelsea Arts Club, the National Liberal Club, the Soho social club Black's, and gay nightclubs such as Heaven and Madame Jojo's. She founded and edited a short-lived underground culture magazine called U-Topic, and her friends and acquaintances during this period included the fashion designers Vivienne Westwood, Pam Hogg and Alexander McQueen.

Inspired by the places she visited during her travels, the people she met there and local folklore, Sedgwick wrote, produced and directed a number of her own films under the company name Poker Productions, sometimes using the nom-de-plume Damian Wong. These included the short films Le Gymnase De La Rue D'Enfer (1984, in French), The Cowboy and the Chinagirl (1987), Valentin (1989, in Spanish), and The Yellow Motel (1991). In 1992 she wrote, produced and directed the feature film Blackout, which featured a soundtrack by the then unknown British dance music artist Jake Williams. Several of these films featured luminaries from the 1970s New York theatre and art scene such as Ultra Violet, and proponents of the London alternative scene including Eddie Tudor-Pole, the artist Duggie Fields and the jewellery designer Andrew Logan. Despite obtaining varying degrees of underground popularity none of these films met with any commercial success. In 1995 she made a set of four three-minute films for the British TV company Channel 4 called On The Loose, Fit To Be Tied (starring fashion designer Alexander McQueen), Double Take and The Assistant (starring the TV presenter Graham Norton), however these films were never shown on British television.

From the early 1990s she began to spend more and more time on her family's ranch in Arizona, where she became a member of the board on the Santa Fe Ranch Foundation, the Sedgwick family's non-profit trust, assisting with the delivery of educational programmes for local school children. After a protracted battle with several cancers she died on the Santa Fe Ranch on 18 December 2009.

Pedro Gamero del Castillo

Pedro Gamero del Castillo (20 November 1910, in Seville – 9 December 1984, in Madrid) was a Spanish politician and figure in the Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Democratic Socialist Party

The Spanish Democratic Socialist Party (Spanish: Partido Socialista Democrático Español, abbreviation PSDE) was a political party in Spain, active during the transition to democracy. The party was founded in 1975. The party sought to establish a democratic constitution in Spain. Antonio García López was the general secretary of the party.

Spanish Social Democratic Union

Spanish Social Democratic Union (in Spanish: Unión Social Demócrata Española, USDE) was a social liberal political party in Spain that opposed the Francoist State and wanted a liberal democracy in Spain. The USDE was founded in 1974 by Dionisio Ridruejo.

UD Salamanca

Unión Deportiva Salamanca, S.A.D. (Spanish pronunciation: [uˈnjon depoɾˈtiβa salaˈmaŋka]) was a Spanish football team based in Salamanca, in the autonomous community of Castile and León.

Founded on 16 March 1923 and nicknamed Los Charros, the club played in white shirts and black shorts, holding home games at Estadio El Helmántico, which seated 17,341 spectators.

Valentín Galarza Morante

Colonel Valentín Galarza Morante (1882 in El Puerto de Santa María – 1951 in Madrid) was a Spanish officer and right wing politician. He was associated with the monarchist tendency within the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista and was critical of the Falange.

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