Dinosaur Park Formation

The Dinosaur Park Formation is the uppermost member of the Belly River Group (also known as the Judith River Group), a major geologic unit in southern Alberta. It was laid down during the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous epoch between 76.9 and 75.8 million years ago.[1] It was deposited in alluvial and coastal plain environments, and it is bounded by the nonmarine Oldman Formation below it and the marine Bearpaw Formation above it.[4]

The Dinosaur Park Formation contains dense concentrations of dinosaur skeletons, both articulated and disarticulated, which are often found with preserved remains of soft tissues. Remains of other animals such as fish, turtles, and crocodilians, as well as plant remains, are also abundant.[5] The formation has been named after Dinosaur Provincial Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site where the formation is well exposed in the badlands that flank the Red Deer River.[3]

Dinosaur Park Formation
Stratigraphic range: Campanian, 76.9–75.8 Ma
[1]
Dinosaur Park Fm
Dinosaur Park Formation exposed along the Red Deer River in Dinosaur Provincial Park, southeastern Alberta, Canada.
TypeGeological formation
Unit ofBelly River Group
UnderliesBearpaw Formation
OverliesOldman Formation
Lithology
PrimarySandstone (lower)
Mudstone and siltstone (upper)
OtherBentonite and coal
Location
Region Alberta
Country Canada
Type section
Named forDinosaur Provincial Park
Named byEberth, D.A. and Hamblin, A.P., 1993.[2][3]

Geological setting

Dinosaur park formation fauna
Restoration of the megafaunal dinosaurs of the Dinosaur Park Formation. From left to right: Chasmosaurus, Lambeosaurus, Styracosaurus, Scolosaurus, Prosaurolophus, Panoplosaurus, and a herd of Styracosaurus in the background

The Dinosaur Park Formation is composed of sediments that were derived from the erosion of the mountains to the west. It was deposited on an alluvial to coastal plain by river systems that flowed eastward and southeastward to the Bearpaw Sea, a large inland sea that was part of the Western Interior Seaway. That sea gradually inundated the adjacent coastal plain, depositing the marine shales of the Bearpaw Formation on top of the Dinosaur Park Formation.[4]

The Dinosaur Park Formation is about 70 metres (230 ft) thick at Dinosaur Park. The lower portion of the formation was laid down in fluvial channel environments and consists primarily of fine- to medium-grained, crossbedded sandstones. The upper portion, which was deposited in overbank and floodplain environments, consists primarily of massive to laminated, organic-rich mudstones with abundant root traces, and thin beds of bentonite. The Lethbridge Coal Zone, which consists of several seams of low-rank coal interbedded with mudstones and siltstones, marks the top of the formation.[4]

The sediments of the Dinosaur Park Formation are similar to those of the underlying Oldman Formation and they were originally included in that formation. The two formations are separated by a regional disconformity, however, and are distinguished by petrographic and sedimentologic differences. In addition, articulated skeletal remains and bonebeds are rare in the Oldman Formation but abundant in the Dinosaur Park Formation.[3][4]

Biostratigraphy

The Dinosaur Park Formation can be divided into at least two distinct faunas. The lower part of the formation is characterized by the abundance of Corythosaurus and Centrosaurus. This group of species is replaced higher in the formation by a different ornithischian fauna characterized by the presence of Lambeosaurus and Styracosaurus. The appearance of several new, rare species of ornithischian at the very top of the formation may indicate that a third distinct fauna had replaced the second during the transition into younger, non-Dinosaur Park sediments, at the same time an inland sea transgresses onto land, but there are fewer remains here. An unnamed pachyrhinosaur, Vagaceratops irvinensis, and Lambeosaurus magnicristatus may be more common in this third fauna.[6][7]

The timeline below follows a synthesis presented by Fowler (2016)[1] with additional information from Arbour et al. 2009,[8] Evans et al. 2009, and Penkalski, 2013.[9] Megaherbivore Assemblage Zones (MAZ) follow data presented by Mallon et al., 2012.[10]

Amphibians

Remains of the following amphibians have been found in the formation:[11]

Albanerpetontidae (extinct, salamander-like amphibians)

Caudata (salamanders)

Salienta (frogs)

  • 2 unnamed salientans
  • Tyrrellbatrachus brinkmani[12]
  • Hensonbatrachus kermiti[13]

Dinosaurs

Remains of the following dinosaurs have been found in the formation:[8][14]

Ornithischians

Remains of the following ornithischians have been found in the formation:[15]

Ankylosaurs

Ankylosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Anodontosaurus

A. inceptus

An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid.

Dyoplosaurus

D. acutosquameus

Lower, 76.5Ma ago[8]

An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid.

Edmontonia

E. rugosidens

Lower, 76.5-75.9Ma ago[8]

A nodosaurine nodosaurid.

Edmontonia dinosaur

Euoplocephalus

E. tutus

Lower to Middle, ~76.4-75.6Ma[9]

An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid.

Euoplocephalus BW

Panoplosaurus

P. mirus

Middle, 75.6Ma ago[8]

"Partial skeleton with complete skull, osteoderms, additional isolated teeth, postcranial elements, osteoderms."[16]

A nodosaurine nodosaurid.

Panoplosaurus 055

Platypelta

P. coombsi

Lower, 77.5-76.5 MA[17]

An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid

Scolosaurus

S. cutleri

Lower, 76.5Ma ago or more[9]

An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid briefly thought to be synonymous with Euoplocephalus. It possibly came from the upper layers of the underlying Oldman Formation.[18]

Scolosaurus feeding

S. thronus

An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid.

Ceratopsians

An unnamed Pachyrhinosaurus-like taxon has been recovered from the formation.

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Ceratopsians reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Centrosaurus

C. apertus

Middle, 76.2-75.5Ma ago[8]

"[Fifteen] skulls, several skeletons, all adult; abundant bone-bed material with rare juveniles and subadults."[19] C. nasicornis may be a synonym.

A centrosaurine ceratopsid.

Centrosaurus

Chasmosaurus

C. belli

Middle, 76-75.5Ma ago[8]

"[Twelve] skulls, several skeletons."[19]

A chasmosaurine ceratopsid.

Chasmosaurus BW

C. russelli

Lower, 76.5-76Ma ago[8]

"[Six] complete or partial skulls."[20]

Mercuriceratops

M. gemini[21]

Lower, ~77Ma ago[21]

"one apomorphic squamosal"[21]

A chasmosaurine ceratopsid.

Mercuriceratops NT small

Monoclonius

M. lowei

A dubious centrosaurine ceratopsid.

Pentaceratops[22]

P. aquilonius[22]

Uppermost, 74.8 MA[22]

two frill fragments[22]

A dubious chasmosaurine ceratopsid that may be the same species as Spiclypeus shipporum.[23]

Pentaceratops BW

Spinops[24]

S. sternbergorum[24]

Lower, 76.5Ma[24]

"partial parietal bone, partial dentary, unidentifiable limb fragments, partial skull, and partial right squamosal."[24]

A centrosaurine ceratopsid.It may actually be from the upper Oldman Formation.[24]

Spinops NT

Styracosaurus

S. albertensis

Upper, 75.5-75.2Ma ago[8]

"[Two] skulls, [three] skeletons, additional material in bone beds."[19]

A centrosaurine ceratopsid.

Styracosaurus BW

Unescoceratops

U. koppelhusae

Partial lower jaw[25]

A leptoceratopsid thought to have been between one and two meters long and less than 91 kilograms. Its teeth were the roundest of all leptoceratopsids.

Vagaceratops

V. irvinensis

Upper, 75Ma ago[8]

"[Three] skulls, skeleton lacking tail."[20]

A chasmosaurine ceratopsid species previously classified as a species of Chasmosaurus.[26]

Vagaceratops NT

Ornithopods

At least one indeterminate hypsilophodont specimen has been recovered from the formation.

In a 2001 review of hadrosaur eggshell and hatchling material from the Dinosaur Park Formation, Darren H. Tanke and M. K. Brett-Surman concluded that hadrosaurs nested in both the ancient upland and lowlands of the formation's depositional environment.[27] The upland nesting grounds may have been preferred by the less common hadrosaurs, like Brachylophosaurus or Parasaurolophus. However, the authors were unable to determine what specific factors shaped nesting ground choice in the formation's hadrosaurs. They suggested that behavior, diet, soil condition, and competition between dinosaur species all potentially influenced where hadrosaurs nested.[28]

Sub-centimeter fragments of pebbly-textured hadrosaur eggshell have been reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation. This eggshell is similar to the hadrosaur eggshell of Devil's Coulee in southern Alberta as well as that of the Two Medicine and Judith River Formations in Montana, United States.[29] While present, dinosaur eggshell is very rare in the Dinosaur Park Formation and is only found in two different microfossil sites.[27] These sites are distinguished by large numbers of pisidiid clams and other less common shelled invertebrates like unionid clams and snails. This association is not a coincidence as the invertebrate shells would have slowly dissolved and released enough basic calcium carbonate to protect the eggshells from naturally occurring acids that otherwise would have dissolved them and prevented fossilization.[29]

In contrast with eggshell fossils, the remains of very young hadrosaurs are actually somewhat common. Darren Tanke has observed that an experienced collector could actually discover multiple juvenile hadrosaur specimens in a single day. The most common remains of young hadrosaurs in the Dinosaur Park Formation are dentaries, bones from limbs and feet, as well as vertebral centra. The material showed little or none of the abrasion that would have resulted from transport, meaning the fossils were buried near their point of origin.[30] Bonebeds 23, 28, 47, and 50 are productive sources of young hadrosaur remains in the formation, especially bonebed 50. The bones of juvenile hadrosaurs and fossil eggshell fragments are not known to have preserved in association with each other, despite both being present in the formation.[31]

Ornithopods reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Corythosaurus

C. casuarius

Lower-Middle, 76.5-75.5Ma ago[8]

"Approximately [ten] articulated skulls and associated postcrania, [ten to fifteen] articulated skulls, isolated skull elements, juvenile to adult."[32]

A lambeosaurin lambeosaurine hadrosaur.

Corythosaurus restoration

Gryposaurus

G. notabilis

Lower, 76.2-76Ma ago[8]

"Approximately [ten] complete skulls, [twelve] fragmentary skulls, associated postcrania."[33]

A kritosaurin saurolophine hadrosaur.

Gryposaurus-notabilis jconway

Lambeosaurus

L. lambei

Upper, 75.5-75Ma ago[8]

"Approximately [seven] articulated skulls with associated postcrania, [possibly ten] articulated skulls, isolated skull elements, juvenile to adult."[34]

LambeosaurusDB

L. magnicristatus

Upper/Bearpaw Formation, 74.8Ma ago[8]

"[Two] complete skulls, one with associated, articulated postcrania."[34]

Lambeosaurus magnicristatus DB

Parasaurolophus

P. walkeri

Lower, 76.5-75.3Ma ago[7]

"Complete skull and postcranial skeleton."[34]

A parasaurolophin lambeosaurine hadrosaur.

Parasaurolophus walkeri

Prosaurolophus

P. maximus

Upper, 75.5 – 74.8 Ma

"[Twenty to twenty-five] individuals, including at least [seven] articulated skulls and associated postcrania."[33]

A saurolophin saurolophine hadrosaur.

Prosaurolophus Maximus

Pachycephalosaurs

Pachycephalosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Foraminacephale

F. brevis

Also present in the Oldman Formation

Frontoparetal dome, various other skull fragments including juvenile and subadult material

Once thought to be a species of Stegoceras

Foraminacephale

Gravitholus

G. albertae

"Frontoparietal dome."[35]

Hanssuesia

H. sternbergi

Lower, also present in the Oldman Formation and Judith River Formation

Hanssuesia sternbergi

Stegoceras

S. validum

Specimens including frontoparietal dome.[35]

Stegoceras validum

Theropods

In the Dinosaur Park Formation, small theropods are rare due to the tendency of their thin-walled bones to be broken or poorly preserved.[36] Small bones of small theropods that were preyed upon by larger ones may have been swallowed whole and digested.[37] In this context, the discovery of a small theropod dinosaur with preserved tooth marks was especially valuable.[36] Possible indeterminate avimimid and therizinosaurid remains are known from the formation.

Ornithomimids

Ornithomimids reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Ornithomimus

O. sp.[38]

Type specimen

An ornithomimid, possibly a species of Struthiomimus.[39]

"Ornithomimus" sp. by Tom Parker

Rativates

R. evadens

Type specimen

An ornithomimid, formerly a specimen of Struthiomimus.[40]

Rativates

Struthiomimus

S. altus

Type specimen

An ornithomimid

Struthiomimus BW

Oviraptorosaurs

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Oviraptorosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Caenagnathus

C. collinsi

Mandible, type specimen

Caenagnathid [41]

Chirostenotes

C. pergracilis

Several fragmentary specimens, type specimen

Caenagnathids

Leptorhynchos

L. elegans

Several fragmentary specimens, type specimen

Caenagnathids

Macrophalangia

M. canadensis

Junior synonym of Chirostenotes pergracilis

Paravians

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Paravians reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

cf. Baptornis

Indeterminate

A hesperornithine bird

cf. Cimolopteryx

Indeterminate

Partial coracoid

A possible charadriiform bird

Dromaeosaurus

D. albertensis

Several specimens and teeth, type specimen

A dromaeosaurid

Dromaeosaurus Restoration

Hesperonychus

H. elizabethae

Hip bones and partial toes and claws, type specimen

A microraptorine dromaeosaur, also found in the Oldman Formation

Hesperonychus elizabethae

Latenivenatrix

L. mcmasterae

Hip bones, pelvis, skull fragments, type specimen

A troodontid

Latenivenatrix (white background)

cf. Palintropus

Unnamed

Partial shoulder girdles

An ambiortiform bird.

cf. Paronychodon

cf. P. lacustris

Teeth

An indeterminate maniraptoran, also found in the Judith River

cf. Pectinodon[42] Indeterminate Teeth A troodont

Richardoestesia

R. gilmorei

Mandible, type specimen

A dromaeosaurid.

Saurornitholestes

S. langstoni

Incomplete skeleton and teeth, type specimen. A dentary referred to Saurornitholestes was discovered that preserved tooth marks left by a young tyrannosaur.[43]

A dromaeosaurid

Saurornitholestes digging Burrows wahweap

Stenonychosaurus

S. inequalis

Nearly complete skeleton and other partial skeletons, type specimen.

A troodontid once thought to be a species of Troodon

Hand drawn Troodon

Tyrannosaurs

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Tyrannosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Daspletosaurus

Unnamed species[44]

Middle-Upper, 75.6-75Ma ago[8]

Several specimens

A tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurid, also present in the Bearpaw Formation

Daspletosaurus torosus steveoc

Gorgosaurus

G. libratus

Lower-Middle, 76.6-75.1Ma ago[8]

Numerous specimens, type specimen[44]

An albertosaurine tyrannosaurid

Gorgosaurus

Fish

Remains of the following fish have been found in the formation:[45]

Chondrichthyans

Acipenseriformes (sturgeons)

  • unnamed sturgeon
  • unnamed paddlefish
  • "Acipenser albertensis"
  • Anchiacipenser acanthaspis[47]

Holostean fish

Teleost fish

Invertebrates

Remains of the following invertebrates have been cound in the formation:[48]

Freshwater bivalves

  • Fusconaia
  • Lampsilis
  • Sphaerium (2 species)

Freshwater gastropods

  • Campeloma (2 species)
  • Elimia
  • Goniobasis (3 species)
  • Hydrobia
  • Lioplacodes (2 species)

Mammals

Remains of the following mammals have been found in the formation:[49]

Multituberculata

Metatherians

  • Alphadon halleyi
  • Eodelphis browni
  • E. cutleri
  • 5 species of "Pediomys"
  • Turgidodon russelli
  • T. praesagus

Eutherians

  • Cimolestes sp. (uncertain taxonomy)
  • Gypsonictops lewisi
  • Paranyctoides sternbergi

Unknown therians: at least 1 species

Plants

Plant body fossils

The following plant body fossils have been found in the formation:[50]

Gymnosperms

Ginkgos

Angiosperms

Palynomorphs

Palynomorphs are organic-walled microfossils, like spores, pollen, and algae. The following palynomorphs have been found in the formation:[51]

Unknown producers

  • at least 8 species

Fungi

Chlorophyta (green algae and blue-green algae)

Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates, a type of marine algae)

Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts)

Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)
  • at least 5 species
Marchantiophyta (liverworts)
  • at least 14 species
Bryophyta (mosses)
  • at least 5 species

Lycopodiophyta

Lycopodiaceae (club mosses)
  • at least 11 species
Selaginellaceae (small club mosses)
  • at least 6 species
Isoetaceae (quillworts)
  • at least 1 species

Polypodiophyta

Osmundaceae (cinnamon ferns)
  • at least 6 species
Schizaeaceae (climbing ferns)
  • at least 20 species
Gleicheniaceae (Gleichenia and allies; coral ferns)
  • at least 5 species
Cyatheaceae (Cyathea and allies)
  • at least 4 species
Dicksoniaceae (Dicksonia and allies)
  • at least 3 species
Polypodiaceae (ferns)
  • at least 4 species
Matoniaceae
  • at least 1 species
Marsileaceae
  • at least 1 species

Pinophyta (gymnosperms)

Cycadaceae (cycads)
  • at least 3 species
Caytoniaceae
  • at least 1 species
Pinaceae (pines)
  • at least 4 species
Cupressaceae (cypresses)
  • at least 3 species
Podocarpaceae (Podocarpus and allies)
  • at least 4 species
Cheirolepidiaceae
  • at least 2 species
Ephedraceae (Mormon teas)
  • at least 6 species

Unknown gymnosperms: at least 3 species

Magnoliophyta (angiosperms)

Magnoliopsida (dicots)
Buxaceae (boxwood)
  • at least 1 species
Gunneraceae (gunneras)
  • at least 1 species
Salicaceae (willows, cottonwood, quaking aspen)
  • at least 1 species
Droseraceae (sundews)
  • at least 1 species
Olacaceae (tallowwood)
  • at least 2 species
Loranthaceae (showy mistletoes)
  • at least 1 species
Sapindaceae (soapberry)
  • at least 1 species
Aceraceae (maples)
  • at least 1 species
Proteaceae (proteas)
  • at least 9 species
Compositae (sunflowers)
  • at least 1 species
Fagaceae (beeches, oaks, chestnuts)
  • at least 2 species
Betulaceae (birches, alders)
  • at least 1 species
Ulmaceae (elms)
  • at least 1 species
Chenopodiaceae (goosefoots)
  • at least 1 species
Liliopsida (monocots)
Liliaceae (lilies)
  • at least 6 species
Cyperaceae (sedges)
  • at least 1 species
Sparganiaceae (bur-reeds)
  • possibly 1 species
Unknown angiosperms: at least 88 species

Other reptiles

Choristoderes

Choristoderes, or champsosaurs, were aquatic reptiles. Small examples looked like lizards, while larger types were superficially similar to crocodilians. Remains of the following Choristoderes have been found in the formation:[52]

Crocodylians

Remains of the following Crocodylians have been found in the formation:[53]

Lizards

Remains of the following lizards have been found in the formation:[54]

Helodermatids

  • Labrodioctes

Necrosaurids

  • Parasaniwa

Teiids

Varanids

Xenosaurids

  • ?Exostinus

Plesiosaurs

Remains of the following Plesiosaurs have been found in the formation:[55]

Pterosaurs

Remains of the following Pterosaurs have been found in the formation:[56]

  • 1 large unnamed azhdarchid (giant, long-necked pterosaur)
  • 1 smaller unnamed azhdarchid
  • 1 unnamed non-azhdarchid pterosaur

Turtles

Remains of the following turtles have been found in the formation:[57]

Timeline of new taxa

The following timeline displays valid taxa first discovered in the dinosaur. Some species may have been referred to other genera subsequent to their initial description.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Fowler, D. (2016). A new correlation of the Cretaceous formations of the Western Interior of the United States, I: Santonian-Maastrichtian formations and dinosaur biostratigraphy. Peer J Preprints.
  2. ^ Lexicon of Canadian Geologic Units: Dinosaur Park Formation Archived 2013-02-21 at Archive.today
  3. ^ a b c Eberth, D.A. and Hamblin A.P. 1993. Tectonic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic significance of a regional discontinuity in the upper Judith River Group (Belly River wedge) of southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, and northern Montana. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30: 174-200.
  4. ^ a b c d Eberth, D.A. 2005. The geology. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p.54-82. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  5. ^ Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 277-291. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  6. ^ Ryan and Evans (2005).
  7. ^ a b Evans D.C.; Bavington R.; Campione N.E. (2009). "An unusual hadrosaurid braincase from the Dinosaur Park Formation and the biostratigraphy of Parasaurolophus (Ornithischia: Lambeosaurinae) from southern Alberta". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 46 (11): 791–800. Bibcode:2009CaJES..46..791E. doi:10.1139/E09-050.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Arbour, V. M.; Burns, M. E.; Sissons, R. L. (2009). "A redescription of the ankylosaurid dinosaur Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus Parks, 1924 (Ornithischia: Ankylosauria) and a revision of the genus". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (4): 1117–1135. doi:10.1671/039.029.0405.
  9. ^ a b c Penkalski, P. (2013). "A new ankylosaurid from the late Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana, USA". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. doi:10.4202/app.2012.0125.
  10. ^ Mallon, J. C., Evans, D. C., Ryan, M. J., & Anderson, J. S. (2012). Megaherbivorous dinosaur turnover in the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
  11. ^ Gardner, J.D. 2005. Lissamphibians. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 186-201. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  12. ^ "Fossilworks: Gateway to the Paleobiology Database". fossilworks.org. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  13. ^ "Fossilworks: Gateway to the Paleobiology Database". fossilworks.org. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  14. ^ Currie, P.J. 2005. Theropods, including birds. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 367-397. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  15. ^ Ryan, M.J., and Evans, D.C. 2005. Ornithischian dinosaurs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 312-348. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  16. ^ "Table 17.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 365.
  17. ^ Penkalski, Paul (2018). "Revised systematics of the armoured dinosaur Euoplocephalus and its allies". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen. 287 (3): 261–306. doi:10.1127/njgpa/2018/0717.
  18. ^ Penkalski, Paul (2013). "A new ankylosaurid from the late Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana, USA". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. doi:10.4202/app.2012.0125.
  19. ^ a b c "Table 23.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 495.
  20. ^ a b "Table 23.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 496.
  21. ^ a b c Ryan, Michael J.; Evans, David C.; Currie, Phillip J.; Loewen, Mark A. (2014). "A New chasmosaurine from northern Laramidia expands frill disparity in ceratopsid dinosaurs". Naturwissenschaften. doi:10.1007/s00114-014-1183-1
  22. ^ a b c d Nicholas R. Longrich (2014). "The horned dinosaurs Pentaceratops and Kosmoceratops from the upper Campanian of Alberta and implications for dinosaur biogeography". Cretaceous Research. 51: 292–308. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.06.011.
  23. ^ Jordan C. Mallon, Christopher J. Ott, Peter L. Larson, Edward M. Iuliano and David C. Evans (2016). "Spiclypeus shipporum gen. et sp. nov., a Boldly Audacious New Chasmosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Judith River Formation (Upper Cretaceous: Campanian) of Montana, USA". PLoS ONE. 11 (5): e0154218. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1154218M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154218. PMC 4871577. PMID 27191389.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  24. ^ a b c d e Farke, Andrew A.; Michael J. Ryan; Paul M. Barrett; Darren H. Tanke; Dennis R. Braman; Mark A. Loewen; Mark R. Graham (2011). "A new centrosaurine from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and the evolution of parietal ornamentation in horned dinosaurs" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 56 (4): 691–702. doi:10.4202/app.2010.0121.
  25. ^ Michael J. Ryan; David C. Evans; Philip J. Currie; Caleb M. Brown; Don Brinkman (2012). "New leptoceratopsids from the Upper Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada". Cretaceous Research. 35: 69–80. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.11.018.
  26. ^ Scott D. Sampson; Mark A. Loewen; Andrew A. Farke; Eric M. Roberts; Catherine A. Forster; Joshua A. Smith; Alan L. Titus (2010). "New Horned Dinosaurs from Utah Provide Evidence for Intracontinental Dinosaur Endemism". PLoS ONE. 5 (9): e12292. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...512292S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012292. PMC 2929175. PMID 20877459.
  27. ^ a b "Abstract," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 206.
  28. ^ "Conclusions," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 212.
  29. ^ a b "Eggshell," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 209.
  30. ^ "Introduction," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 208.
  31. ^ "Discussion," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 212.
  32. ^ "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 441.
  33. ^ a b "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 440.
  34. ^ a b c "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 442.
  35. ^ a b "Table 21.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 465.
  36. ^ a b "Introduction," Jacobsen (2001). Page 59.
  37. ^ "Discussion," Jacobsen (2001). Page 61.
  38. ^ Longrich, N. R. (2014). "The horned dinosaurs Pentaceratops and Kosmoceratops from the upper Campanian of Alberta and implications for dinosaur biogeography". Cretaceous Research, 51: 292. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.06.011
  39. ^ Longrich, N. (2008). "A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains." Palaeontology, 51(4): 983-997.
  40. ^ McFeeters, B. et al., "A new ornithomimid theropod from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada" Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology doi:10.1080/02724634.2016.1221415
  41. ^ Longrich, N. R.; Barnes, K.; Clark, S.; Millar, L. (2013). "Caenagnathidae from the Upper Campanian Aguja Formation of West Texas, and a Revision of the Caenagnathinae". Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 54: 23–49. doi:10.3374/014.054.0102.
  42. ^ Currie, Philip J.; Larson, Derek W. (2013-01-23). "Multivariate Analyses of Small Theropod Dinosaur Teeth and Implications for Paleoecological Turnover through Time". PLOS ONE. 8 (1): e54329. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054329. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3553132. PMID 23372708.
  43. ^ "Abstract," Jacobsen (2001). Page 58.
  44. ^ a b Currie, Philip J. (2003). "Cranial anatomy of tyrannosaurids from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 48 (2): 191–226.
  45. ^ Neuman, A.G., and Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Fishes of the fluvial beds. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 167-185. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  46. ^ "Fossilworks: Gateway to the Paleobiology Database". fossilworks.org. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  47. ^ Hiroki Sato; Alison M. Murray; Oksana Vernygora; Philip J. Currie (2018). "A rare, articulated sturgeon (Chondrostei: Acipenseriformes) from the Upper Cretaceous of Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Online edition (4): (1)-(15). doi:10.1080/02724634.2018.1488137.
  48. ^ Johnston, P.A., and Hendy, A.J.W. 2005. Paleoecology of mollusks from the Upper Cretaceous Belly River Group. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 139-166. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  49. ^ Fox, R.C. 2005. Late Cretaceous mammals. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 417-435. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  50. ^ Koppelhus, E.B. 2005. Paleobotany. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 131-138. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  51. ^ Braman, D.R., and Koppelhus, E.B. 2005. Campanian palynomorphs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 101-130. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  52. ^ K.Gao and Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Choristoderes from the Park and its vicinity. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 221-234. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  53. ^ Xiao-Chun Wu. 2005. Crocodylians. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 277-291. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  54. ^ Caldwell, M.W. The squamates: origins, phylogeny, and paleoecology. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds). 2005. ‘’Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 235-248. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  55. ^ Sato, T., Eberth, D.A., Nicholls, E.L., and Manabe, M. 2005. Plesiosaurian remains from non-marine to paralic sediments. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 249-276. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  56. ^ Godfrey, S.J., and Currie, P.J. 2005. Pterosaurs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 292-311. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  57. ^ Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Turtles: diversity, paleoecology, and distribution. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 202-220. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.

References

  • Arbour, V. M.; Burns, M. E.; Sissons, R. L. (2009). "A redescription of the ankylosaurid dinosaur Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus Parks, 1924 (Ornithischia: Ankylosauria) and a revision of the genus". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (4): 1117–1135. doi:10.1671/039.029.0405.
  • Braman, D.R., and Koppelhus, E.B. 2005. Campanian palynomorphs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 101-130.
  • Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Turtles: diversity, paleoecology, and distribution. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 202-220.
  • Caldwell, M.W. The squamates: origins, phylogeny, and paleoecology. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds). 2005. ‘’Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 235-248.
  • Currie, P.J. 2005. Theropods, including birds. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 367-397.
  • Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds). 2005. Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 648 p.
  • Eberth, D.A. 2005. The geology. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 54-82.
  • Fox, R.C. 2005. Late Cretaceous mammals. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 417-435.
  • K. Gao and Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Choristoderes from the Park and its vicinity. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 221-234.
  • Gardner, J.D. 2005. Lissamphibians. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 186-201.
  • Godfrey, S.J., and Currie, P.J. 2005. Pterosaurs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 292-311.
  • Johnston, P.A., and Hendy, A.J.W. 2005. Paleoecology of mollusks from the Upper Cretaceous Belly River Group. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 139-166.
  • Koppelhus, E.B. 2005. Paleobotany. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 131-138.
  • Lexicon of Canadian Geologic Units. "Dinosaur Park Formation". Archived from the original on 2013-02-21. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
  • Neuman, A.G., and Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Fishes of the fluvial beds. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 167-185.
  • Ryan, M.J., and Evans, D.C. 2005. Ornithischian dinosaurs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 312-348.
  • Sato, T., Eberth, D.A., Nicholls, E.L., and Manabe, M. 2005. Plesiosaurian remains from non-marine to paralic sediments. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 249-276.
  • Tanke, D.H. and Brett-Surman, M.K. 2001. Evidence of Hatchling and Nestling-Size Hadrosaurs (Reptilia:Ornithischia) from Dinosaur Provincial Park (Dinosaur Park Formation: Campanian), Alberta, Canada. pp. 206–218. In: Mesozoic Vertebrate Life—New Research Inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Edited by D.H. Tanke and K. Carpenter. Indiana University Press: Bloomington. xviii + 577 pp.
  • Xiao-Chun Wu. 2005. Crocodylians. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, 277-291.

Coordinates: 50°42′N 111°30′W / 50.7°N 111.5°W

Albertochampsa

Albertochampsa is an extinct genus of globidontan alligatoroid (possibly a stem-caiman) from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta. It was named in 1972 by Bruce Erickson, and the type species is A. langstoni. It is known from a skull from the Campanian-age Dinosaur Park Formation, where it was rare; Leidyosuchus is the most commonly found crocodilian at the Park. The skull of Albertochampsa was only about 21 centimeters long (8.3 in).

Caenagnathus

Caenagnathus ('recent jaw') is a genus of caenagnathid oviraptorosaurian dinosaur from the late Cretaceous (Campanian; ~75 million years ago). It is known from partial remains including lower jaws, a tail vertebra, hand bones, and hind limbs, all found in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada. Caenagnathus weighted about a maximum of 96 kg (212 lb).

Chasmosaurus

Chasmosaurus ( KAZ-mo-SAWR-əs) is a genus of ceratopsid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Period of North America. Its name means 'opening lizard', referring to the large openings (fenestrae) in its frill (Greek chasma meaning 'opening' or 'hollow' or 'gulf' and sauros meaning 'lizard'). With a length of 4.3–4.8 metres (14.1–15.7 ft) and a weight of 1.5–2 tonnes (1.7–2.2 short tons), Chasmosaurus was a ceratopsian of average size. Like all ceratopsians, it was purely herbivorous. It was initially to be called Protorosaurus, but this name had been previously published for another animal. All specimens of Chasmosaurus were collected from the Dinosaur Park Formation of the Dinosaur Provincial Park of Alberta, Canada. C. russelli comes from the lower beds of the formation while C. belli comes from middle and upper beds.

Corythosaurus

Corythosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid "duck-billed" dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Period, about 77–75.7 million years ago. It lived in what is now North America. Its name means "helmet lizard", derived from Greek κόρυς. It was named and described in 1914 by Barnum Brown. Corythosaurus is now thought to be a lambeosaurine, related to Nipponosaurus, Velafrons, Hypacrosaurus, and Olorotitan. Corythosaurus has an estimated length of 9 metres (30 ft), and has a skull, including the crest, that is 70.8 centimetres (27.9 in) tall.

Corythosaurus is known from many complete specimens, including the nearly complete holotype found by Brown in 1911. The holotype skeleton is only missing the last section of the tail, and part of the forelimbs, but was preserved with impressions of polygonal scales. Corythosaurus is known from many skulls with tall crests. The crests resemble the crests of the cassowary and a Corinthian helmet. The most likely function of the crest is thought to be vocalization. As in a trombone, sound waves would travel through many chambers in the crest, and then get amplified when Corythosaurus exhaled. A Corythosaurus specimen has been preserved with its last meal in its chest cavity. Inside the cavity were remains of conifer needles, seeds, twigs, and fruits: Corythosaurus probably fed on all of these.

The two species of Corythosaurus are both present in slightly different levels of the Dinosaur Park Formation. Both still co-existed with theropods and other ornithischians, like Daspletosaurus, Brachylophosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Scolosaurus, and Chasmosaurus.

Dyoplosaurus

Dyoplosaurus (meaning "double-armored lizard") is an extinct genus of ankylosaurid dinosaurs within the subfamily Ankylosaurinae. It is known from the lower levels of the Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation (latest middle Campanian stage, about 76.5 Ma ago) of Alberta, Canada. It contains a single species, Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus.

Gryposaurus

Gryposaurus (meaning "hooked-nosed (Greek grypos) lizard"; sometimes incorrectly translated as "griffin (Latin gryphus) lizard") was a genus of duckbilled dinosaur that lived about 83 to 74 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous (late Santonian to late Campanian stages) of North America. Named species of Gryposaurus are known from the Dinosaur Park Formation in Alberta, Canada, and two formations in the United States: the Lower Two Medicine Formation in Montana and the Kaiparowits Formation of Utah.

Gryposaurus is similar to Kritosaurus, and for many years the two were thought to be synonyms. It is known from numerous skulls, some skeletons, and even some skin impressions that show it to have had pyramidal scales projecting along the midline of the back. It is most easily distinguished from other duckbills by its narrow arching nasal hump, sometimes described as similar to a "Roman nose," and which may have been used for species or sexual identification, and/or combat with individuals of the same species. A large bipedal/quadrupedal herbivore around 9 meters (30 feet) long, it may have preferred river settings.

Hadrosauridae

Hadrosaurids (Greek: ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick"), or duck-billed dinosaurs, are members of the ornithischian family Hadrosauridae. This group is known as the duck-billed dinosaurs for the flat duck-bill appearance of the bones in their snouts. The family, which includes ornithopods such as Edmontosaurus and Parasaurolophus, was a common group of herbivores during the Late Cretaceous Period in what is now Asia, Europe, Antarctica, South America, and North America. Hadrosaurids are descendants of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous iguanodontian dinosaurs and had a similar body layout.

Like other ornithischians, hadrosaurids had a predentary bone and a pubic bone which was positioned backwards in the pelvis. Hadrosauridae is divided into two principal subfamilies: the lambeosaurines (Lambeosaurinae), which had hollow cranial crests or tubes; and the saurolophines (Saurolophinae), identified as hadrosaurines (Hadrosaurinae) in most pre-2010 works, which lacked hollow cranial crests (solid crests were present in some forms). Saurolophines tended to be bulkier than lambeosaurines. Lambeosaurines included the aralosaurins, tsintaosaurins, lambeosaurins and parasaurolophins, while saurolophines included the brachylophosaurins, kritosaurins, saurolophins and edmontosaurins.

Hadrosaurids were facultative bipeds, with the young of some species walking mostly on two legs and the adults walking mostly on four. Their jaws were evolved for grinding plants, with multiple rows of teeth replacing each other as the teeth wore down.

Leidyosuchus

Leidyosuchus (meaning "Leidy's crocodile") is an extinct genus of alligatoroid from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta. It was named in 1907 by Lawrence Lambe, and the type species is L. canadensis. It is known from a number of specimens from the middle Campanian age Dinosaur Park Formation. It was a medium-sized alligatorid, with a maximum skull length greater than 40 centimeters (16 in).A number of species had been assigned to this genus over the years, including: L. acutidentatus (Sternberg, 1932), from the Paleocene of Saskatchewan; L. formidabilis (Erickson, 1976), from the Paleocene of North Dakota and Wyoming; L. gilmorei (Mook, 1942), from the Campanian of Alberta; L. multidentatus (Mook, 1930); L. riggsi (Schmidt, 1938); L. sternbergii (Gilmore, 1910), from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming; and L. wilsoni (Mook, 1959), from the Eocene of Wyoming. However, in 1997 Chris Brochu reevaluated the genus and reassigned most of the species, transferring L. acutidentatus, L. formidabilis, L. sternbergii, and L. wilsoni to the new genus Borealosuchus, and L. multidentatus to the new genus Listrognathosuchus, proposing L. gilmorei as a synonym of L. canadensis, and finding L. riggsi to be too fragmentary to be determinable.

Oldman Formation

The Oldman Formation is a stratigraphic unit of Late Cretaceous (Campanian stage) age that underlies much of southern Alberta, Canada. It consists primarily of sandstones that were deposited in fluvial channel and floodplain environments. It was named for exposures along the Oldman River between its confluence with the St. Mary River and the city of Lethbridge, and it is known primarily for its dinosaur remains and other fossils.

Ornithomimus

Ornithomimus (; "bird mimic") is a genus of ornithomimid dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous Period of what is now North America. Ornithomimus was a swift bipedal theropod which fossil evidence indicates was covered in feathers, equipped with a small toothless beak that may indicate an omnivorous diet. It is usually classified into two species: the type species, Ornithomimus velox, and a referred species, Ornithomimus edmontonicus. O. velox was named in 1890 by Othniel Charles Marsh on the basis of a foot and partial hand from the late Maastrichtian-age Denver Formation of Colorado, United States. Another seventeen species have been named since, though most of them have subsequently been assigned to new genera or shown to be not directly related to Ornithomimus velox. The best material of species still considered part of the genus has been found in Alberta, Canada, representing the species O. edmontonicus, known from several skeletons from the early Maastrichtian Horseshoe Canyon Formation. Additional species and specimens from other formations are sometimes classified as Ornithomimus, such as Ornithomimus samueli (alternately classified in the genera Dromiceiomimus or Struthiomimus) from the earlier, Campanian-age Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta.

Platypelta

Platypelta is an extinct genus of herbivorous ankylosaurid dinosaurs within the subfamily Ankylosaurinae. It is known from the Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation (early Late Campanian stage, about 77.5-76.5 Ma ago) of southern Alberta, Canada. The type species is Platypelta coombsi.

Polyodontosaurus

Polyodontosaurus is a potentially dubious genus of troodontid dinosaur named in 1932 by Gilmore for a left dentary from the Dinosaur Park Formation. It had been considered a synonym of Stenonychosaurus or Troodon for a significant time, before being declared a nomen dubium.

Prosaurolophus

Prosaurolophus (; meaning "before Saurolophus", in comparison to the later dinosaur with a similar head crest) is a genus of hadrosaurid (or duck-billed) dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of North America. It is known from the remains of at least 25 individuals belonging to two species, including skulls and skeletons, but it remains obscure. Around 9 m (30 ft), its fossils have been found in the late Campanian-age Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation in Alberta, and the roughly contemporaneous Two Medicine Formation in Montana, dating to around 75.5-74.0 million years ago. Its most recognizable feature is a small solid crest formed by the nasal bones, sticking up in front of the eyes.

The type species is P. maximus, described by American paleontologist Barnum Brown of the American Museum of Natural History in 1916. A second species, P. blackfeetensis, was described by Jack Horner of the Museum of the Rockies in 1992. The two species were differentiated mainly by crest size and skull proportions.

Rativates

Rativates is a genus of ornithomimid theropod dinosaur from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta. The type species is Rativates evadens.

Scolosaurus

Scolosaurus is an extinct genus of ankylosaurid dinosaurs within the subfamily Ankylosaurinae. It is known from either the lower levels of the Dinosaur Park Formation or upper levels of the Oldman Formation (the location of the type specimen's quarry is uncertain) in the Late Cretaceous (latest middle Campanian stage, about 76.5 Ma ago) of Alberta, Canada. It contains two species, S. cutleri and S. thronus.

Stenonychosaurus

Stenonychosaurus (meaning "narrow claw lizard") is a genus of troodontid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada, as well as possibly the Two Medicine Formation. The type and only species, S. inequalis, was named by C.M. Sternberg in 1932, based on a foot, fragments of a hand, and some caudal vertebrae from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta. S. inequalis was reassigned in 1987 by Phil Currie to the genus Troodon, which was reverted by the recognition of Stenonychosaurus as a separate genus from the dubious Troodon in 2017 by Evans et al. and also later in the same year by Van der Reest and Currie.

Stephanosaurus

Stephanosaurus is a dubious genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur with a complicated taxonomic history.

In 1902, Lawrence Lambe named a new set of hadrosaurid limb material and other bones (originally GSC 419) from Alberta as Trachodon marginatus. Paleontologists began finding better remains of hadrosaurids from the same rocks in the 1910s, in what is now known as the late Campanian-age (Upper Cretaceous) Dinosaur Park Formation.

Lambe assigned two new skulls to T. marginatus, and based on the new information, coined the genus Stephanosaurus for the species in 1914. Lambe retained the original species marginatus, so the type specimen of Stephanosaurus was the original, scrappy limb bones and crushed skull fragments, not the two new skulls.

However, the limb bones and skull fragments could not be reliably said to come from the same animal as the complete skulls, or differentiated from other hadrosaurs. Because there was very little to associate the complete skulls with the scrappy earlier marginatus material, in 1923 William Parks proposed a new genus and species for the skulls, with both generic and specific names honoring Lambe: Lambeosaurus lambei (type specimen NMC 2869, originally GSC 2869). Stephanosaurinae, a group which Lambe named in 1920, was also renamed Lambeosaurinae.

Troodon

Troodon ( TROH-ə-don; Troödon in older sources) is a former wastebasket taxa and a potentially dubious genus of relatively small, bird-like dinosaurs known definitively from the Campanian age of the Cretaceous period (about 77 mya). It includes at least one species, Troodon formosus, known from Montana. Discovered in October 1855, T. formosus was among the first dinosaurs found in North America, although it was thought to be a lizard until 1877. Several well-known troodontid specimens from the Dinosaur Park Formation in Alberta were once believed to be members of this genus. However, recent analyses in 2017 have found the genus to be undiagnostic and referred some of these specimens to the genus Stenonychosaurus (long believed to be synonymous with Troodon) and others to the newly created genus Latenivenatrix.

The genus name is Greek for "wounding tooth", referring to the teeth, which were different from those of most other theropods known at the time of their discovery. The teeth bear prominent, apically oriented serrations. These "wounding" serrations, however, are morphometrically more similar to those of herbivorous reptiles, and suggest a possibly omnivorous diet.

Vagaceratops

Vagaceratops (meaning "wandering (vagus, Latin) horned face", in reference to its close relationship with Kosmoceratops from Utah) is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaur. It is a chasmosaurine ceratopsian which lived during the Late Cretaceous period (late Campanian) in what is now Alberta. Its fossils have been recovered from the Upper Dinosaur Park Formation.

Hydrocarbon history
Depositional regions
Southern Alberta plains

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