Dinmukhamed Kunaev

Dinmukhamed Akhmetuly "Dimash" Kunaev (Kazakh: Дінмұхаммед (Димаш) Ахметұлы Қонаев, Dіnmuhammed (Dımash) Ahmetuly Qonaev; Russian: Динмухаммед Ахмедович Кунаев; 12 January 1912 [O.S. 31 December 1911] – 22 August 1993) was a Kazakh Soviet communist politician.[1]

Dinmukhamed Kunaev
Дінмұхамед Қонаев
Dіnmuhamed Qonaev
Dinmuhkamed Konayev
First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan
In office
7 December 1964 – 16 December 1986
Preceded byIsmail Yusupov
Succeeded byGennady Kolbin
In office
19 January 1960 – 26 December 1962
Preceded byNikolay Belyayev
Succeeded byIsmail Yusupov
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR
In office
26 December 1962 – 7 December 1964
Preceded byMasymkhan Beysembayev
Succeeded byMasymkhan Beysembayev
In office
31 March 1955 – 29 January 1960
Preceded byElubay Taibekov
Succeeded byZhumabek Tashenev
Full member of the 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th Politburo
In office
9 April 1971 – 28 January 1987
Candidate member of the 23rd Politburo
In office
8 April 1966 – 9 April 1971
Personal details
Born12 January 1912
Verny, Semirechye Oblast, Russian Empire
Died22 August 1993 (aged 81)
Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan
NationalityKazakh
Political partyCommunist Party of the Soviet Union

Early life

Kunaev, the son of a Kazakh clerk, was born at Verny, now Almaty, and grew up in a middle-income family. He graduated from the Institute of Non-Ferrous and Fine Metallurgy in Moscow in 1936, which enabled him to become a machine operator. By 1939 he had become engineer-in-chief of the Pribalkhashatroi mine, and joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), a condition of the position.[1]

Career

Kunaev was deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR from 1942 to 1952. In 1947, 1951, 1955 and 1959 he also was a deputy in the Kazakh SSR Supreme Soviet. Kunaev's rise in Communist Party ranks had been closely tied to that of Leonid Brezhnev's. Khrushchev appointed Panteleymon Ponomarenko as the first secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, and Leonid Brezhnev as the second secretary, in February 1954.[2] Soon, Kunaev and Brezhnev developed a close friendship which lasted until the death of Brezhnev. Brezhnev became the first secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan in 1955 and a member of CPSU Politburo in 1956. When Brezhnev left Kazakhstan in 1956, I. Iakovlev became the First Secretary of the Kazakh Communist Party. Kunaev had to wait until 1960 to attain the post.

Kunaev was an ardent supporter of the Virgin Lands campaign, which opened millions of hectares of lands in central Kazakhstan to agricultural development and caused a large influx of Russian immigrants into Kazakhstan. In 1962 he was dismissed from his position as he disagreed with Khrushchev's plans to incorporate some lands in Southern Kazakhstan into Uzbekistan. Ismail Yusupov, a supporter of the plan, replaced Kunaev. He became first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan again in 1964 when Khrushchev was ousted and replaced by Brezhnev.[3] He kept his position for twenty-two more years.[4] He was an alternate member of the Politburo from 1967, and a full member from 1971 to 1987.

During Kunaev's long rule, Kazakhs occupied prominent positions in the bureaucracy, economy and educational institutions. A Brezhnev loyalist, he was removed from office under pressure from Mikhail Gorbachev, who accused him of corruption.[4][5] On 16 December 1986 the Politburo replaced him with Gennady Kolbin, who had never lived in the Kazakh SSR before. This provoked street riots in Almaty, which were the first signs of ethnic strife during Gorbachev's tenure.[6][7] In modern Kazakhstan, this revolt is called Jeltoqsan, meaning December in Kazakh.

Legacy

E8546-Almaty-Kunaev-Square
Kunaev Monument in Almaty

Kunaev was awarded the Gold Star of Hero of Socialist Labour three times.[5] He spent the last years of his life in charitable activity, establishing the 'Dinmukhamed Kunaev Foundation', one of whose purposes was the support of political reform in Kazakhstan.[8] An institute and a street in Almaty have been named after him as well as an avenue in downtown Astana.[9]

References

  1. ^ a b Vronskaya, Jeanne (24 August 1993) "Obituary: Dinmukhamed Kunayev". The Independent London, Gazette Section, p. 18.
  2. ^ Dornberg, John (1991) Brezhnev: the Masks of Power, London: Andre Deutsch, ISBN 0465007562, p. 133.
  3. ^ Kunaev, Dinmukhammed (1992) O Moem Vremeni, Almaty: Dauir.
  4. ^ a b Drexel, John (1991) "Kunayev, Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich (1912– )" The Facts on File Encyclopedia of the Twentieth Century Facts on File, New York, ISBN 0-8160-2461-8
  5. ^ a b "Memorial plaque put up in Alma-Ata for ex-communist boss" ITAR-TASS news agency: BBC Summary of World Broadcasts British Broadcasting Company (16 January 1995)
  6. ^ Putz, Catherine (16 December 2016). "1986: Kazakhstan's Other Independence Anniversary". The Diplomat. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  7. ^ "Kazakh Reformist Party for Renaming Town after Soviet-era Leader" Global News Wire – Asia Africa Intelligence Wire British Broadcasting Company (23 August 2004)
  8. ^ Ardayev, Vladimir (Izvestia staff) (24 August 1993) "Dinmukhamed Kunayev Dies" The Current Digest of the Soviet Press 45(34): p. 28
  9. ^ Айкын. "105 years since the birth of Dinmukhamed Kunayev". library.kz. Retrieved 2017-10-31.

External links

1993

1993 (MCMXCIII)

was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1993rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 993rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1990s decade.

Akezhan Kazhegeldin

Akezhan Kazhegeldin (Kazakh: Әкежан Мағжанұлы Қажыгелдин, Ákejan Maǵjanuly Qajygeldın, ٵكەجان ماعجانۇلى قاجىگەلدئن; born on 27 March 1952 in the Zharma District, Kazakh SSR) served as the 2nd Prime Minister of Kazakhstan from 12 October 1994 until his resignation on 10 October 1997, ostensibly for health reasons, though many saw it as an act protesting authoritarianism in Kazakhstan.

Alikhan Bukeikhanov

Alikhan Nurmukhameduly Bukeikhanov (Kazakh: Álihan Nurmuhameduly Bókeıhanov; Russian: Алихан Нурмухамедович Букейханов; March 5, 1866 – September 27, 1937) was a Kazakh statesman, politician, publicist, teacher, writer and environmental scientist who served as the Prime Minister of the Alash Autonomy from 1917 to 1920. He was leader and founder of the Alash Orda national liberation movement.

Askar Mamin

Askar Uzakbaiuly Mamin (Kazakh: Аsqar Uzаqbаıuly Маmın; born 23 October 1965) is the current Prime Minister of Kazakhstan. He served as First Deputy Prime Minister from 9 September 2016 to 21 February 2019. Previously he was the President of the Kazakhstan Temir Zholy, the national railway company of Kazakhstan. He also serves as the President of the Kazakhstan Ice Hockey Federation, a position he assumed in 2008.He previously served as Mayor of Astana (2006-2008) and Minister of Transport and Communication in the Government of Kazakhstan (2005-2006).

Mamin is a member of the ruling Nur Otan political party.

Bakhytzhan Sagintayev

Bakhytzhan Abdiruly Sagintayev (Kazakh: Бақытжан Әбдірұлы Сағынтаев, Baqytjan Ábdiruly Saǵyntaev, born 13 October 1963) is a Kazakh politician who was a Prime Minister of Kazakhstan, having taken office on 8 September 2016. He was replaced by Askar Mamin on 21 February 2019 when the government resigned.

Daniyal Akhmetov

Daniyal Kenzhetayuly Akhmetov (Kazakh: Даниал Кенжетайұлы Ахметов, Danıal Kenjetaıuly Ahmetov) (born 15 June 1954) is a Kazakh politician who was the 6th Prime Minister of Kazakhstan from 13 June 2003 to 9 January 2007.Critics refer to him as "The Terminator", a nickname he gained as Governor of Pavlodar Province for his actions in suppressing supporters of Ghalymzhan Zhaqiyanov, the previous Governor. On 8 January 2007 he resigned as Prime Minister. He did not say why, but President Nursultan Nazarbayev had criticized him in 2006 for overspending and other administrative errors. President Nazarbayev accepted his resignation, and immediately appointed him Acting Prime Minister.Akhmetov was included as Minister of Defense in the government that took office on 10 January 2007. He was dismissed from that post in June 2009. On 11 November 2014 he was appointed as Governor of the East Kazakhstan Region.

Gennady Kolbin

Gennady Vasilevich Kolbin (Russian: Геннадий Васильевич Колбин; born on 7 May 1927 in Nizhny Tagil – 15 January 1998) was the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR from December 16, 1986 to June 22, 1989.

Kolbin had not worked in the Kazakh SSR prior to his appointment. He was appointed by Mikhail Gorbachev in an attempt to root out corruption in the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR.

As an outsider to Kazakhstan, he was not well received there. His appointment resulted in violent protests in the Kazakh capital Almaty and other cities, with several protesters killed and hundreds injured. This revolt is now known as "Jeltoqsan", the Kazakh for "December". It is reported that the outgoing first secretary, Dinmukhamed Kunaev, participated in organizing the protests, which involved 60,000 protesters.In June 1989, Kolbin was replaced by Kazakh Nursultan Nazarbayev. Kolbin was then transferred to a position in Moscow.

Imangali Tasmagambetov

Imangali Nurgaliuly Tasmagambetov (Kazakh: Imаnǵаlı Nurǵаlıuly Таsmаǵаmbеtоv; born 9 December 1956) is a Kazakh politician and is the current Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Kazakhstan to the Russian Federation since February 3, 2017. He served as Deputy Prime Minister of Kazakhstan from September 2016 to February 2017. He served as Minister of Defense of Kazakhstan from October 2014 to September 2016. He was the mayor of Astana from April 2008 to October 2014. From December 2004 to April 2008 he was the mayor of Almaty. Before that, from 28 January 2002 to 11 June 2003, he was the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan.

Tasmaghambetov said that he resigned as prime minister after finding out about the falsification of a positive vote of confidence in his administration that was taken on 19 May 2003. His resignation resulted in the dismissal of all members of his cabinet, as required by the Constitution of Kazakhstan.

Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev replaced Tasmaghambetov with Pavlodar Oblysy Governor Daniyal Akhmetov on 13 June 2003. Akhmetov pledged to maintain many of Tasmaghambetov's policies.

Jeltoqsan

The Jeltoqsan (Kazakh: Желтоқсан көтерілісі, Jeltoqsan kóterilisi) or "December" of 1986 were riots that took place in Alma-Ata (present-day Almaty), Kazakhstan, in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's dismissal of Dinmukhamed Kunaev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and an ethnic Kazakh, and his appointment of Gennady Kolbin, an outsider from the Russian SFSR. Some sources cite Kolbin's ethnicity as Russian, others as Chuvash.

The events lasted from 16 December until 19 December 1986. The protests began in the morning of 17 December, as a student demonstration attracted thousands of participants as they marched through Brezhnev Square (present-day Republic Square) across to the CPK Central Committee building. As the result, internal troops and OMON forces entered the city, violence erupted throughout the city. In the following days, protests spread to Shymkent, Taldykorgan, and Karaganda.

Karim Massimov

Karim Qajymqanuly Massimov (Kazakh: Kárim Qajymqanuly Másimov, [kæɾɪm qɑʑəmqɑˈnʊlə mæsɪmof]; born 15 June 1965) is a Kazakh politician who served as Prime Minister of Kazakhstan from 10 January 2007 to 24 September 2012 and again from 2 April 2014 to 8 September 2016.

Massimov served as Deputy Prime Minister from 19 January 2006 to 9 January 2007 and as Minister of Economy and Budget Planning, Minister of Transport and Communications in 2001. President Nazarbayev nominated Massimov to succeed Daniyal Akhmetov as Prime Minister on 9 January 2007. The Nur Otan party endorsed Massimov's candidacy and Parliament confirmed the nomination on 10 January.

On 24 September 2012, Massimov's premiership ended when President Nazarbayev moved him to the position of chief of staff of the presidential office; according to Reuters, the move was designed to readjust the power balance between various factions within the government.

Kassym-Jomart Tokayev

Kassym-Jomart Kemelevich Tokayev (Kazakh: Қасым-Жомарт Кемелұлы Тоқаев, Qasym-Jomart Kemeluly Toqaev, [qɑˈsəm ʒɔˈmɑrt cɛˌmɛluˈlə tɔˈqɑjɪf], Russian: Касым-Жомарт Кемелевич Токаев, [kɐˈsɨm ʐɐˈmart kʲɪˈmɛlʲɪvɪt͡ɕ tɐˈkajɪf], born 17 May 1953) is a Kazakh politician and diplomat. He took office as the President of Kazakhstan on 20 March 2019, succeeding Nursultan Nazarbayev who resigned on 19 March 2019 after 29 years in office. He was Chairman of the Senate of Kazakhstan from 16 October 2013 to 19 March 2019 and from 11 January 2007 to 15 April 2011. Tokayev served as Prime Minister of Kazakhstan from 1 October 1999 to 28 January 2002 and as Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva from 12 March 2011 to 16 October 2013.

Kunaev Street (Almaty)

Kunaev Street (Kazakh: Қонаев көшесі; Russian: улица Кунаева) is one of the main streets in the city of Almaty that is named after Dinmukhamed Kunaev.

Nurlan Balgimbayev

Nurlan Utebovich Balgimbayev (Kazakh: Нұрлан Өтепұлы Балғымбаев, Nurlan Ótepuly Balǵymbaev; 20 November 1947 – 14 October 2015) was Prime Minister of Kazakhstan from 10 October 1997 to 1 October 1999. He became President of the Kazakhstan Oil Investment Company in February 2002.

Nursultan Nazarbayev

Nursultan Äbishuly Nazarbayev (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh politician who is currently the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan who served as the first President of Kazakhstan, in office from 24 April 1990 until his resignation on 19 March 2019. He was named First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 and was elected as the nation's first president following its independence from the Soviet Union. He holds the title "Leader of the Nation". In April 2015, Nazarbayev was re-elected with almost 98% of the vote, as he ran "virtually unopposed".Nazarbayev has been accused of human rights abuses by several human rights organisations and according to The Guardian has suppressed dissent and presided over an authoritarian regime. No election held in Kazakhstan since independence has been judged to be free or fair by the West. In 2010, he announced reforms to encourage a multi-party system. In January 2017, Nazarbayev proposed constitutional reforms that would delegate powers to the Parliament of Kazakhstan.

Prime Minister of Kazakhstan

The Prime Minister of Kazakhstan is the head of government of Kazakhstan and the second most powerful person in the country after the President of Kazakhstan. The Prime Minister heads the cabinet and advises the President in the every day execution of the functions of the Parliament of Kazakhstan.

Sergey Tereshchenko

Sergey Tereshchenko (Russian: Сергей Александрович Терещенко, born 30 March 1951) is a Kazakhstani politician. He served as Prime Minister of Kazakhstan from 14 October 1991 to 12 October 1994.

Serik Akhmetov

Serik Nyghmetuly Akhmetov (Kazakh: Серік Нығметұлы Ахметов; born 25 June 1958) was Prime Minister of Kazakhstan from 2012 to 2014. He served as the Minister of Defense from April to October 2014.

Akhmetov served for a time as Deputy Governor of Astana before being appointed to the Government of Kazakhstan as Minister of Transportation on 25 September 2006. He has also served as Chairman of the Board of the Atameken National Union of Entrepreneurs and Employers of Kazakhstan since 2005. President Nursultan Nazarbayev appointed Akhmetov as Prime Minister following the resignation of Karim Massimov on 24 September 2012.

Uraz Isayev

Uraz Isayev (May 28, 1899 - August 29, 1938) was a Kazakh Soviet politician. He was prime minister of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (May 1929 - December 1936) and the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (December 1936 - September 1937). He was a candidate member of the Central Committee elected by the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) from 1934 to October 12, 1937 and a full member until May 31, 1938. He was arrested and executed during the Great Purge. He was rehabilitated on May 19, 1956.

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