Dinar

The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries and was used historically in several more.

The modern dinar's historical antecedents are the gold dinar, the main coin of the medieval Islamic empires, first issued in AH 77 (696–697 AD) by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. The word is derived from the silver denarius coin of ancient Rome, first minted about 211 BC.

Coin of Stefan Uroš I
Silver dinar from the reign of Serbian king Stefan Uroš I (1243–1276).

The English word "dinar" is the transliteration of the Arabic دينار (dīnār), which was borrowed via the Syriac dīnarā from the Greek δηνάριον (dēnárion), itself from the Latin dēnārius.[1][2]

A gold coin known as the dīnāra was also introduced to India by the Kushan Empire in the 1st century AD, and adopted by the Gupta Empire and its successors up to the 6th century.[3][4] The modern gold dinar is a projected bullion gold coin, so far not issued as official currency by any state.

Dinar
Nations in dark green currently use the dinar. Nations in light green previously used the dinar. Yugoslav states are inset to the lower left.

Legal tender

Countries currently using a currency called "dinar" or similar

Dinar of Abd al-Malik, AH 75
Umayyad Caliphate golden dinar.
Countries Currency ISO 4217 code
 Algeria Algerian dinar DZD
 Bahrain Bahraini dinar BHD
 Iraq Iraqi dinar IQD
 Jordan Jordanian dinar JOD
 Kuwait Kuwaiti dinar KWD
 Libya Libyan dinar LYD
 North Macedonia Macedonian denar MKN (1992–1993)
MKD (1993− )
 Serbia Serbian dinar RSD

CSD (2003-2006)

 Tunisia Tunisian dinar TND

Countries and regions which have previously used a currency called "dinar" in the 20th century

Offa king of Mercia 757 793 gold dinar copy of dinar of the Abassid Caliphate 774
A mancus or gold dinar of the English king Offa of Mercia (757–796), a copy of the dinars of the Abbasid Caliphate (774). It combines the Latin legend OFFA REX with Arabic legends. (British Museum)
Countries Currency ISO 4217 code Used Replaced by
 Abu Dhabi Bahraini dinar BHD 1966–1973 United Arab Emirates Dirham
 Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina dinar BAD 1992–1998 Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark
 Croatia Croatian dinar HRD 1991–1994 Croatian kuna
 Iran Iranian rial was divided into at first 1250 and then 100 dinars
 Republika Srpska Republika Srpska dinar n/a 1992–1998 Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark
 South Yemen South Yemeni dinar YDD 1965–1990 Yemeni rial
 Sudan Sudanese dinar SDD 1992–2007 Sudanese pound
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
 SFR Yugoslavia
 FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslav dinar YUD (1965–1989)
YUN (1990–1992)
YUR (1992–1993)
YUO (1993)
YUG (1994)
YUM (1994–2003)
1918–2003 n/a

The 8th century English king Offa of Mercia minted copies of Abbasid dinars struck in 774 by Caliph Al-Mansur with "Offa Rex" centered on the reverse.[5][6] The moneyer visibly had no understanding of Arabic as the Arabic text contains many errors. Such coins may have been produced for trade with Islamic Spain.

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition, 1989, s.v. dinar; online version November 2010
  2. ^ Versteegh, C. H. M.; Versteegh, Kees (2001). The Arabic Language. Edinburgh University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-7486-1436-3.
  3. ^ Friedberg, Arthur L.; Friedberg, Ira S. (2009). Gold Coins of the World: From Ancient Times to the Present. Coin & Currency Institute. p. 457. ISBN 978-0-87184-308-1.
  4. ^ Mookerji, Radhakumud (2007). The Gupta Empire. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-81-208-0440-1.
  5. ^ British Museum
  6. ^ Medieval European Coinage By Philip Grierson p.330

External links

Algerian dinar

The dinar (Arabic: دينار‎, Berber language: Dinar or Menkuc, French 'Dinar'; sign: DA; code: DZD) is the monetary currency of Algeria and it is subdivided into 100 centimes. Centimes are now obsolete due to their extremely low value.

Bahraini dinar

The dinar (Arabic: دينار‎ Dīnār Baḥrēnī) (sign: .د.ب or BD; code: BHD) is the currency of Bahrain. It is divided into 1000 fils (فلس). The name dinar derives from the Roman denarius. The dinar was introduced in 1965, replacing the Gulf rupee at a rate of 10 rupees = 1 dinar. The Bahraini dinar is abbreviated .د.ب (Arabic) or BD (Latin). It is usually represented with three decimal places denoting the fils.

Dinar Sara

Dinar Sara (Persian: دينارسرا‎, also Romanized as Dīnār Sarā) is a village in Tameshkol Rural District, Nashta District, Tonekabon County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 718, in 180 families.

Gold dinar

The gold dinar (Arabic: ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ذهبي‎) is an Islamic medieval gold coin first issued in AH 77 (696–697 CE) by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. The weight of the dinar is 1 mithqal (4.25 grams).

The word dinar comes from the Latin word denarius, which was a silver coin. The name "dinar" is also used for Sasanid, Kushan, and Kidarite gold coins, though it is not known what the contemporary name was.

The first dinars were issued by the Umayyad Caliphate. Under the dynasties that followed the use of the dinar spread from Islamic Spain to Central Asia.

ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables:

Table A.1 – Current currency & funds code list

Table A.2 – Current funds codes

Table A.3 – List of codes for historic denominations of currencies & fundsThe tables, history and ongoing discussion are maintained by SIX Interbank Clearing on behalf of ISO and the Swiss Association for Standardization.The ISO 4217 code list is used in banking and business globally. In many countries the ISO codes for the more common currencies are so well known publicly that exchange rates published in newspapers or posted in banks use only these to delineate the currencies, instead of translated currency names or ambiguous currency symbols. ISO 4217 codes are used on airline tickets and international train tickets to remove any ambiguity about the price.

Iraqi dinar

The Dinar (Arabic pronunciation: [diːˈnɑːr]) (Arabic: دينار, (sign: د.ع; code: IQD) is the currency of Iraq. It is issued by the Central Bank of Iraq and is subdivided into 1,000 fils (فلس), although inflation has rendered the fils obsolete since 1990.

Jordanian dinar

The Jordanian dinar (Arabic: دينار‎; code: JOD; unofficially abbreviated as JD) has been the currency of Jordan since 1950.

The Jordanian dinar is also widely used alongside the Israeli shekel in the West Bank. The dinar is divided into 10 dirhams, 100 qirsh (also called piastres) or 1000 fulus.

Kalak Dinar

Kalak Dinar (Persian: كلك دينار‎, also Romanized as Kalak Dīnār; also known as Kalleh Dīnār) is a village in Kuh Sefid Rural District, in the Central District of Khash County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 29, in 5 families.

Kani Dinar

Kani Dinar (Persian: كاني دينار‎, also Romanized as Kānī Dīnār; also known simply as Dīnār) is a city in the Central District of Marivan County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 5,127, in 1,232 families.

Krajina dinar

The dinar (Serbian Cyrillic: динар) was the currency in the Republic of Serbian Krajina between 1992 and 1994.

Kuwaiti dinar

The Kuwaiti dinar (Arabic: دينار‎, code: KWD) is the currency of Kuwait. It is sub-divided into 1,000 fils. The Kuwaiti dinar is currently the world's highest-valued currency unit per face value.

Libyan dinar

The dinar (Arabic: دينار‎ dīnār) is the currency of Libya. Its ISO 4217 code is "LYD". The dinar is subdivided into 1000 dirham (درهم). It was introduced in September 1971 and replaced the pound at par. It is issued by the Central Bank of Libya, which also supervises the banking system and regulates credit. In 1972, the Libyan Arab Foreign Bank was established to deal with overseas investment.

Ali Mohammed Salem, deputy governor of Central Bank of Libya stated the exchange rate of Libyan dinar would be pegged to special drawing rights for one to three years, according to an interview to Reuters on 27 December 2011.

Malik Deenar

Malik Deenar (Arabic: مالك دينار‎, translit. Mālik b. Dīnār, Malayalam: മാലിക് ദീനാര്‍) (died 748 CE) is one of the first known Muslims to have come to India in order to propagate Islam in South Asia. Even though historians do not agree on the exact place of his death, it is widely accepted that he died at Kasaragod and that his relics were buried at the Malik Deenar Juma Mosque in Thalangara, Kasaragod. Belonging to the generation of the tabi'i, Malik is called a reliable traditionalist in Sunni sources, and is said to have transmitted from such authorities as Malik ibn Anas and Ibn Sirin. He was the son of a Persian slave from Kabul who became a disciple of Hasan al-Basri. He died just before the epidemic of plague which caused considerable ravages in Basra in 748-49 CE, with various traditions placing his death either at 744-45 or 747-48 CE.

Nisab

In Sharia (Islamic Law) niṣāb (نِصاب) is the minimum amount that a Muslim must have before being obliged to zakat. Several hadith have formulas for calculating niṣāb, the most prominent of which declares that No Zakāt is due on wealth until one year passes. Zakat is determined based on the amount of wealth acquired; the greater one's assets, the greater the tax. Unlike income tax in secular states niṣāb is not subject to special exemptions.

In Islam, niṣāb is 20 dinārs for gold and 200 dirhams for silver based on the original 1 to 10 exchange rate. The dinār is a gold coin weighing one mithqal (4.25 grams) and the dirḥam is a silver coin weighing 0.7 mithqal (2.975 grams). The niṣāb is applicable to the cumulative stock of dinārs, dirḥam and any other zakatable valuables, such as merchandise that has been in store for at least one year. As long as the total value of the zakatable valuables exceeds the value of the niṣāb, zakat must be paid.

Sartang-e Dinar Ali

Sartang-e Dinar Ali (Persian: سرتنگ دينارعالي‎, also Romanized as Sartang-e Dīnār ‘Ālī; also known as Deh-e Armandchī and Sartang) is a village in Khanmirza Rural District, Khanmirza District, Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 784, in 133 families.

Serbian dinar

The dinar (Serbian Cyrillic: динар, pronounced [dînaːr]; paucal: dinara / динара; sign: din; code: RSD) is the official currency of Serbia. The earliest use of the dinar dates back to 1214.

Shand-e Dinar

Shand-e Dinar (Persian: شنددينار‎, also Romanized as Shand-e Dīnār; also known as Pāsgāh-e Shandīnār and Pāsgāh-e Jadīdich) is a village in Bandan Rural District, in the Central District of Nehbandan County, South Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 65, in 11 families.

Tunisian dinar

The dinar (Arabic: دينار‎, French: Dinar, ISO 4217 currency code: TND) is the currency of Tunisia. It is subdivided into 1000 milim or millimes (ملّيم). The abbreviation DT is often used in Tunisia, although writing "dinar" after the amount is also acceptable (TND is less colloquial, and tends to be used more in financial circles); the abbreviation TD is also mentioned in a few places, but is less frequently used, given the common use of the French language in Tunisia, and the French derivation of DT (i.e., Dinar tunisien).

Yugoslav dinar

The dinar (Cyrillic script: динар) was the currency of the three Yugoslav states: the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (formerly the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes), the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between 1918 and 2006. The dinar was subdivided into 100 para (Cyrillic script: пара). In the early 1990s, there was severe and prolonged hyperinflation due to a combination of economic mismanagement and criminality. Massive amounts of money were printed; coins became redundant; inflation rates reached the equivalent of 8.51×1029% per year. The highest denomination banknote was 500 billion dinars; it was worthless a fortnight after it was printed. This hyperinflation caused five revaluations between 1990 and 1994; in total there were eight distinct dinari. Six of the eight have been given distinguishing names and separate ISO 4217 codes.

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