Dimitar Stanchov

Dimitar Yanev Stanchov, sometimes transliterated as Dimitri Stancioff (Bulgarian: Димитър Янев Станчов) (21 May 1863, in Svishtov – 23 March 1940, in Sofia), was a Bulgarian diplomat and politician who briefly served as Prime Minister.

Dimitar Stanchov
Димитър Станчов
DimitarStanchov
15th Prime Minister of Bulgaria
In office
Acting: 12 – 16 March 1907
MonarchFerdinand
Preceded byDimitar Petkov
Succeeded byPetar Gudev
Personal details
Born21 May 1863
Svishtov, Ottoman Empire
Died23 March 1940 (aged 76)
Sofia, Bulgaria

Early life

Stanchov came from a leading family of Bulgarian merchants who had lived for three generations in Svishtov, although they had originated in Berat.[1] The third of four children, his family was rich but non-aristocratic and were closely associated with support for Bulgarian as an independent state rather than a vassal of the Ottoman Empire.[2] Stanchov was educated at the Theresianum in Vienna and following his graduation entered the diplomatic service rather than the career in business that had initially been envisaged for him.[3] Both as a result of what he learned in the education system of the Habsburg Empire and due to his enthusiasm for Bulgaria's new independence under her own monarch the young Stanchov became a staunch and lifelong royalist.[4]

Diplomatic and political career

BASA-600K-3-451-1-Dimitar Stanchov, 1896
Stanchov in 1896

Stanchov first came to prominence in 1887 when Ferdinand I of Bulgaria as modern Bulgaria's second prince and the head of the Theresianum recommended Stanchov to him for the role of the prince's private secretary, Ferdinand requiring someone who was equally comfortable in his native German as well as Bulgarian.[5]

He served as ambassador to France from 1908 to 1915[6] although he interrupted his service during the First Balkan War to enrol in the Bulgarian Army. Although his duties mostly involved dealing with overseas journalists who were reporting on the war he was awarded a medal for bravery during a brief spell of frontline action near Salonika.[7] Other ambassadorial roles he held included to the United Kingdom (1908 and 1920–1921), Belgium (1910–1915 and 1922–1924), Italy (1915) and the Netherlands (1922–1924).

Stanchov was acting Prime Minister from 12–16 March 1907 following the assassination of Dimitar Petkov and before the accession of Petar Gudev.[8] He also served as foreign minister in two cabinets. He actively opposed Bulgaria's entry in World War I, for which he was temporarily removed from duty. In 1919, after Bulgaria's defeat, he was the secretary of the Bulgarian delegation at the signing of the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine. He resigned from his diplomatic positions in 1924 due to disagreements with the right-wing policies of Aleksandar Tsankov's cabinet.

From 1925 to 1929 Stanchov was president of the Bulgarian Olympic Committee.[9]

Personal life

Stanchov married the noblewoman Anna de Grenaud (1861-1955) in 1889 and they had five children: Alexander (1890-1891), Nadezhda (1894-1957), Feodora (1895-1969), Ivan (1897-1972) and Helene (1901-1966).[10] One of the couple's daughters, Nadezhda Stanchova Muir, became Bulgaria's first woman on diplomatic service during the 1910s and 1920s with her brother Ivan also a leading diplomat.[10] In 1957 Stanchova Muir published a hagiographical biography of her father Dmitri Stancioff, Patriot and Cosmopolitan.[11] Marion Mitchell (Stancioff) Stanchov, who was an American by birth, left Bulgaria in 1942 and eventually settled in Urbana, Maryland with her husband Ivan Stanchov .[12] Another relative, Poliksaniia (1867-1947), was the wife of Stefan Stambolov.[13]

A grandson, Ivan Stanchov, served as ambassador of Bulgaria to the United Kingdom and to Ireland (1991–1994) and as minister of foreign affairs in Reneta Indzhova's caretaker government (October 1994–January 1995).

References

  1. ^ Mari Agop Firkatian, Diplomats and Dreamers: The Stancioff Family in Bulgarian History, University Press of America, 2008, pp. 13-14
  2. ^ Firkatian, Diplomats and Dreamers, p. 14
  3. ^ Firkatian, Diplomats and Dreamers, pp. 14-15
  4. ^ Firkatian, Diplomats and Dreamers, p. 15
  5. ^ Firkatian, Diplomats and Dreamers, p. 20
  6. ^ Aubrey Herbert, Albania's Greatest Friend: Aubrey Herbert and the Making of Modern Albania: Diaries and Papers 1904-1923, IB Tauris, 2011, p. 117
  7. ^ Firkatian, Diplomats and Dreamers, p. 109
  8. ^ Rulers - Bulgaria
  9. ^ Председатели на БОК Archived 2012-07-17 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ a b Firkatian, Diplomats and Dreamers, p. 13
  11. ^ Frederick B. Chary, The History of Bulgaria, ABC-CLIO, 2011, p. 195
  12. ^ Ezra Pound, Olivia Rossetti Agresti, Demetres P. Tryphonopoulos, Leon Surette, I Cease Not to Yowl: Ezra Pound's Letters to Olivia Rossetti Agresti, University of Illinois Press, 1998, p. 288
  13. ^ Duncan M. Perry, Stefan Stambolov and the Emergence of Modern Bulgaria: 1870-1895, Duke University Press, 1993, p. 31
1940

1940 (MCMXL)

was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1940th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 940th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1940s decade.

Bulgaria during World War I

The Kingdom of Bulgaria participated in World War I on the side of the Central Powers from 14 October 1915, when the country declared war on Serbia, until 30 September 1918, when the Armistice of Thessalonica came into effect.

In the aftermath of the Balkan wars of 1912 and 1913, Bulgaria found itself isolated on the international scene, surrounded by hostile neighbors and deprived of the support of the Great Powers. Anti-Bulgarian sentiment grew particularly in France and Russia, whose political circles blamed the country for the dissolution of the Balkan League, an alliance of Balkan states directed against the Ottoman Empire. The failure of Bulgarian foreign policy turned revanchism into a focus of Bulgaria's external relations.

When the First World War started in July 1914, Bulgaria, still recovering from the negative economic and demographic impact of recent wars, avoided direct involvement in the new conflict by declaring neutrality. Strategic geographic location and a strong military establishment made the country a desired ally for both warring coalitions, but Bulgaria's regional aspirations were difficult to satisfy because they included territorial claims against four Balkan countries. As the war progressed, the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary and the German Empire found themselves in a better position to fulfil Bulgarian demands and persuaded the country to join their cause in September 1915.

Though the smallest member of the Central Powers in area and in population, Bulgaria made vital contributions to their common war effort. Its entry to the war heralded the defeat of Serbia, thwarted the foreign-policy goals of Romania, and ensured the continuation of the Ottoman war effort by providing a geographical conduit for material assistance from Germany to Istanbul.Though the Balkan theatre of the war saw successful campaigns of rapid movement in 1915 and 1916, the conflict degraded into a state of attritional trench warfare on both the Northern and the Southern Bulgarian Fronts after most Bulgarian territorial aspirations had been satisfied. This period of the war substantially weakened the Bulgarian economy, created various supply problems and reduced the health and morale of Bulgarian troops on the front lines. Under these circumstances, the Allied armies based in Greece, composed of contingents from many Allied countries, managed to break through on the Macedonian Front during the Vardar Offensive (September 1918) and cause the rapid collapse of a part of the Bulgarian Army. There followed an open military rebellion and the proclamation of a republic by the rebellious troops at Radomir. Bulgaria, forced to seek peace, accepted an armistice with the Allies on 30 September 1918. For the second time in half a decade, the country found itself in the midst of a national catastrophe. Tsar Ferdinand I assumed responsibility for his country's foreign-policy and military failures and abdicated in favor of his son Boris III on 3 October 1918.The Treaty of Neuilly (1919) marked the formal conclusion of Bulgaria's participation in World War I. Stipulations of the treaty included the return of all occupied territories, the cession of additional territories and the payment of heavy war reparations.

Bulgarian Olympic Committee

The Bulgarian Olympic Committee (Bulgarian: Български олимпийски комитет, Balgarski olimpiyski komitet; abbreviated as БОК, BOC) is a non-profit organization serving as the National Olympic Committee of Bulgaria and a part of the International Olympic Committee.

Dimitar

Dimitar (Bulgarian: Димитър, Macedonian: Димитар) is a Bulgarian and Macedonian name, derived from Saint Demetrius (280-306). Containing the Proto Indo-European language mater "mother", it is rooted in the Greek goddess Earth mother Demeter, who is rooted in the ancient goddess Earth Mother. It sounds the same as the Polish Dymitr.

The short for Dimitar in Bulgaria is Mitko. Most people with the name Dimitar are informally called Mitko.

Dimitar Agura (1849–1911), Bulgarian historian, professor of history at Sofia University and rector of the university

Dimitar Andonovski (born 1985), Ethnic Macedonian singer

Dimitar Avramovski–Pandilov (1899–1963), ethnic Macedonian painter

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Dimitar Blagoev (1856–1924), Bulgarian political leader, the founder of Bulgarian socialism

Dimitar Bosnov (born 1933), defender for PFC Cherno More Varna from 1955 to 1970

Dimitar Buynozov (1935–1995), Bulgarian actor

Dimitar Dimitrov (defender) (born 1989), Bulgarian footballer

Dimitar Dimitrov (football manager) (born 1959), Bulgarian football coach and manager of FC Amkar Perm

Dimitar Dimitrov (Republic of Macedonia) (born 1937), philosopher, writer, journalist, and diplomat from the Republic of Macedonia

Dimitar Dimitrov (volleyball player) (born 1952), Bulgarian former volleyball player

Dimitar Dimov (1909–1966), Bulgarian dramatist, novelist, and veterinary surgeon

Dimitar Dobrev (born 1931), former Greco-Roman wrestler from Bulgaria

Dimitar Furnadjiev, Bulgarian cellist

Dimitar Ganev (1898–1964), Bulgarian communist politician

Dimitar Grekov (1847–1901), Bulgarian liberal politician who also served as Prime Minister

Dimitar Iliev (footballer born 1988), Bulgarian football forward

Dimitar Iliev (footballer born 1986), Bulgarian football defender

Dimitar Iliev Popov (born 1927), leading Bulgarian judge and Prime Minister

Dimitar Ilievski-Murato (1953–1989), alpinist from the Republic of Macedonia

Dimitar Inkiow (1932–2006), Bulgarian writer

Dimitar Isakov (born 1924), retired Bulgarian football player

Dimitar Ivankov (born 1975), Bulgarian football player

Dimitar Ivanov Makriev (born 1984), Bulgarian footballer

Dimitar Ivanov Popov (1894–1975), Bulgarian organic chemist and an academician of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Dimitar Khlebarov (born 1934), retired pole vaulter from Bulgaria

Dimitar Koemdzhiev (born 1978), Bulgarian footballer

Dimitar Kondovski (1927–1993), Macedonian painter

Dimitar Nakov (born 1980), Bulgarian footballer

Dimitar Nenov (1901–1953), Bulgarian classical pianist, composer, music pedagogue and architect

Dimitar Obshti, 19th-century Bulgarian revolutionary

Dimitar Paskov, the chemist who led the Sopharma team that extracted Nivalin (Galantamine) for first time

Dimitar Penev (born 1945), Bulgarian football coach and former player

Dimitar Peshev (1894–1973), the Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly of Bulgaria and Minister of Justice during World War II

Dimitar Petkov (1856–1907), leading member of the Bulgarian People's Liberal Party; Prime Minister (assassinated)

Dimitar Petkov (footballer) (born 1987), Bulgarian footballer

Dimitar Popgeorgiev (1840–1907), Bulgarian revolutionary from Macedonia

Dimitar Popov (born 1970), Bulgarian football (soccer) player in goalkeeper role

Dimitar Rangelov (born 1983), Bulgarian football striker

Dimitar Rizov, Bulgarian revolutionary, publicist, politician, journalist and diplomat

Dimitar Shtilianov (born 1976), boxer from Bulgaria

Dimitar Spisarevski (1916–1943), Bulgarian fighter pilot in World War II

Dimitar Stanchov (1863–1940), Bulgarian politician, acting Prime Minister in 1907

Dimitar Stoyanov (politician) (born 1983), Bulgarian and EU politician

Dimitar Talev (1898–1966), Bulgarian writer and journalist

Dimitar Telkiyski (born 1977), Bulgarian football player

Dimitar Vlahov (1878–1953), revolutionary from the region of Macedonia

Dimitar Vodenicharov (born 1987), Bulgarian football striker

Dimitar Yakimov (born 1941), one of the most respected players of the Bulgarian football team CSKA Sofia

Dimitar Zlatanov (born 1948), former Bulgarian volleyball player; won the Silver medal at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Dimitar Zlatarev, Bulgarian terrorist

Dimitar Zograf (1796–1860), 19th-century Bulgarian painter known for his icons

Hadzhi Dimitar (1840–1868), one of the most prominent Bulgarian revolutionary workers for the Liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman rule

George Diamandy

George Ion Diamandy or Diamandi, first name also Gheorghe or Georges (February 27, 1867 – December 27, 1917), was a Romanian politician, dramatist, social scientist, and archeologist. Although a rich landowner of aristocratic background, he was one of the pioneers of revolutionary socialism in France and Romania, obtaining international fame as founder of L'Ère Nouvelle magazine. He was an early affiliate of the Romanian Social-Democratic Workers' Party, but grew disenchanted with its radical policies, and, as a member of its "generous youth" faction, played a major part in dissolving it. With other members of this reformist group, he joined the National Liberal Party, serving as one of its representatives in Chamber.

Affected by heart disease from childhood, Diamandy had to maintain a low profile in politics, but was a vocal marginal within the National Liberal establishment. From 1910, he invested his energy in literature and cultural activism, chairing the National Theater Bucharest and later the Romanian Writers' Society. He was pushed back to the forefront during the early stages World War I, when he supported an alliance with the Entente Powers. He advised Premier Ion I. C. Brătianu on the matter and was sent on diplomatic missions to the West, helping to cement France's trust for Romania. He fought in the ill-fated campaign of 1916, and withdrew to Iași, retaking his seat in Chamber.

During his final years, Diamandy became an advocate of democratic socialism, founding the Iași-based Labor Party and seeking the friendship of Russian Esers. The October Revolution caught him in Russia, but he escaped by way of Arkhangelsk, and died at sea while attempting to reach France.

George Diamandy was the brother and collaborator of diplomat Constantin I. Diamandy, and the posthumous grandfather of writer Oana Orlea. He is largely forgotten as a dramatist, but endures in cultural memory for his controversial politics and his overall eccentricity.

List of Prime Ministers of Bulgaria

This is a list of the heads of government of the modern Bulgarian state, from the establishment of the Principality of Bulgaria to the present day.

List of state leaders in the 20th century (1901–1950)

State leaders in the 19th century – State leaders: 1951–2000 – State leaders by yearThis is a list of state leaders in the 20th century (1901–1950) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 20th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Mihail Savov

Mihail Savov (Bulgarian: Михаил Савов) (born on 14 November 1857 in Stara Zagora, died on 21 July 1928 in Saint-Vallier-de-Thiey, France) was a Bulgarian general, twice Minister of Defence (1891–1894 and 1903–1907), second in command of the Bulgarian army during the Balkan Wars.

He was twice dismissed from the army and twice reassigned with the help of Tsar Ferdinand. Mihail Savov and Ferdinand are considered the main characters responsible for the Second Balkan War.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Bulgaria)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Bulgarian: Министерство на външните работи, Ministerstvo na vanshnite raboti, abbreviated МВнР, or MVnR) of Bulgaria is the ministry charged with overseeing the foreign relations of Bulgaria. It has been in existence since shortly after the Liberation of Bulgaria, with the first minister stepping into office on 17 July 1879. Until 1947, it was known as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Religious Denominations.

Since May 2017 the Minister of Foreign Affairs is Ekaterina Zakharieva.

Petar Gudev

Petar Todorov Gudev (Bulgarian: Петър Тодоров Гудев) (13 July 1863, Gradets – 8 May 1932, Sofia) was a leading Bulgarian liberal politician, who served as Prime Minister.

Gudev was appointed Prime Minister following the assassination of his predecessor Dimitar Petkov (with Dimitar Stanchov serving a few days as interim). His reign proved fairly brief, running from 16 March 1907 until 28 January 1908, and during this time he became notorious for corruption, plundering public funds for his own use.

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