Digital terrestrial television in Canada (often shortened to DTT) is transmitted using the ATSC standard. Because Canada and the U.S. use the same standard and frequencies for channels, people near the Canada–United States border can watch danaigital television programming from television stations in either country where available. The ATSC standards are also used in Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Suriname and South Korea.
Jurisdiction over terrestrial broadcasting in Canada is primarily regulated by Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada has jurisdiction over the allotment of the terrestrial spectrum and the CRTC has jurisdiction over the allotment of broadcast licences.
The CRTC imposed in 28 mandatory markets a digital transition deadline for full power transmitters of August 31, 2011, with the exception of some CBC transmitters. Two weeks before the deadline, the CBC transmitters were given a temporary one-year extension to remain in analogue. No digital transition deadline has been set for low-power analogue transmitters and analogue transmitters outside the 28 mandatory markets.
In January 2007, Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada stopped issuing licences within Canada for new television transmitters broadcasting in analogue.
All remaining analogue terrestrial television signals across Canada are scheduled to be shut down no later than 2022.
The digital television transition in Canada and the United States will result in spectrum on channels 52 to 69 being re-allocated for other purposes. The United States government already auctioned most of this spectrum and Canada is planning on doing the same. The United States government, using some proceeds of the spectrum auction, funded an education campaign in advance of the transition, provided subsidies to many broadcasters in support of transitioning to digital, and provided subsidies to consumers for digital to analogue converter boxes. In contrast, the Canadian government did not provide any similar funding in support of the digital television transition. The Canadian government's most visible efforts to support the public in the transition to digital over-the-air television has been in the form of a website, along with some newspaper, radio, and television advertisements in the month leading up to the transition deadline.
Engineering firm Spectrum Expert Inc. estimated a total cost to Canadian broadcasters of $378-425 million to convert all 738 Canadian full-power television transmitters to DTV on their newly assigned channels; if the 1238 low-power transmitters were converted, costs would increase further. Some of the highest costs were for existing full-power VHF rebroadcast transmitters that would have to be replaced by new UHF facilities in locations far from broadcast studios. As a worst case, CTV-owned CJOH-TV-6 and CJOH-TV-8 were estimated at a conversion cost of over four million dollars each. WhileDigital Television (DTV) Transition Schedule - Industry Canada CTV had threatened to shut down a long list of these full-power rebroadcasters on August 31, 2009, as of 2011 the transmitters are still on the air.
Several broadcasters, including the CBC, argued that there is no viable business case for a comprehensive digital conversion strategy in Canada. Converting a transmitter to digital has up front capital equipment costs in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, which can in more extreme cases reach over a million dollars, though some cost recovery in energy costs is possible due to lower transmission power required to cover an area as compared to analogue, if the same channel is used. At CRTC hearings in 2007 on the future direction of regulatory policy for television, broadcasters proposed a number of strategies, including funding digital conversion by eliminating restrictions on the amount of advertising that television broadcasters are permitted to air, allowing terrestrial broadcasters to charge cable viewers a subscription fee (fee-for-carriage) similar to that already charged by cable specialty channels, permitting licence fees similar to those that fund the BBC in the United Kingdom, or eliminating terrestrial television broadcasting entirely and moving to an exclusively cable-based distribution model.
The CRTC ultimately decided to relax restrictions on advertising, gradually removing all limits to the number of advertisements per hour of broadcast programming, as the funding mechanism. However, a CRTC statement issued in June 2008 indicated that as of that date, only 22 digital transmitters had been fully installed across the entire country, and expressed the regulator's concern that Canada's television broadcasters were not adequately preparing for the shift to digital broadcasting.
The US financial crisis and subsequent 2008 recession adversely affected advertising sales, the primary source of revenue for most broadcasters. Inadequate revenue in combination with debt incurred from purchasing other media companies caused Canwest, owner of the Global Television Network, to file for bankruptcy protection and to be subsequently purchased by Shaw Communications. Some Global Television Network and CTV stations in smaller markets were closed or sold. Seeking further sources of revenue, the television broadcasters including CTV launched an aggressive and somewhat successful campaign to re-open debate for introducing value for signal from cable and satellite television providers) debate in 2009.
On August 6, 2010, CBC/Radio-Canada announced in a press release that only its existing digital stations, along with both Alberta CBC Television originating stations plus all Télévision de Radio-Canada (SRC) originating stations in Quebec City and Moncton, would be DTV-ready in time for the August 2011 deadline. The remaining CBC/SRC originating O&Os were to be converted a year later in August 2012, subject to CRTC approval. In December 2010, CBC/Radio-Canada updated the information on its website to state that it was striving to convert originating O&O by August 31, 2011. CBC stated that it does not intend on transitioning any of its full-power repeaters to digital, despite in some cases being in markets (such as Kitchener, London and Saskatoon) required to convert by August 31, 2011.
In many instances, stations transitioning to digital continued utilizing the same channel, antenna or other facilities for their new digital transmitters after the end of transition. To save costs, with the exception of some stations in the largest markets, stations chose to flash cut from analogue to digital at the transition deadline rather than spending on the infrastructure and energy costs needed to broadcast the station in analogue and digital at the same time.
Leading up to the transition deadline, CRTC expressed concern that "if all broadcasters wait until the last moment to proceed to the transition, there could be a shortage of professional engineers and competent technicians capable of assuming the development of new plans and the installation of new systems and structures". Due to limited engineering resources, Global Television Network flash cut its transmitters over a 2-month period leading up to the deadline and TV Ontario flash cut its transmitters two weeks before the deadline. In contrast, most other networks and stations converted at the deadline.
There are no requirements for new televisions sold in Canada to include digital tuners (as they must in the US market), nor are there any labelling requirements for analogue-only receivers; some new televisions may be unable to tune a digital signal without an external ATSC tuner. As of 2010, an estimated 900000 Canadians relying on antennas prior to the transition deadline were expected to lose over-the-air television reception by the transition deadline, as they are not ready for the digital transition. While a new HDTV receiver connected to a terrestrial television antenna will receive OTA digital television, Canadian regulations do not require cable television operators to carry these free local HDTV signals in unencrypted digital format on their systems.
CITY-TV was the first Canadian station to provide digital terrestrial service, first broadcasting in January 2003, and going full-time in March 2003. The first HD broadcast in Canada was CBC Sports' coverage of the Heritage Classic, an outdoor NHL game. CBC ultimately launched a high definition feed of their eastern (Toronto) flagship CBLT in 2005, later launching feeds in Vancouver, Ottawa, and Montreal. As of 2008, other digital stations on-air included the CBC and Radio-Canada stations in Toronto and Montreal, as well as CTV's CFTO and CIVT, and Quebecor Media's independent station CKXT.
The first Canadian broadcaster to have delivered a digital-only terrestrial TV signal of any type, CKXT-TV (in Ottawa and London), signed on its pair of digital-only transmitters in 2008. These were both rebroadcasters of the same Toronto station with no local programme origination; the main Toronto station transmitted in both analogue and digital format. The first stations to complete the digital transition (on their main signals) were Trois-Rivières, Quebec's CFKM-DT, followed by CISA-DT in Lethbridge, Alberta.
As of July 2011, digital television broadcasts had commenced in just 11 of Canada's largest markets, but nearly all of the stations in mandatory markets ended up meeting the transition deadline. The stations that did not meet the deadline fall into two categories. First, there were some stations that had delays in converting to digital due to financial or technical issues. Second, are the CBC rebroadcaster transmitters in mandatory markets, and CTV's Access transmitters in Calgary, AB and Edmonton, AB. In CBC's case, the CBC obtained an over year extension to convert its transmitters, publicly stating that it was not planning on converting these transmitters. CBC later announced that all its analogue transmitters will be permanently shut down on July 31, 2012 and will not be replaced. In the case of CTV's Access transmitters, the network chose to shut them down at the transition deadline rather than converting them to digital.
Broadcasting digital terrestrial signals instead of analogue offers numerous advantages to the viewer, such as the following: support for high definition (HD) picture, support for 5 speaker surround sound, support for information on the current and the next few programs shown on the channel, support for sub-channels, Solomon-Reed error correction to eliminate multipath (ghosting), and support for mobile devices (i.e. ATSC-M/H). Canadian broadcasters have implemented many of the listed features to varying extents. CJON-DT in St. John's has become the first to offer different content on a subchannel, in the form of sister radio station CHOZ-FM on an audio-only subchannel, and CIII-DT in Toronto offers an SD simulcast of its HD feed on a subchannel, which is allowed under current CRTC licensing policies. On August 17, 2012, the CRTC gave approval to low-power community station CFTV-TV in Leamington, Ontario to broadcast four local subchannels on its digital signal, making it the first station in Canada to launch original content on its multiplex channels. Further, there are currently no transmitters broadcasting TV signals intended for mobile devices, though CBLFT-DT has done occasional test broadcasts of a mobile simulcast of sister station CBLT-DT in 2011 and 2012.
The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) initially decided not to enforce a single date for ending analogue broadcasts, opting to let market forces decide when the switchover will occur. It subsequently reversed its position, on May 17, 2007, setting an analogue shutoff date of August 31, 2011, just over two years after the American transition date of June 12, 2009. Mandatory markets with a transmitter that does not transition to digital by the deadline will lose the over-the-air signal for the corresponding station permanently or until a digital transmitter is brought on-the-air for that station in that area. Note that the transition deadline only concerns over-the-air signals and does not impact other televisions reception methods in Canada such as over the Internet (already digital), cable (some analogue, most digital), or satellite (already digital).
On July 6, 2009, the CRTC issued a decision that limited the required digital conversion to mandatory markets meeting any of the following criteria:
On March 14, 2011, the CRTC removed territorial capitals as mandatory markets on the basis that these are small and remote markets, and that only 1 of the 6 transmitters in these markets were planned to be converted to digital, while the remainder of the transmitters would be shut down rather than converted.
On March 18, 2011, the CRTC mandated a requirement that television stations must broadcast public service announcements regarding the digital over-the-air television transition from May 1, 2011 until August 31, 2011. Stations must broadcast these ads 6 times a day, and increase this to 8 times a day starting August 1, 2011 or one month before the digital transition date for that station, whichever is sooner. Also by May 1, 2011, broadcasters must post on their websites about the broadcasters' specific plans for digital transition.
On August 18, 2011, the CRTC issued a decision that allowed CBC's mandatory market rebroadcasting transmitters in analogue to remain on-air until August 31, 2012. When the CRTC made this announcement, the CBC communicated that it planned on requesting an extension to remain broadcasting in analogue past the August 31, 2012 deadline. Although the CRTC allowed the CBC the extension to remain in analogue, the corporation's full power transmitters occupying channels 52 to 69 were still required to either relocate to channels 2 to 51 or become low power transmitters. In some cases, CBC has opted reduce the power of existing transmitters to low power transmitters, which will result in signal loss for some viewers.
List of Mandatory Markets:
Note that the list below does not take into account plans of network affiliate stations.
|Network||Language||Mandatory transmitters digital?||DTV URL||Notes|
|CBC||English||Partial||Link||[note 1] [note 2]|
|Radio-Canada||French||Partial||Link||[note 3] [note 2]|
|CTV Two||English||Partial||N/A||[note 4]|
|Omni||English / Multilingual||Yes||N/A||N/A|
Although the majority of the over-the-air transmitters that were planned to be converted to digital made this conversion by August 31, 2011, a handful of stations had delays and were permitted to remain broadcasting in analogue. In February 2012, CFTU-TV converted its transmitter to digital, marking the last of the mandatory market transmitters planned to become digital, to finally make the switch. This left 23 CBC and SRC rebroadcast transmitters in mandatory markets being required to transition to digital by August 31, 2012, though the CBC shut down all of its remaining analogue television transmitters on July 31, 2012, with no further transmitters made digital.
Following the August 31, 2011 deadline, some channels requested to make changes to their digital transmitters to improve the signal. Requested changes included the following (note that this is a list of applications to the CRTC and does not reflect what the CRTC has approved or what has been implemented):
Most stations have announced no plans for converting or shutting down analogue transmitters outside mandatory markets required to transition to digital by August 31, 2011, but here are some exceptions:
The 700 MHz band, occupying channels 52 to 69, occupied by television transmitters, is being re-allocated for mobile telecommunications devices and public safety communication. The mobile telecommunications portion of the spectrum is to be auction by the Canadian government to telecommunications companies in 2013. Industry Canada stopped issuing broadcast certificates for the upper part of this channel range in 2000 and the remainder of this channel range in 2007. On August 22, 2011, the United States' Federal Communications Commission announced a freeze on all future applications for broadcast stations requesting to use channel 51, to prevent adjacent-channel interference to the 700 MHz band. On December 16, 2011, Industry Canada placed a moratorium on future television stations using Channel 51 for broadcast use, to prevent adjacent-channel interference to the 700 MHz band.
All remaining transmitters occupying channels 52 to 69 are low power analogue and no new transmitters are allowed to be added to this channel range. The Government of Canada has not set a deadline for low power transmitters to vacate this channel range. Industry Canada has proposed that if notification is given for a transmitter to cease transmitting within this channel range, it will have 2 years to vacate the channel, if in a rural area, and 1 year, if it is in an urban area. All of the remaining transmitters in the channel 52 to 69 range, are subject to the 2-year notification period.
As of January 2013, based on Industry Canada's database of TV transmitters and based on transmitters known to have been permanently shut down, there are 15 remaining television transmitters occupying channels 52 to 69, all low power analogue, located in the following communities:
Except for the transmitter in Santa Rosa, the transmitters in the channel 52 to 69 range are all community operated transmitters.
Category A services were a class of Canadian specialty television channel which, as defined by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, must be offered by all digital cable and direct broadcast satellite providers that have the capability to do so.
Category A services were an amalgamation of the former analog pay and specialty services licensed prior to digital television (with the exception of general interest national news and sports specialty services which are designated as Category C services) and the former category 1 digital specialty channels. In a policy decision released on October 30, 2008, the CRTC decided that all Category 1 digital services as well as all analog pay and specialty channels would be renamed Category A services, effective September 1, 2011.Category A services share a number of similar regulations, including that they must be offered by all television providers in Canada, and have higher Canadian content quota levels than Category B services. They were also previously protected by "genre protection" rules forbidding other specialty channels from directly competing with them, but the CRTC is in the process of phasing out these policies in favour of switching all specialty services to standardized licenses as discretionary services.Category B services
A Category B service is the former term for a Canadian discretionary specialty television channel which, as defined by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, may be carried by all subscription television providers. Such services were called Category 2 until September 1, 2011.Unlike Category A services, Category B services are not protected as to format. They are licensed to broadcast within defined formats which are not provided by or overly close to an existing protected channel, but their formats are not protected themselves and need not protect other Category B services. Also unlike Category A services, a Category B service does not have guaranteed cable carriage rights, but must directly negotiate carriage with cable distributors. Category B services encompass both pay television and specialty channels.
In December 2012, the CRTC exempted from formal licensing services with less than 200,000 subscribers that would otherwise meet the definition of a Category B service, and services which air 90% of their programming in a language other than English, French, or languages of aboriginal peoples in Canada.Henceforth, most Canadian specialty channels (except for national news and mainstream sports channels, which are classified as Category C services) will be licensed as Category B services.Category C services
A Category C service is the former term for a Canadian discretionary specialty channel which, as defined by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, provides programming in genres that are subject to different standard conditions of licences from those of other discretionary services. As of 2011, this category applies to all national news and mainstream sports broadcasters.
Under previous policies, these services were intentionally unprotected from competition by other Category B services of the same genre, but are still "protected" from competition by other discretionary services. In other words, if someone wants to launch a competing service, they must do so by committing to the same obligations, including common requirements for the exhibition and funding of Canadian-produced programming, as others. Discretionary services, by contrast, may not devote more than 10% of their monthly programming to live professional sports.Mainstream news channels are subject to a form of must carry rules; they must be offered on a packaged or standalone basis, but not necessarily on the lowest tier of service, by all digital television providers. Category C sports services are not subject to must-carry rules; distributors must negotiate directly with their operators for carriage.Digital television transition
The digital television transition, also called the digital switchover, the analog switch-off (ASO), or the analog shutdown, is the process, mainly begun in 2006 (for terrestrial broadcasting), in which older analog television broadcasting technology is converted to and replaced by digital television. Conducted by individual nations on different schedules, this primarily involves the conversion of analog terrestrial television broadcasting infrastructure to digital terrestrial. However, it also involves analog cable conversion to digital cable or internet protocol television, as well as analog to digital satellite television. Transition of land based broadcasting was begun by some countries around 2000. By contrast, transition of satellite television systems was well underway or completed in many counties by this time. It is an involved process because the existing analog television receivers owned by viewers cannot receive digital broadcasts; viewers must either purchase new digital TVs, or converter boxes which change the digital signal to an analog signal or some other form of a digital signal (i.e. HDMI) which can be received on the older TV.
In many countries, a simulcast service is operated where a broadcast is made available to viewers in both analog and digital at the same time. As digital becomes more popular, it is expected that the existing analog services will be removed. In most places this has already happened, where a broadcaster has offered incentives to viewers to encourage them to switch to digital. In other cases government policies have been introduced to encourage or force the switchover process, especially with regard to terrestrial broadcasts. Government intervention usually involves providing some funding for broadcasters and, in some cases, monetary relief to viewers, to enable a switchover to happen by a given deadline. Governments can also require all receiving equipment sold in a country to support the necessary digital reception 'tuner'.
The switchover process is being accomplished on different schedules in different countries; in some countries it is being implemented in stages as in Australia, Brazil, India, Mexico, and the United Kingdom, where each region has a separate date to switch off. In others, the whole country switches on one date, such as the Netherlands, which switched off its analog terrestrial services on 11 December 2006. On 3 August 2003, Berlin became the world's first city to switch off terrestrial analog signals. Luxembourg was the first country to complete its terrestrial switchover, in September 2006.Discretionary service
A discretionary service is a Canadian specialty channel which, as defined by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, may be carried optionally by all subscription television providers. It replaces the previous category A, category B, category C, and premium classifications.Discretionary services may air programming from any of the CRTC's defined categories, although no more than 10% of programming per-month may be devoted to live professional sports. Discretionary services may offer multiplex channels with CRTC permission.Invention in Canada
This article outlines the history of Canadian technological invention. Technologies chosen for treatment here include, in rough order, transportation, communication, energy, materials, industry, public works, public services (health care), domestic/consumer and defence technologies.
The terms chosen for the "age" described below are both literal and metaphorical. They describe the technology that dominated the period of time in question but are also representative of a large number of other technologies introduced during the same period. Also of note is the fact that the period of invention of a technology can begin modestly and can extend well beyond the "age" of its introduction. To maintain continuity, the complete treatment of an invention is dealt with in the context of its dominant "age".List of Canadian television channels
Television in Canada has many individual stations and networks and systems.List of Canadian television networks
Canada has adopted the NTSC and ATSC television transmission standards without any alterations. However, some unique local variations exist for DTH television because of transponder design variation in the Anik series of satellites.
Television in Canada has many individual stations and networks and systems.List of Canadian television stations
This page lists the table of every television station in Canada by call sign. For the list of television networks in Canada, see the List of Canadian television networks (table).
Under the current digital television transition, television stations in Mandatory Markets, in Canada are launching digital transmissions by August 31, 2011. On August 18, 2011, the CRTC issued a decision that allows CBC's mandatory market rebroadcasting transmitters in analog remain on-air until August 31, 2012. Where known, a digital channel assignment is noted below. Digital channels listed on a green background have already been launched, while those listed on a red background have not yet commenced operations. In some cases, the digital channels have been allocated but the stations have not applied to use them; as there is no requirement that Canadian stations begin digital broadcasts before the end-August 2011 analogue shutdown, it is currently unknown whether some broadcasters will ask to flash-cut on their existing frequencies or to continue on their assigned digital channel.List of Canadian television stations available in the United States
This page lists all of the stations in Canada that are viewable in parts of the United States.List of United States stations available in Canada
This page lists all of the local over-the-air television stations in the United States that are carried in Canada via cable/digital cable or satellite. This list also includes stations that were formerly carried, but have since been dropped.
The stations are organized by market, starting in the east (Maine) and ending in the west (California). Not all stations are available in all areas. A station that has the word "bumped" next to it means that the station has been replaced by one of the stations from the CANCOM services, most likely either a Buffalo or Detroit local station in the east, or a Spokane or Seattle local station in the west.List of foreign television channels available in Canada
This is a list of foreign television channels available in Canada. The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) regulates which television channels are allowed to air in Canada. Although the vast majority of television channels available in Canada are Canadian-owned and operated, the CRTC allows certain foreign-owned channels to be broadcast in Canada.
In order for a non-Canadian station/channel to broadcast in Canada it must first listed by the CRTC on the listed as authorized on the List of non-Canadian programming services authorized for distribution. Cable and satellite companies are only allowed to carry the foreign services that are contained in the list. Also, not every channel on the list is currently carried by BDU's, it is up to their discretion to decide what channels they are interested in offering to consumers.
On June 30, 2011, the CRTC introduced new policy whereby the 'lists of eligible satellite services' would be consolidated into one list to be known as the 'List of non-Canadian programming services authorized for distribution'List of television stations in North America by media market
These links go to individual lists of television stations by the markets in which they are located.Media in Kelowna
This is a list of media in Kelowna, British Columbia.Multichannel television in Canada
Canada is served by various multichannel television services, including cable television systems, two direct-broadcast satellite providers, and various other wireline IPTV and wireless MMDS video providers.
Canadian multichannel television providers are legally referred to as broadcast distribution undertakings (BDUs). They must be licensed by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) and comply with its policies, including those on the packaging of their services. Additionally, the CRTC licenses specialty channels; licensing was previously mandatory for all services, and restrictions were placed on their content in order to discourage direct competition in certain categories. The CRTC began to phase out these policies by the 2010s, and in 2012, it began exempting networks with less than 200,000 subscribers, as well as certain ethnic services not broadcasting in Canada's official or indigenous languages, from formal licensing. As per its New Media exemption order, the CRTC does not regulate internet television or video content delivered over the public internet, such as over-the-top subscription services.
Some of the CRTC's policies in regard to multichannel television are intended to protect and encourage the production of Canadian content, and prevent foreign broadcasters from unduly harming domestic outlets. U.S. and international channels can be authorized for distribution in Canada if they are deemed to not be unduly competitive to Canadian outlets (although their programming may be affected by differing broadcast rights). Affiliates of the U.S. ABC, CBS, Fox, NBC, and PBS networks are also readily available in Canada, but their programming is subject to a CRTC rule known as simultaneous substitution (or simsub), which gives Canadian broadcast stations within a viewer's market the right to require that U.S. feeds of programs be substituted by BDUs with their own if they are broadcasting the same program in simulcast. This rule serves to protect Canadian advertising revenue.
The majority of Canada's multichannel television industry is dominated by vertically integrated companies and their respective services, including Bell Canada's Bell TV satellite and fibreoptic Fibe TV IPTV services, Rogers Communications' cable systems (primarily in Ontario and Atlantic Canada), Shaw Communications' cable systems (primarily in Western Canada; the Shaw family also owns Corus Entertainment, a major operator of Canadian specialty channels), and Vidéotron (which operates mainly in its home province of Quebec, and is owned by local conglomerate Quebecor).Technological and industrial history of 20th-century Canada
The technological and industrial history of Canada encompasses the country's development in the areas of transportation, communication, energy, materials, public works, public services (health care), domestic/consumer and defence technologies.
The terms chosen for the "age" described below are both literal and metaphorical. They describe the technology that dominated the period of time in question but are also representative of a large number of other technologies introduced during the same period. Also of note is the fact that the period of diffusion of a technology can begin modestly and can extend well beyond the "age" of its introduction. To maintain continuity, the treatment of its diffusion is dealt with in the context of its dominant "age".
Technology is a major cultural determinant, no less important in shaping human lives than philosophy, religion, social organization, or political systems. In the broadest sense, these forces are also aspects of technology. The French sociologist Jacques Ellul defined la technique as the totality of all rational methods in every field of human activity so that, for example, education, law, sports, propaganda, and the social sciences are all technologies in that sense. At the other end of the scale, common parlance limits the term's meaning to specific industrial arts.Technological and industrial history of 21st-century Canada
The technological and industrial history of Canada encompasses the country's development in the areas of transportation, communication, energy, materials, public works, public services (health care), domestic/consumer and defense technologies. The 21st century has become the Internet Age is way both literal and metaphorical. The technology that dominates this period of time is wireless technology, cloud computing, HD/3D TV, mega oil, "greentech" and nanotechnology. Most technologies diffused in Canada came from other places; only a small number actually originated in Canada. For more about those with a Canadian origin, see Invention in Canada.
Technology is a major cultural determinant, no less important in shaping human lives than philosophy, religion, social organization, or political systems. In the broadest sense, these forces are also aspects of technology. The French sociologist Jacques Ellul defined la technique as the totality of all rational methods in every field of human activity so that, for example, education, law, sports, propaganda, and the social sciences are all technologies in that sense. At the other end of the scale, common parlance limits the term's meaning to specific industrial arts.
Digital television in North America