A digital tachograph is a device fitted to a vehicle that digitally records its speed and distance, together with the driver's activity selected from a choice of modes.
In Europe, it succeeded the analogue tachograph as a result of European Union regulation 1360/2002 that made digital tachographs mandatory for all relevant vehicles manufactured after August 1, 2005. Digital tachographs would be required as of May 1, 2006 for all new vehicles for which EWG regulation VO(EWG)3820/85 applies, as is published in the official newsletter of the European Union L102 from April 11, 2006.
A digital tachograph system consists of a digital driver card, the tachograph head, and a sender unit mounted to the vehicle gearbox. The sender unit produces electronic pulses as the gearbox output shaft turns. These pulses are interpreted as speed data by the head.
The sender unit and head are electronically paired and the pulses from the sender to the head are encrypted, therefore deterring tampering by intercepting or replicating the pulse signal in the intermediate wiring.
As well as automatically receiving speed data, the tachograph records the driver's activity selected from a choice of modes. The 'drive mode' is activated automatically when the vehicle is in motion, and digital tachograph heads usually default to the 'other work' mode upon coming to rest. The 'rest' and 'availability' modes can be manually selected by the driver whilst stationary.
In Europe, drivers are legally required to accurately record their activities, retain the records and produce them on demand to transport authorities who are charged with enforcing regulations governing drivers' working hours. Regulation (EC) 561/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council  defines drivers hours.
There are several types of digital card, depending on the function of the card owner:
The activity information is stored in the tachograph head’s internal memory and simultaneously onto the flash memory chip contained within the digital driver card whilst it is inserted into the head.
Speed information is also stored, but only on the tachograph head’s internal memory. Speed data is stored in at least 1-hertz intervals, depending on the model of tachograph head.
When either memory bank is full, the oldest data is automatically overwritten with the current data. Design specifications prevent data being altered or deleted, therefore ensuring the integrity of the data for subsequent analysis and presentation in a court case.
Data can be locked in the tachograph head by using a company card. This ensures that the data cannot be retrieved by another company should the vehicle subsequently change ownership, or in the case or lease or hire vehicles that are used by many companies during their life. All data can still be retrieved by use of a control card or a workshop card.
Data is stored as a .ddd file that can be imported into tachograph analysis software.
The digital data stored by the tachograph system can be analysed by computer and infringements automatically identified.
Digital data is encrypted and cannot be altered or deleted by the driver once stored on the card or in the head.
Information is more explicitly defined in digital form and is less likely to be misinterpreted. When an analogue chart is visually analysed, a margin of error is present, dependent on the quality of the recording and the skill level of the analyst.
Without a digital card reader, computer and analysis software, the data can be more difficult to interpret as it is not visually represented as the analogue chart is, and requires mathematical calculations to decipher the information from its presented format. Some Renault branded tachograph heads can produce printed information in a graphical format, similar in appearance to the activity trace on an analogue tachograph chart.
In common with cars and trucks, preservation of buses in the United Kingdom is a hobby activity enjoyed by many people, both actively or passively. The active preservation and operation of preserved buses is undertaken by private individuals, organised trusts or societies, and even commercial operators. The preserved bus fleet in the UK includes dating from the earliest pre-war models right up to models manufactured after the year 2000.Drivers' working hours
Drivers' working hours is the commonly used term for regulations that govern the activities of the drivers of commercial goods vehicles and passenger carrying vehicles. In the United States, they are known as hours of service.
Within the European Union, Directive 2002/15/EC is setting the rules regarding working time for drivers carrying out road transport activities in the European Union from the point of view of improving road safety, health and safety of drivers and ensure fair competition among transport operators. Working time of mobile workers is a strictly national obligation to implement and to check and it cannot be imposed to drivers from third countries. Regulation (EC) 561/2006  is the regulation complementing the aforementioned Directive in view of driving times, breaks and rest periods required to be taken by professional drivers of vehicles carrying goods or passengers in international or national transport operations. There are special circumstances when carriages and thus drivers may be exempt from the Directive 2002/15/EC. The Regulation (EC) 561/2006 applies to the carriage by road of goods by vehicles with a total mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes and to the transport by road of passengers by vehicles that are adapted to carry more than nine people (including the driver). It applies, irrespective of the country of registration of the vehicle, to carriage by road in the EU and between EU countries, Switzerland and European Economic Area countries. The Regulation exempts from its scope of application ten categories of carriages (Art. 3), but there are also specific national exemptions offered in Art. 13. Though EU countries have to inform the Commission of those specific national exemptions.
UNECE have adopted in 1970 the European Agreement Concerning the Work of Crews of Vehicles Engaged in International Road Transport (AETR). This Agreement is common for EU, EEA countries, and Switzerland as well as other non-EU countries of the European continent. All vehicles crossing an AETR signatory country during its transport operations (carriages) should obey the common rules set by the AETR agreement.
Since September 2010, AETR rules have been amended to align closely with EU Regulation 561/2006.
Under certain circumstances, drivers may instead fall within scope of the domestic rules of that country.
In addition to the above requirements, drivers in the EU must also abide with the European Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC.Electronic logging device
Electronic Logging Device (ELD or E-Log) is electronic hardware that is attached to a commercial motor vehicle engine to record driving hours. The driving hours of commercial drivers (truck and bus drivers) are typically regulated by a set of rules known as the hours of service (HOS) in the United States and as Drivers' working hours in Europe. The Commercial Vehicle Driver Hours of Service Regulations vary in Canada and the United States.An ELD monitors a vehicle’s engine to capture data on whether the engine is running, whether the vehicle is moving, miles driven, and duration of engine operation.Previously, paper logs or electronic on-board recorders (EOBR) were used for hours-of-service tracking. Even though an electronic on-board recorder (EOBR)-style log improves the accuracy of the data, the lack of a consistent data format meant that the logs needed to be regenerated to an equivalent “paper” format for review and enforcement. The Record of Duty Status (RODS) definition within the ELD legislation defines a consistent format for enforcement personnel to review, so the ELD Mandate was created.The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) announced the Final Rule of the ELD mandate, and the ELD rule being implemented in several phases with a compliance date of December 18, 2017. Fleets have until December 2017 to implement certified ELDs to record HOS. Fleets already equipped with electronic logging technology will have until December 2019 to ensure compliance with the published specifications.Electronic on-board recorder
An electronic on-board recorder (EOBR) is an electronic device attached to a commercial motor vehicle, which is used to record the amount of time a vehicle is being driven. This is similar to the tachograph, and is the American equivalent of the digital tachograph used in Europe. Trucks in the European Union are required to have digital tachographs installed, and are securely monitored by government agencies. However, in Europe, the new digital tachograph which is considered secure, can be tricked with a round magnet placed by drivers over the connection to the transmission box. Usually they tie a rope to that magnet, and with a simple pull, the magnet will disengage and will show that the driver started moving about half an hour ago (or whatever time the driver wants to set by stopping in a rest area after a sleeping period, and place the magnet on).
The majority of carriers and drivers in the United States currently use paper-based log books. On January 31, 2011, the U.S. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) proposed a rule requiring Electronic On-Board Recorders for interstate commercial truck and bus companies. The proposed rule covers interstate carriers that currently use log books to record driver's hours of service. The proposal would affect more than 500,000 carriers in the United States and carriers that currently use time cards would be exempt.
The only mandatory EOBR use is for companies with a poor compliance record that is slated to go into effect in June, 2012. On August 26, 2011, in a lawsuit brought by the Owner–Operator Independent Drivers Association (OOIDA), the 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals vacated and remanded the rule back to the agency for further proceedings. According to Robert Digges, the American Trucking Associations (ATA) chief counsel, "Although the court decision specifically addresses the 2010 final rule, FMCSA also will also likely have to bring into compliance its Jan. 31 proposed rule mandating that nearly all motor carriers equip their trucks with EOBRs". This does not mean the FMCSA will suspend attempts to pass regulations regarding mandatory EOBR's but will mean delays in implementation of any rules.
The driving hours of commercial drivers (truck and bus drivers) are regulated by a set of rules known as the hours of service (HOS) The HOS are rules intended to prevent driver fatigue, by limiting the amount of time drivers spend operating commercial vehicles. The amount of time available under the HOS rules to operate a commercial motor vehicle depends, in part, upon how much time the driver both performs work or obtains rest when not driving. In order for an EOBR to accurately record and report a driver's compliance with the HOS rules, therefore, whenever the truck is not being operated the driver must manually input to the EOBR whether he or she is still on-duty (working - i.e. unloading the truck, inspecting or repairing the truck, filling out paperwork...etc.) or off-duty (not working). EOBRs do not automatically record changes in non-driving duty status and, therefore, is somewhat similar to paper logs being that it is only accurate while the truck is in motion. Companies are now offering extra on board components that can accurately record the amount of rest time a driver spends in the sleeper berth and electronically monitor hours a driver spends at rest or while sleeping.Electronic Logging Devices (ELDs) is the most recent term to define an electronic device that is capable of recording a driver's driving hours and duty status automatically. In order to be considered an ELD, the device must meet specific technology requirements and be included on the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s (FMCSA) registration site.Isuzu Motors
Isuzu Motors Ltd. (Japanese: いすゞ自動車株式会社, Hepburn: Isuzu Jidōsha Kabushiki-Kaisha, TYO: 7202), trading as Isuzu (Japanese pronunciation: [isɯzɯ], ), is a Japanese commercial vehicle and diesel engine manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo. Its principal activity is the production, marketing and sale of Isuzu commercial vehicles and diesel engines.
It also has a number of subsidiaries, including Anadolu Isuzu (a Turkish joint venture with Anadolu Group), Sollers-Isuzu (a Russian joint venture with Sollers JSC), SML Isuzu (an Indian venture formerly known as Swaraj Mazda), Jiangxi Isuzu Motors (a Chinese joint venture with Jiangling Motors Company Group), Isuzu Astra Motor Indonesia, Isuzu Malaysia (Isuzu HICOM), Isuzu UK, Isuzu South Africa, Isuzu Philippines, Taiwan Isuzu Motors, Isuzu Vietnam, Isuzu Motors India and BYD Isuzu.
Isuzu has assembly and manufacturing plants in Fujisawa, as well as in the Tochigi and Hokkaidō prefectures. Isuzu-branded vehicles are sold in most commercial markets worldwide. Isuzu's primary market focus is on commercial diesel-powered truck, buses and construction, while their Japanese competitor Yanmar focuses on commercial-level powerplants and generators.
By 2009, Isuzu had produced over 21 million diesel engines, which can be found in vehicles all over the world. Isuzu diesel engines are used by dozens of vehicle manufacturers, including General Motors.The name Isuzu translates into English as "fifty bells".Smart card
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC) is a physical electronic authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is typically a plastic credit card sized card with an embedded integrated circuit. Many smart cards include a pattern of metal contacts to electrically connect to the internal chip. Others are contactless, and some are both. Smart cards can provide personal identification, authentication, data storage, and application processing. Applications include identification, financial, mobile phones (SIM), public transit, computer security, schools, and healthcare. Smart cards may provide strong security authentication for single sign-on (SSO) within organizations. Several nations have deployed smart cards throughout their populations.Tachograph
A tachograph is a device fitted to a vehicle that automatically records its speed and distance, together with the driver's activity selected from a choice of modes. The drive mode is activated automatically when the vehicle is in motion, and modern tachograph heads usually default to the other work mode upon coming to rest. The rest and availability modes can be manually selected by the driver whilst stationary.
A tachograph system comprises a sender unit mounted to the vehicle gearbox, the tachograph head and a recording medium. Tachograph heads are of either analogue or digital types. All relevant vehicles manufactured in the EU since 1 May 2006 must be fitted with digital tachograph heads. The recording medium for analogue heads are wax coated paper discs, and for digital heads there are two recording mediums: internal memory (which can be read out with one of a variety of download devices into a so-called .ddd file) and digital driver cards containing a microchip with flash memory. Digital driver cards store data in a format that can later also be read out as a .ddd file. These files - both those read from internal memory with a download device, and those read from the driver cards - can be imported into tachograph analysis/archival software.
Drivers and their employers are legally required to accurately record their activities, retain the records (files from internal memory and from driver cards must both be retained) and produce them on demand to transport authorities who are in charge of enforcing regulations governing drivers' working hours.
They are also used in the maritime world, for example through the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine.Traffic stop
A traffic stop, commonly called being pulled over, is a temporary detention of a driver of a vehicle by police to investigate a possible crime or minor violation of law.Traffic violations reciprocity
Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."Truck driver
A truck driver (commonly referred to as a trucker, teamster or driver in the United States and Canada; a truckie in Australia and New Zealand; a lorry driver, or driver in Ireland, the United Kingdom, India, Nepal and Pakistan) is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck (usually a semi truck, box truck or dump truck).