Digital library

A digital library, digital repository, or digital collection, is an online database of digital objects that can include text, still images, audio, video, or other digital media formats. Objects can consist of digitized content like print or photographs, as well as originally produced digital content like word processor files or social media posts. In addition to storing content, digital libraries provide means for organizing, searching, and retrieving the content contained in the collection.

Digital libraries can vary immensely in size and scope, and can be maintained by individuals or organizations.[1] The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. These information retrieval systems are able to exchange information with each other through interoperability and sustainability.[2]

History

The early history of libraries is poorly documented, but several key thinkers are connected to the emergence of this concept.[3] Predecessors include Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine's Mundaneum, an attempt begun in 1895 to gather and systematically catalogue the world's knowledge, the hope of bringing about world peace.[4] The establishment of the digital library was total dependent on the progress in the age of the internet. It not only provided the means to compile the digital library but the access to the books by millions of individuals on the World Wide Web.

Vannevar Bush and J.C.R. Licklider are two contributors that advanced this idea into then current technology. Bush had supported research that led to the bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima. After seeing the disaster, he wanted to create a machine that would show how technology can lead to understanding instead of destruction. This machine would include a desk with two screens, switches and buttons, and a keyboard.[5] He named this the "Memex." This way individuals would be able to access stored books and files at a rapid speed. In 1956, Ford Foundation funded Licklider to analyze how libraries could be improved with technology. Almost a decade later, his book entitled "Libraries of the Future" included his vision. He wanted to create a system that would use computers and networks so human knowledge would be accessible for human needs and feedback would be automatic for machine purposes. This system contained three components, the corpus of knowledge, the question, and the answer. Licklider called it a procognitive system.

Early projects centered on the creation of an electronic card catalogue known as Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC). By the 1980s, the success of these endeavors resulted in OPAC replacing the traditional card catalog in many academic, public and special libraries. This permitted libraries to undertake additional rewarding co-operative efforts to support resource sharing and expand access to library materials beyond an individual library.

An early example of a digital library is the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), a database of education citations and abstracts, which was created in 1964 and made available online through DIALOG in 1969.[6]

In 1994, digital libraries became visible due to a $24.4 million [NSF] managed program supported jointly by [DARPA]'s Intelligent Integration of Information (I3) program, [NASA], and NSF itself [7] . Successful research proposals came from six U.S. universities [8] The universities included Carnegie Mellon University, University of California-Berkeley, University of Michigan, University of Illinois, University of California-Santa Barbara, and Stanford University. Stanford research, by Sergey Brin and Larry Page led to the founding of Google.

Early attempts at creating a model for digital libraries included the DELOS Digital Library Reference Model[9][10] and the 5S Framework.[11][12]

Terminology

The term digital libraries was first popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994.[13] With the availability of the computer networks the information resources are expected to stay distributed and accessed as needed, whereas in Vannevar Bush's essay As We May Think (1945) they ere to be collected and kept within the researcher's Memex.

The term virtual library was initially used interchangeably with digital library, but is now primarily used for libraries that are virtual in other senses (such as libraries which aggregate distributed content). In the early days of digital libraries, there was discussion of the similarities and differences among the terms digital, virtual, and electronic.[14]

A distinction is often made between content that was created in a digital format, known as born-digital, and information that has been converted from a physical medium, e.g. paper, through digitization. It should also be noted that not all electronic content is in digital data format. The term hybrid library is sometimes used for libraries that have both physical collections and electronic collections. For example, American Memory is a digital library within the Library of Congress.

Some important digital libraries also serve as long term archives, such as arXiv and the Internet Archive. Others, such as the Digital Public Library of America, seek to make digital information from various institutions widely accessible online.[15]

Types of digital libraries

Institutional repositories

Many academic libraries are actively involved in building institutional repositories of the institution's books, papers, theses, and other works which can be digitized or were 'born digital'. Many of these repositories are made available to the general public with few restrictions, in accordance with the goals of open access, in contrast to the publication of research in commercial journals, where the publishers often limit access rights. Institutional, truly free, and corporate repositories are sometimes referred to as digital libraries. Institutional repository software is designed for archiving, organizing, and searching a library's content. Popular open-source solutions include DSpace, EPrints, Digital Commons, and Fedora Commons-based systems Islandora and Samvera.[16]

Digital archives

Physical archives differ from physical libraries in several ways. Traditionally, archives are defined as:

  1. Containing primary sources of information (typically letters and papers directly produced by an individual or organization) rather than the secondary sources found in a library (books, periodicals, etc.).
  2. Having their contents organized in groups rather than individual items.
  3. Having unique contents.

The technology used to create digital libraries is even more revolutionary for archives since it breaks down the second and third of these general rules. In other words, "digital archives" or "online archives" will still generally contain primary sources, but they are likely to be described individually rather than (or in addition to) in groups or collections. Further, because they are digital, their contents are easily reproducible and may indeed have been reproduced from elsewhere. The Oxford Text Archive is generally considered to be the oldest digital archive of academic physical primary source materials.

Archives differ from libraries in the nature of the materials held. Libraries collect individual published books and serials, or bounded sets of individual items. The books and journals held by libraries are not unique, since multiple copies exist and any given copy will generally prove as satisfactory as any other copy. The material in archives and manuscript libraries are "the unique records of corporate bodies and the papers of individuals and families".[17]

A fundamental characteristic of archives is that they have to keep the context in which their records have been created and the network of relationships between them in order to preserve their informative content and provide understandable and useful information over time. The fundamental characteristic of archives resides in their hierarchical organization expressing the context by means of the archival bond. Archival descriptions are the fundamental means to describe, understand, retrieve and access archival material. At the digital level, archival descriptions are usually encoded by means of the Encoded Archival Description XML format. The EAD is a standardized electronic representation of archival description which makes it possible to provide union access to detailed archival descriptions and resources in repositories distributed throughout the world.

Given the importance of archives, a dedicated formal model, called NEsted SeTs for Object Hierarchies (NESTOR),[18] built around their peculiar constituents, has been defined. NESTOR is based on the idea of expressing the hierarchical relationships between objects through the inclusion property between sets, in contrast to the binary relation between nodes exploited by the tree. NESTOR has been used to formally extend the 5S model to define a digital archive as a specific case of digital library able to take into consideration the peculiar features of archives.

Features of digital libraries

The advantages of digital libraries as a means of easily and rapidly accessing books, archives and images of various types are now widely recognized by commercial interests and public bodies alike.[19]

Traditional libraries are limited by storage space; digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain it.[20] As such, the cost of maintaining a digital library can be much lower than that of a traditional library. A physical library must spend large sums of money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. Digital libraries may reduce or, in some instances, do away with these fees. Both types of library require cataloging input to allow users to locate and retrieve material. Digital libraries may be more willing to adopt innovations in technology providing users with improvements in electronic and audio book technology as well as presenting new forms of communication such as wikis and blogs; conventional libraries may consider that providing online access to their OP AC catalog is sufficient. An important advantage to digital conversion is increased accessibility to users. They also increase availability to individuals who may not be traditional patrons of a library, due to geographic location or organizational affiliation.

  • No physical boundary. The user of a digital library need not to go to the library physically; people from all over the world can gain access to the same information, as long as an Internet connection is available.
  • Round the clock availability A major advantage of digital libraries is that people can gain access 24/7 to the information.
  • Multiple access. The same resources can be used simultaneously by a number of institutions and patrons. This may not be the case for copyrighted material: a library may have a license for "lending out" only one copy at a time; this is achieved with a system of digital rights management where a resource can become inaccessible after expiration of the lending period or after the lender chooses to make it inaccessible (equivalent to returning the resource).
  • Information retrieval. The user is able to use any search term (word, phrase, title, name, subject) to search the entire collection. Digital libraries can provide very user-friendly interfaces, giving click able access to its resources.
  • Preservation and conservation. Digitization is not a long-term preservation solution for physical collections, but does succeed in providing access copies for materials that would otherwise fall to degradation from repeated use. Digitized collections and born-digital objects pose many preservation and conservation concerns that analog materials do not. Please see the following "Problems" section of this page for examples.
  • Space. Whereas traditional libraries are limited by storage space, digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain them and media storage technologies are more affordable than ever before.
  • Added value. Certain characteristics of objects, primarily the quality of images, may be improved. Digitization can enhance legibility and remove visible flaws such as stains and discoloration.[21]
  • Easily accessible.

Software

There are a number of software packages for use in general digital libraries, for notable ones see Digital library software. Institutional repository software, which focuses primarily on ingest, preservation and access of locally produced documents, particularly locally produced academic outputs, can be found in Institutional repository software. This software may be proprietary, as is the case with the Library of Congress which uses Digiboard and CTS to manage digital content.[22]

The design and implementation in digital libraries are constructed so computer systems and software can make use of the information when it is exchanged. These are referred to as semantic digital libraries. Semantic libraries are also used to socialize with different communities from a mass of social networks.[23] DjDL is a type of semantic digital library. Keywords-based and semantic search are the two main types of searches. A tool is provided in the semantic search that create a group for augmentation and refinement for keywords-based search. Conceptual knowledge used in DjDL is centered around two forms; the subject ontology and the set of concept search patterns based on the ontology. The three type of ontologies that are associated to this search are bibliographic ontologies, community-aware ontologies, and subject ontologies.

Metadata

In traditional libraries, the ability to find works of interest is directly related to how well they were cataloged. While cataloging electronic works digitized from a library's existing holding may be as simple as copying or moving a record from the print to the electronic form, complex and born-digital works require substantially more effort. To handle the growing volume of electronic publications, new tools and technologies have to be designed to allow effective automated semantic classification and searching. While full-text search can be used for some items, there are many common catalog searches which cannot be performed using full text, including:

  • finding texts which are translations of other texts
  • differentiating between editions/volumes of a text/periodical
  • inconsistent descriptors (especially subject headings)
  • missing, deficient or poor quality taxonomy practices
  • linking texts published under pseudonyms to the real authors (Samuel Clemens and Mark Twain, for example)
  • differentiating non-fiction from parody (The Onion from The New York Times)

Searching

Most digital libraries provide a search interface which allows resources to be found. These resources are typically deep web (or invisible web) resources since they frequently cannot be located by search engine crawlers. Some digital libraries create special pages or sitemaps to allow search engines to find all their resources. Digital libraries frequently use the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) to expose their metadata to other digital libraries, and search engines like Google Scholar, Yahoo! and Scirus can also use OAI-PMH to find these deep web resources.[24]

There are two general strategies for searching a federation of digital libraries: distributed searching and searching previously harvested metadata.

Distributed searching typically involves a client sending multiple search requests in parallel to a number of servers in the federation. The results are gathered, duplicates are eliminated or clustered, and the remaining items are sorted and presented back to the client. Protocols like Z39.50 are frequently used in distributed searching. A benefit to this approach is that the resource-intensive tasks of indexing and storage are left to the respective servers in the federation. A drawback to this approach is that the search mechanism is limited by the different indexing and ranking capabilities of each database; therefore, making it difficult to assemble a combined result consisting of the most relevant found items.

Searching over previously harvested metadata involves searching a locally stored index of information that has previously been collected from the libraries in the federation. When a search is performed, the search mechanism does not need to make connections with the digital libraries it is searching - it already has a local representation of the information. This approach requires the creation of an indexing and harvesting mechanism which operates regularly, connecting to all the digital libraries and querying the whole collection in order to discover new and updated resources. OAI-PMH is frequently used by digital libraries for allowing metadata to be harvested. A benefit to this approach is that the search mechanism has full control over indexing and ranking algorithms, possibly allowing more consistent results. A drawback is that harvesting and indexing systems are more resource-intensive and therefore expensive.

Digital preservation

Digital preservation aims to ensure that digital media and information systems are still interpretable into the indefinite future.[25][26] Each necessary component of this must be migrated, preserved or emulated.[27] Typically lower levels of systems (floppy disks for example) are emulated, bit-streams (the actual files stored in the disks) are preserved and operating systems are emulated as a virtual machine. Only where the meaning and content of digital media and information systems are well understood is migration possible, as is the case for office documents.[27][28][29] However, at least one organization, the Wider Net Project, has created an offline digital library, the eGranary, by reproducing materials on a 6 TB hard drive. Instead of a bit-stream environment, the digital library contains a built-in proxy server and search engine so the digital materials can be accessed using an Internet browser.[30] Also, the materials are not preserved for the future. The eGranary is intended for use in places or situations where Internet connectivity is very slow, non-existent, unreliable, unsuitable or too expensive.

In the past few years, procedures for digitizing books at high speed and comparatively low cost have improved considerably with the result that it is now possible to digitize millions of books per year.[31] Google book-scanning project is also working with libraries to offer digitize books pushing forward on the digitize book realm.

Copyright and licensing

Digital libraries are hampered by copyright law because, unlike with traditional printed works, the laws of digital copyright are still being formed. The republication of material on the web by libraries may require permission from rights holders, and there is a conflict of interest between libraries and the publishers who may wish to create online versions of their acquired content for commercial purposes. In 2010, it was estimated that twenty-three percent of books in existence were created before 1923 and thus out of copyright. Of those printed after this date, only five percent were still in print as of 2010. Thus, approximately seventy-two percent of books were not available to the public.[32]

There is a dilution of responsibility that occurs as a result of the distributed nature of digital resources. Complex intellectual property matters may become involved since digital material is not always owned by a library.[33] The content is, in many cases, public domain or self-generated content only. Some digital libraries, such as Project Gutenberg, work to digitize out-of-copyright works and make them freely available to the public. An estimate of the number of distinct books still existent in library catalogues from 2000 BC to 1960, has been made.[34][35]

The Fair Use Provisions (17 USC § 107) under the Copyright Act of 1976 provide specific guidelines under which circumstances libraries are allowed to copy digital resources. Four factors that constitute fair use are "Purpose of the use, Nature of the work, Amount or substantiality used and Market impact."[36]

Some digital libraries acquire a license to lend their resources. This may involve the restriction of lending out only one copy at a time for each license, and applying a system of digital rights management for this purpose (see also above).

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 was an act created in the United States to attempt to deal with the introduction of digital works. This Act incorporates two treaties from the year 1996. It criminalizes the attempt to circumvent measures which limit access to copyrighted materials. It also criminalizes the act of attempting to circumvent access control.[37] This act provides an exemption for nonprofit libraries and archives which allows up to three copies to be made, one of which may be digital. This may not be made public or distributed on the web, however. Further, it allows libraries and archives to copy a work if its format becomes obsolete.[38]

Copyright issues persist. As such, proposals have been put forward suggesting that digital libraries be exempt from copyright law. Although this would be very beneficial to the public, it may have a negative economic effect and authors may be less inclined to create new works.[39]

Another issue that complicates matters is the desire of some publishing houses to restrict the use of digit materials such as e-books purchased by libraries. Whereas with printed books, the library owns the book until it can no longer be circulated, publishers want to limit the number of times an e-book can be checked out before the library would need to repurchase that book. "[HarperCollins] began licensing use of each e-book copy for a maximum of 26 loans. This affects only the most popular titles and has no practical effect on others. After the limit is reached, the library can repurchase access rights at a lower cost than the original price."[40] While from a publishing perspective, this sounds like a good balance of library lending and protecting themselves from a feared decrease in book sales, libraries are not set up to monitor their collections as such. They acknowledge the increased demand of digital materials available to patrons and the desire of a digital library to become expanded to include best sellers, but publisher licensing may hinder the process.

Recommendation systems

Many digital libraries offer recommender systems to reduce information overload and help their users discovering relevant literature. Some examples of digital libraries offering recommender systems are IEEE Xplore, Europeana, and GESIS Sowiport. The recommender systems work mostly based on content-based filtering but also other approaches are used such as collaborative filtering and citation-based recommendations.[41] Beel et al. report that there are more than 90 different recommendation approaches for digital libraries, presented in more than 200 research articles.[41]

Typically, digital libraries develop and maintain their own recommender systems based on existing search and recommendation frameworks such as Apache Lucene or Apache Mahout. However, there are also some recommendation-as-a-service provider specializing in offering a recommender system for digital libraries as a service.

Drawbacks of digital libraries

Digital libraries, or at least their digital collections, unfortunately also have brought their own problems and challenges in areas such as:

There are many large scale digitisation projects that perpetuate these problems.

Future development

Large scale digitization projects are underway at Google, the Million Book Project, and Internet Archive. With continued improvements in book handling and presentation technologies such as optical character recognition and development of alternative depositories and business models, digital libraries are rapidly growing in popularity. Just as libraries have ventured into audio and video collections, so have digital libraries such as the Internet Archive. Google Books project recently received a court victory on proceeding with their book-scanning project that was halted by the Authors' guild.[43] This helped open the road for libraries to work with Google to better reach patrons who are accustomed to computerized information.

According to Larry Lannom, Director of Information Management Technology at the nonprofit Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), "all the problems associated with digital libraries are wrapped up in archiving." He goes on to state, "If in 100 years people can still read your article, we'll have solved the problem." Daniel Akst, author of The Webster Chronicle, proposes that "the future of libraries — and of information — is digital." Peter Lyman and Hal Variant, information scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, estimate that "the world's total yearly production of print, film, optical, and magnetic content would require roughly 1.5 billion gigabytes of storage." Therefore, they believe that "soon it will be technologically possible for an average person to access virtually all recorded information."[44]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Lanagan, James; Smeaton, Alan F. (September 2012). "Video digital libraries: contributive and decentralized". International Journal on Digital Libraries. 12 (4): 159–178. doi:10.1007/s00799-012-0078-z.
  3. ^ Lynch, Clifford (2005). "Where Do We Go From Here? The Next Decade for Digital Libraries". D-Lib Magazine. 11 (7/8). ISSN 1082-9873. Archived from the original on 16 Jan 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2018. This is a field with an incredibly rich, and, as yet, poorly chronicled pre-history and early history. There is a stream of work and ideas that reaches back to at least the turn of the 20th century, and includes such thinkers as H.G. Wells and Paul Otlet; later contributors to the pre-history of visions of new, technologically-enabled means of knowledge organization, access and distribution also include Vannevar Bush and J.C.R. Licklider.
  4. ^ Stocker, Gerfried (1 January 2014). "Beyond Archives (or the Internet 100 years before the Internet)". In Magalhães, Ana Gonçalves; Beiguelman, Giselle. Possible Futures: art, museums and digital archives. ISBN 9788575963548. Retrieved 30 April 2018. Actually it was 1895 when Paul Otlet together with Henry La Fontaine, who was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, started a project - Mundaneum - that was initiated and driven by their idea that, if they would be able to collect all human knowledge and make it accessible to everybody worldwide, then this would bring about peace on Earth.
  5. ^ Bush, Vannevar (July 1945). "As We May Think" (PDF). The Atlantic Monthly: 101–108. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  6. ^ Bourne, Charles P.; Hahn, Trudi Bellardo (2003). A History of Online Information Services, 1963–1976. MIT Press. pp. 169–170. ISBN 9780262261753. Retrieved 30 April 2018. 1696 Milestone - DIALOG, with the ERIC database, provided the first instance of extensive availability of abstracts online for search output.
  7. ^ Wiederhold, Gio (1993). "Intelligent integration of information". ACM Sigmod Record. 22 (2): 434–437. doi:10.1145/170036.170118.
  8. ^ Besser, Howard (2004). "The Past, Present, and Future of Digital Libraries". In Schreibman, Susan; Siemens, Ray; Unsworth, John. A Companion to Digital Humanities. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. pp. 557–575. doi:10.1002/9780470999875.ch36. ISBN 9781405103213. Archived from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  9. ^ Candela, Leonardo; Castelli, Donatella; Pagano, Pasquale; Thanos, Constantino; Ioannidis, Yannis; Koutrika, Georgia; Ross, Seamus; Schek, Hans-Jörg; Schuldt, Heiko (2007). "Setting the Foundations of Digital Libraries". D-Lib Magazine. 13 (3/4). ISSN 1082-9873. Archived from the original on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  10. ^ L. Candela et al.: The DELOS Digital Library Reference Model - Foundations for Digital Libraries. Version 0.98, February 2008 (PDF Archived 2008-08-28 at the Wayback Machine)
  11. ^ Gonçalves, Marcos André; Fox, Edward A.; Watson, Layne T.; Kipp, Neill A. (2004). "Streams, structures, spaces, scenarios, societies (5s): A formal model for digital libraries". ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS). 22 (2): 270–312. doi:10.1145/984321.984325.
  12. ^ Isah, Abdulmumin; Serema, Batlang Comma; Mutshewa, Athulang; Kenosi, Lekoko (2013). "Digital Libraries: Analysis of Delos Reference Model and 5S Theory". Journal of Information Science Theory and Practice. 1 (4): 38–47. doi:10.1633/JISTaP.2013.1.4.3.
  13. ^ Fox, Edward A. (1999). "The Digital Libraries Initiative: Update and Discussion". Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science. 26 (1). ISSN 2373-9223. Archived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  14. ^ "digital libraries, electronic libraries and virtual libraries". www2.hawaii.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  15. ^ Yi, Esther, Inside the Quest to Put the World's Libraries Online Archived 2016-11-19 at the Wayback Machine, The Atlantic, July 26, 2012.
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  17. ^ Pitti, D. and Duff, W. M. (2001). Introduction. In Pitti, D. and Duff, W. M., editors, Encoded Archival Description on the Internet, pages 1–6. The Haworth Press, Inc.
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  20. ^ Pomerantz, Jeffrey; Marchionini, Gary (2007). "The digital library as place". Journal of Documentation. 63 (4): 505–533. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.112.2139. doi:10.1108/00220410710758995.
  21. ^ Gert, Janet. "Selection for Preservation in the Digital Age." Library Resources & Technical Services. 44(2) (2000):97-104.
  22. ^ "DPOE Curriculum - Manage and implement requirements for long term management". The Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  23. ^ Pavlova, Shukerov, Pavlov, Maria Nisheva, Dicho, Pavel. "Design and implementation of a social semantic digital library": 273–284.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ Koehler, Amy E. C. (2013). "Some Thoughts on the Meaning of Open Access for University Library Technical Services". Serials Review. 32 (1): 17–21. doi:10.1080/00987913.2006.10765020.
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  26. ^ Habibzadeh, P.; Sciences, Schattauer GmbH - Publishers for Medicine and Natural (2013-01-01). "Decay of References to Web sites in Articles Published in General Medical Journals: Mainstream vs Small Journals". Applied Clinical Informatics. 4 (4): 455–464. doi:10.4338/aci-2013-07-ra-0055. PMC 3885908. PMID 24454575.
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  31. ^ Committee on Institutional Cooperation: Partnership announced between CIC and Google Archived 2007-06-14 at the Wayback Machine, 6 June 2007, Retrieved 7.
  32. ^ Van Le, Christopher, "Opening the Doors to Digital Libraries: A Proposal to Exempt Digital Libraries From the Copyright Act," Case Western Reserve Journal of Law, Technology & The Internet, 1.2 (Spring 2010),135.
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  34. ^ Antique Books Archived 2005-10-27 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ Kelly, Kevin (2006-05-14). "Scan This Book!". New York Times Magazine. Archived from the original on 2012-10-12. Retrieved 2008-03-07. When Google announced in December 2004 that it would digitally scan the books of five major research libraries to make their contents searchable, the promise of a universal library was resurrected. ... From the days of Sumerian clay tablets till now, humans have "published" at least 32 million books, 750 million articles and essays, 25 million songs, 500 million images, 500,000 movies, 3 million videos, TV shows and short films and 100 billion public Web pages.
  36. ^ Hirtle, Peter B.,"Digital Preservation and Copyright," Archived 2008-04-19 at the Wayback Machine Stanford University Libraries. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
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  44. ^ Akst, D. (2003). The Digital Library: Its Future Has Arrived. Carnegie Reporter, 2(3), 4-8.

Further reading

  • Candela, L.; Castelli, D. & Pagano, History, Evolution and Impact of Digital Libraries. In P. Iglezakis, I.; Synodinou, T. & Kapidakis, S. (ed.) E-Publishing and Digital Libraries: Legal and Organizational Issues, IGI Global, 2011, 1- 30. - A description of the initiatives and understandings leading to digital libraries
Association for Computing Machinery

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947, and is the world's largest scientific and educational computing society. The ACM is a non-profit professional membership group, with nearly 100,000 members as of 2019. Its headquarters are in New York City.The ACM is an umbrella organization for academic and scholarly interests in computer science. Its motto is "Advancing Computing as a Science & Profession".

Bodleian Library

The Bodleian Library () is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe. With over 12 million items, it is the second-largest library in Britain after the British Library. Under the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003 it is one of six legal deposit libraries for works published in the United Kingdom and under Irish Law it is entitled to request a copy of each book published in the Republic of Ireland. Known to Oxford scholars as "Bodley" or "the Bod", it operates principally as a reference library and, in general, documents may not be removed from the reading rooms.

In 2000, a number of libraries within the University of Oxford were brought together for administrative purposes under the aegis of what was initially known as Oxford University Library Services (OULS), and since 2010 as the Bodleian Libraries, of which the Bodleian Library is the largest component.

All colleges of the University of Oxford have their own libraries, which in a number of cases were established well before the foundation of the Bodleian, and all of which remain entirely independent of the Bodleian. They do, however, participate in OLIS (Oxford Libraries Information System), the Bodleian Libraries' online union catalogue. Much of the library's archives were digitized and put online for public access in 2015.

California Digital Library

The California Digital Library (CDL) was founded by the University of California in 1997. In collaboration with the ten University of California Libraries and other partners, CDL has assembled one of the world's largest digital research libraries. CDL facilitates the licensing of online materials and develops shared services used throughout the UC system. Building on the foundations of the Melvyl Catalog (UC's union catalog), CDL has developed one of the largest online library catalogs in the country and works in partnership with the UC campuses to bring the treasures of California's libraries, museums, and cultural heritage organizations to the world. CDL continues to explore how services such as digital curation, scholarly publishing, archiving and preservation support research throughout the information lifecycle.

CiteSeerX

CiteSeerx (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science. CiteSeer holds a United States patent # 6289342, titled "Autonomous citation indexing and literature browsing using citation context," granted on September 11, 2001. Stephen R. Lawrence, C. Lee Giles, Kurt D. Bollacker are the inventors of this patent assigned to NEC Laboratories America, Inc. This patent was filed on May 20, 1998, which has its roots (Priority) to January 5, 1998. A continuation patent was also granted to the same inventors and also assigned to NEC Labs on this invention i.e. US Patent # 6738780 granted on May 18, 2004 and was filed on May 16, 2001. CiteSeer is considered as a predecessor of academic search tools such as Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search. CiteSeer-like engines and archives usually only harvest documents from publicly available websites and do not crawl publisher websites. For this reason, authors whose documents are freely available are more likely to be represented in the index.

CiteSeer's goal is to improve the dissemination and access of academic and scientific literature. As a non-profit service that can be freely used by anyone, it has been considered as part of the open access movement that is attempting to change academic and scientific publishing to allow greater access to scientific literature. CiteSeer freely provided Open Archives Initiative metadata of all indexed documents and links indexed documents when possible to other sources of metadata such as DBLP and the ACM Portal. To promote open data, CiteSeerx shares its data for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons license.The name can be construed to have at least two explanations. As a pun, a 'sightseer' is a tourist who looks at the sights, so a 'cite seer' would be a researcher who looks at cited papers. Another is a 'seer' is a prophet and a 'cite seer' is a prophet of citations. CiteSeer changed its name to ResearchIndex at one point and then changed it back.

Cronus

In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos ( or , US: , from Greek: Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth. He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus. According to Plato, however, the deities Phorcys, Cronus, and Rhea were the eldest children of Oceanus and Tethys.Cronus was usually depicted with a harpe, scythe or a sickle, which was the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honour of Cronus to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus continued to preside as a patron of the harvest. Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn.

DBLP

DBLP is a computer science bibliography website. Starting in 1993 at the University of Trier, Germany, it grew from a small collection of HTML files and became an organization hosting a database and logic programming bibliography site. DBLP listed more than 3.66 million journal articles, conference papers, and other publications on computer science in July 2016, up from about 14,000 in 1995. All important journals on computer science are tracked. Proceedings papers of many conferences are also tracked. It is mirrored at three sites across the Internet.For his work on maintaining DBLP, Michael Ley received an award from the Association for Computing Machinery and the VLDB Endowment Special Recognition Award in 1997.

DBLP originally stood for DataBase systems and Logic Programming. As a backronym, it has been taken to stand for Digital Bibliography & Library Project; however, it is now preferred that the acronym be simply a name, hence the new title "The DBLP Computer Science Bibliography".Users of dblp remain unaffected by some additional attributes in the DTD as of February 2016, which are meant to support future versions of the data file. Thus consumers of the raw dblp.xml file should update their local dblp.dtd file, according to the notice on the home page, as of February 2016.

Dead Sea Scrolls

The Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves in the West Bank near the Dead Sea. Scholarly consensus dates these scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE. The texts have great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Almost all of the Dead Sea Scrolls collection is currently under the ownership of the Government of the state of Israel, and housed in the Shrine of the Book on the grounds of the Israel Museum.

Digital Library for Dutch Literature

The Digital Library for Dutch Literature (Dutch: Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren or DBNL) is a website (showing the abbreviation as dbnl) about Dutch language and Dutch literature. The website contains thousands of literary texts, secondary literature and additional information, like biographies, portrayals etcetera, and hyperlinks. The DBNL is an initiative by the DBNL foundation that was founded in 1999 by the Society of Dutch Literature (Dutch: Maatschappij der Nederlandse Letterkunde).

Building of the DNBL was made possible by donations, among others, from the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research (Dutch: Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek) and the Nederlandse Taalunie. From 2008 to 2012, the editor was René van Stipriaan. The work is done by eight people in Leiden (as of 2013: The Hague), 20 students, and 50 people in the Philippines who scan and type the texts.

Eos

In Greek mythology, Eos (; Ionic and Homeric Greek Ἠώς Ēōs, Attic Ἕως Éōs, "dawn", pronounced [ɛːɔ̌ːs] or [héɔːs]; Aeolic Αὔως Aúōs, Doric Ἀώς Āṓs) is a Titaness and the goddess of the dawn, who rose each morning from her home at the edge of the Oceanus.

Glaucus

In Greek mythology, Glaucus (; Ancient Greek: Γλαῦκος Glaukos means "greyish blue" or "bluish green" and "glimmering") was a Greek prophetic sea-god, born mortal and turned immortal upon eating a magical herb. It was believed that he commonly came to the rescue of sailors and fishermen in storms, having earlier earned a living from the sea himself.

HathiTrust

HathiTrust is a large-scale collaborative repository of digital content from research libraries including content digitized via the Google Books project and Internet Archive digitization initiatives, as well as content digitized locally by libraries.

Hyperion (Titan)

In Greek mythology, Hyperion (; Greek: Ὑπερίων, translit. Hyperíōn, "The High-One") was one of the twelve Titan children of Gaia (Earth) and Uranus (Sky) who, led by Cronus, overthrew their father Uranus and were themselves later overthrown by the Olympians. With his sister, the Titaness Theia, Hyperion fathered Helios (Sun), Selene (Moon) and Eos (Dawn). Keats's abandoned epic poem Hyperion is among the literary works that feature the figure.

List of digital library projects

This is a list of digital library projects.

National Diet Library

The National Diet Library (NDL) (国立国会図書館, Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan) is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan (国会, Kokkai) in researching matters of public policy. The library is similar in purpose and scope to the United States Library of Congress.

The National Diet Library (NDL) consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, and several other branch libraries throughout Japan.

Perseus Project

The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. The project assembles digital collections of humanities resources. It is hosted by the department of Classics. The project is mirrored by the Max Planck Society in Berlin, Germany, as well as by the University of Chicago.

Post-Reformation Digital Library

The Post-Reformation Digital Library (PRDL) is a database of digitized books from the early modern era. The collected titles are directly linked to full-text versions of the works in question. The bibliography was initially inclined toward Protestant writers from the Reformation and immediate Post-Reformation era (the later sometimes characterized as the age of Protestant Scholasticism). In its current development the project is moving toward being a comprehensive database of early modern theology and philosophy and also includes late medieval and patristic works printed in the early modern period.

The database is a project of the Junius Institute for Digital Reformation Research at Calvin Theological Seminary, and was produced in cooperation with the H. Henry Meeter Center for Calvin Studies, a joint undertaking of Calvin College and Calvin Theological Seminary.

As bibliographical projects such as VD 16, VD 17, and English Short Title Catalogue, have a more narrow national or regional focus, meta-bibliographical tools such as PRDL and Early Modern Thought Online play a vital role in facilitating scholarship in the rapidly changing technological landscape.

University of North Texas Libraries

The University of North Texas Libraries is an American academic research library system that serves the constituent colleges and schools of University of North Texas in Denton. The phrase "University of North Texas Libraries"

encompasses three aspects: The library collections as a whole and its organizational structure; The physical facilities and digital platform that house the collections; and Certain self-contained collections of substantial size that warrant the name "Library"—the Music Library and the Digital Libraries (collections), for example, are housed in Willis Library (the building).

Western Waters Digital Library

The Western Waters Digital Library (WWDL) provides free public access to digital collections of significant primary and secondary resources on water in the western United States. These collections have been made available by research libraries other academic and institutional partners.

WWDL allows searchers to link to reports, photographs, correspondence, and legal documents. Some of the most significant people and events in water law and water history are featured on the site. For example, WWDL links to digitized items from the Papers of Delph E. Carpenter, known as the "Father of Interstate Water Compacts." Papers from other important individuals which have been linked to the site include Joseph B. Lippincott, Frank A. Banks, Wallace A. Bennett, and John S. Boyden.

WWDL is a valuable resource for researchers, policy makers, scholars, Native American tribes, professionals working in various fields, and others interested in contemporary and historic water issues.

World Digital Library

The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.

The WDL has stated that its mission is to promote international and intercultural understanding, expand the volume and variety of cultural content on the Internet, provide resources for educators, scholars, and general audiences, and to build capacity in partner institutions to narrow the digital divide within and among countries. It aims to expand non-English and non-western content on the Internet, and contribute to scholarly research. The library intends to make available on the Internet, free of charge and in multilingual format, significant primary materials from cultures around the world, including manuscripts, maps, rare books, musical scores, recordings, films, prints, photographs, architectural drawings, and other significant cultural materials.The WDL opened with 1,236 items. As of early 2018, it lists more than 18,000 items from nearly 200 countries, dating back to 8,000 BCE.

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