Digambara

Digambara (/dɪˈɡʌmbərə/; "sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara (white-clad). The word Digambara (Sanskrit) is a combination of two words: dig (directions) and ambara (dress), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. Digambara monks do not wear any clothes. The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers (for clearing the place before walking or sitting), kamandalu (a water container made of wood), and shastra (scripture). One of the most important scholar-monks of Digambara tradition was Kundakunda. He authored Prakrit texts such as the Samayasāra and the Pravacanasāra. Other prominent Acharyas of this tradition were, Virasena (author of a commentary on the Dhavala), Samantabhadra and Siddhasena Divakara. The Satkhandagama and Kasayapahuda have major significance in the Digambara tradition.

Acharya KundaKunda
Image depicting Acharya Kundakunda

History

Relics found from Harappan excavations such as seals depicting Kayotsarga posture, idols in Padmasana and a nude bust of red limestone, give insight into the antiquity of the Digambara tradition.[1] The presence of gymnosophists (naked philosophers) in Greek records as early as the fourth century BC, supports the claim of the Digambaras that they have preserved the ancient Śramaṇa practice.[2]

Dundas talks about the archeological evidences which indicate that Jain monks moved from the practice of total nudity towards wearing clothes in later period. Ancient Tirthankara statues found in Mathura are naked. The oldest Tirthankara statue wearing a cloth is dated in 5th century CE.[3] Digamabara statues of tirthankara belonging to Gupta period has half-closed eyes.[4]

Lineage

Djtradition marhiaji
Stela at Marhiaji, Jabalpur, showing the transmission of the oral tradition, erected on the 2500th anniversary of Lord Mahavira's nirvana

According to Digambara texts, after liberation of the Lord Mahavira, three Anubaddha Kevalīs attained Kevalajñāna (omniscience) sequentially – Gautama Gaņadhara, Acharya Sudharma, and Jambusvami in next 62 years.[5] During the next hundred years, five Āchāryas had complete knowledge of the scriptures, as such, called Śruta Kevalīs, the last of them being Āchārya Bhadrabahu.[6][7] Spiritual lineage of heads of monastic orders is known as Pattavali.[8] Digambara tradition consider Dharasena to be the 33rd teacher in succession of Gautama, 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira.[9]

Acharyas Time period Known for
Bhadrabahu 3rd century B.C.E. Last Shruta Kevalin and Chandragupta Maurya's spiritual teacher[6]
Kundakunda 1st century B.C.E.-
1st century C.E.
Author of Samayasāra, Niyamasara, Pravachansara, Barah anuvekkha[10]
Umaswami 2nd century C.E. Author of Tattvartha Sutra (canon on science and ethics)
Samantabhadra 2nd century C.E. Author of Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, Aptamimamsa
Siddhasena Divakara 5th century C.E. Author of Sanmatitarka[11]
Pujyapada 5th century C.E. Author of Iṣṭopadeśa (Divine Sermons), a concise work of 51 verses
Manatunga 6th century C.E. Creator of famous Bhaktamara Stotra
Virasena 8th-century C.E. Mathematician and author of Dhavala[12]
Jinasena 9th century C.E. Author of Mahapurana
Nemichandra 10th century C.E. Author of Dravyasamgraha and supervised the consecration of the Gomateshwara statue.

Practices

Monasticism

The word Digambara is a combination of two Sanskrit words: dik (दिक्) (directions) and ambara (अम्बर) (sky), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space.[2] Digambara monks do not wear any clothes as it is considered to be parigraha (possession), which ultimately leads to attachment.[13] A Digambara monk has 28 mūla guņas (primary attributes).[14] These are: five mahāvratas (supreme vows); five samitis (regulations); pañcendriya nirodha (five-fold control of the senses); Ṣadāvaśyakas (six essential duties); and seven niyamas (rules or restrictions).[15]

Head Vow Meaning
Mahavratas-
Five Great Vows[16][17]
1. Ahimsa Not to injure any living being through actions or thoughts
2. Truth To speak only the truth and good words
3. Asteya Not to take anything unless given
4. Brahmacharya Celibacy in action, words and thoughts
5. Aparigraha Renunciation of worldly things and foreign natures, external and internal
Samiti-
Fivefold regulation of activities[18][19]
6. irya To walk carefully after viewing land to the extent of four cubits (2 yards).
7. bhasha Not to criticise anyone or speak bad words
8. eshna To accept food from a sravaka (householder) if it is free from 46 faults
9. adan-nishep Carefulness in the handling of whatever the saint possess.
10. pratishṭapan To dispose off the body waste at a place free from living beings.
Panchindrinirodh[15] 11–15. Fivefold control of the senses Shedding all attachment and aversion towards the sense objects pertaining to touch (sparśana), taste (rasana), smell (ghrāṇa), sight (cakśu), and hearing (śrotra)
Six Essential Duties[20][15] 16. Sāmāyika Meditate for equanimity towards every living being
17. stuti Worship of the Tirthankaras
18. vandan To pay obeisances to siddhas, arihantas and acharyas
19. Pratikramana Self-censure, repentance; to drive oneself away from the multitude of karmas, virtuous or wicked, done in the past.
20. Pratikhayan Renunciation
21. Kayotsarga Giving up attachment to the body and meditate on soul.
Niyama-
Seven rules[15][21]
22. adantdhavan Not to use tooth powder to clean teeth
23. bhushayan Sleeping on hard ground
24. asnāna Non-bathing
25. stithi-bhojan Eating food in standing posture
26. ahara To consume food and water once a day
27. keśa-lonch To pluck hair on the head and face by hand.
28. nudity To be nude (digambara)

The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers for removing small insects without causing them injury, Kamandalu (the gourd for carrying pure, sterilized water) and shastra (scripture).[22][23] The head of all monastics is called Āchārya, while the saintly preceptor of saints is the upādhyāya.[24] The Āchārya has 36 primary attributes (mūla guņa) in addition to the 28 mentioned above.[15] The monks perform kayotsarga daily, in a rigid and immobile posture, with the arms held stiffly down, knees straight, and toes directed forward.[2] Female monastics in Digambara tradition are known as aryikas.[25] Statistically, there are more Digambara nuns, than there are monks.[26]

Digambar akhara

Digambar Akhara', along with other akharas, also participates in various inter-sectarian (sampradaya) religious activities including Kumbh Melas.[27][28]

Worship

Tîrthankara jaina Adinatha. Cave4Badami
Adinatha image (Badami caves)

The Digambara Jains worship completely nude idols of tirthankaras (omniscient beings) and siddha (liberated souls). The tirthankara is represented either seated in yoga posture or standing in the Kayotsarga posture.[29]

The truly "sky-clad" (digambara) Jaina statue expresses the perfect isolation of the one who has stripped off every bond. His is an absolute "abiding in itself," a strange but perfect aloofness, a nudity of chilling majesty, in its stony simplicity, rigid contours, and abstraction.[30]

Statues

Kizhavalavu (Kilavalavu) -Jain Sculptures

Kizhavalavu (Keelavalavu) Sculptures

Gommateshvara Bahubali

The 57 feet (17 m) high Gommateshwara statue, Shravanabelagola

Jain statues, Gwalior

Tirthankara statues at Siddhachal Caves inside Gwalior Fort, Madhya Pradesh

Jain statue of Parshvanath, Naugaza temple, Alwar district, Rajasthan, India

Tirthankara Parshvanatha statue, Rajasthan

Literature

The Digambara sect of Jainism rejects the authority of the texts accepted by the other major sect, the Svetambaras.[31]

According to the Digambaras, Āchārya Dharasena guided two Āchāryas, Pushpadanta and Bhutabali, to put the teachings of Mahavira in written form, 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira.[9] The two Āchāryas wrote Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama on palm leaves which is considered to be among the oldest known Digambara texts.[32] Āchārya Bhutabali was the last ascetic who had partial knowledge of the original Jain Agamas. Later on, some learned Āchāryas started to restore, compile and put into written words the teachings of Lord Mahavira, that were the subject matter of Agamas.[7]

Digambaras group the texts into four literary categories called anuyoga (exposition).[33] The prathmanuyoga (first exposition) contains the universal history, the karananuyoga (calculation exposition) contains works on cosmology and the charananuyoga (behaviour exposition) includes texts about proper behaviour for monks and Sravakas.[33]

Most eminent Digamabara authors include Kundakunda, Samantabhadra, Pujyapada, Jinasena, Akalanka, Vidyanandi, Somadeva and Asadhara.[34]

Sub-sects

The Digambara tradition can be divided into two main orders viz. Mula Sangha (original community) and modern community. Mula Sangha can be further divided into orthodox and heterodox traditions. Orthodox traditions included Nandi, Sena, Simha and Deva sangha. Heterodox traditions included Dravida, Yapaniya, Kashtha and Mathura sangha.[36] Other traditions of Mula sangha include Deshiya Gana and Balatkara Gana traditions. Modern Digambara community is divided into various sub-sects viz. Terapanthi, Bispanthi, Taranpanthi (or Samayiapanthi), Gumanapanthi and Totapanthi.[37]

Digambara community was divided into Terapanthi and Bisapanthi on the acceptance of authority of Bhattaraka.[38] The Bhattarakas of Shravanabelagola and Mudbidri belong to Deshiya Gana and the Bhattaraka of Humbaj belongs to the Balatkara Gana.[39]

The Bispanth-Terapanth division among the Digambaras emerged in the 17th century in the Jaipur region: Sanganer, Amer and Jaipur itself.[40]

Terapanthi

Acharya Gyansagar
Acharya Gyansagar

The Terapanthis worship what the idols represent, with ashta-dravya similarly to the Bispanthis, but replace flowers and fruits with dry substitutes. The ashta-dravya jal (water), chandan (sandal), akshata (sacred rice), pushp (yellow rice), deep (yellow dry coconut), dhup (kapoor or cloves) and phal (almonds).[41] Terapanthi is a reformist sect of Digambara Jainism that distinguished itself from the Bispanthi sect. It formed out of strong opposition to the religious domination of traditional religious leaders called bhattarakas in the 17th century. They oppose the worship of various minor gods and goddesses. Some Terapanthi practices, like not using flowers in worship, are followed by most of North Indian Jains. Terapanthis occur in large numbers in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.[41]

The Terapanthi movement was born out of the Adhyatma movement that arose in 1626 AD (V.S. 1683) in Agra. Its leading proponent was Banarasidas of Agra.[42]

Bispanthi

Besides tirthankaras, Bispanthi also worship Yaksha and Yakshini like Bhairava and Kshetrapala. Their religious practices include aarti and offerings of flowers, fruits and prasad. Bhattarakas are their dharma-gurus and they are concentrated in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharastra and South India. [41]

Differences with Śvētāmbara sect

According to Digambara texts, after attaining Kevala Jnana (omniscience), arihant (omniscient beings) are free from human needs like hunger, thirst, and sleep.[43] In contrast, Śvētāmbara texts preach that it is not so. According to the Digambara tradition, a soul can attain moksha (liberation) only from the male body with complete nudity being a necessity.[44] While, Śvētāmbaras believe that women can attain liberation from female body itself and renunciation of clothes is not at all necessary.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Possehl 2002, p. 111.
  2. ^ a b c Zimmer 1953, p. 210.
  3. ^ Upinder Singh 2016, p. 444.
  4. ^ Umakant Premanand Shah 1987, p. 4.
  5. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. xi-xii.
  6. ^ a b Pereira 1977, p. 5.
  7. ^ a b Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. xii.
  8. ^ Cort 2010, p. 335.
  9. ^ a b Dundas 2002, p. 79.
  10. ^ Jaini 1991, p. 31.
  11. ^ Upinder Singh 2009, p. 524.
  12. ^ Satkhandagama : Dhaval (Jivasthana) Satparupana-I (Enunciation of Existence-I) An English Translation of Part 1 of the Dhavala Commentary on the Satkhandagama of Acarya Pushpadanta & Bhutabali Dhavala commentary by Acarya Virasena English tr. by Prof. Nandlal Jain, Ed. by Prof. Ashok Jain ISBN 978-81-86957-47-9
  13. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 45.
  14. ^ Pramansagar 2008, p. 189–191.
  15. ^ a b c d e Vijay K. Jain 2013, pp. 189–191, 196–197.
  16. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2011, p. 93–100.
  17. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1926, p. 26.
  18. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 144–145.
  19. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1926, p. 32–38.
  20. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 143.
  21. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1926, p. 46–47.
  22. ^ Upinder Singh 2009, p. 316.
  23. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1926, p. 36.
  24. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1926, p. 21.
  25. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1926, p. 141.
  26. ^ Harvey 2014, p. 182.
  27. ^ [South Asian Religions on Display: Religious Processions in South Asia and in the Diaspora, Knut A. Jacobsen, ISBN hardback 978-0-415-4373-3, ISBN ebook ISBN hardback 978-0-203-93059-5]
  28. ^ Akharas At Simhastha Kumbha Mela Ujjain, 17-Jan-201
  29. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 209–210.
  30. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 213.
  31. ^ Upinder Singh 2009, p. 444.
  32. ^ Dundas 2002, pp. 63–64.
  33. ^ a b Dundas 2002, p. 80.
  34. ^ Jaini 2000, p. 28.
  35. ^ Glasenapp, Helmuth (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 382. ISBN 9788120813762. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  36. ^ Carrithers & Humphrey 1991, p. 170.
  37. ^ Sangave 1980, pp. 51-56.
  38. ^ Long 2008, p. 39.
  39. ^ Sangave 1980, p. 299.
  40. ^ John E. Cort "A Tale of Two Cities: On the Origins of Digambara Sectarianism in North India." L. A. Babb, V. Joshi, and M. W. Meister (eds.), Multiple Histories: Culture and Society in the Study of Rajasthan, 39-83. Jaipur: Rawat, 2002.
  41. ^ a b c Sangave 1980, p. 52.
  42. ^ Ardhakathanaka: Half a tale, a Study in the Interrelationship between Autobiography and History, Mukunda Lath (trans. and ed.), Jaipur 2005. ISBN 978-8129105660
  43. ^ Upinder Singh 2009, p. 314.
  44. ^ Upinder Singh 2009, p. 319.

Sources

External links

Digambar Jain Mahasabha

Digambar Jain Mahasabha or Shri Bharatvarshiya Digamber Jain Mahasabha is the oldest organisation of lay Jains in India.

Digambara Terapanth

Digambara Terapanth is one of the sects of Digambara Jainism, the other being the Bispanthi sect. It formed out of strong opposition to the religious domination of traditional religious leaders called bhattarakas during the 12-16th century A.D, for the bhattarakas starting deviating from the original/Mula jain customs. They oppose the worship of various minor gods and goddesses. Some Terapanthi practices, like not using flowers in worship, gradually spread throughout most of North Indian Jainism as well.

The Terapanthi movement was born out of the Adhyatma movement that arose in 1626 AD (V.S. 1683) in Agra. Its leading proponent was Banarasidas of Agra.

The Bispanth-Terapanth division among the Digambaras emerged in the 17th century in the Jaipur region: Sanganer, Amer and Jaipur itself.Terapanth was formally founded by Amra Bhaunsa Godika and his son Jodhraj Godika, prominent citizens in Sanganer, during 1664-1667. They expressed opposition to Bhattaraka Narendrakirti of Amber. Authors Daulatram Kasliwal and Pandit Todarmal were associated with the Terapanth movement.Bakhtaram in his "Mithyatva Khandan Natak" (1764) mentions that group that started it included 13 individuals who collectively built a new temple, thus giving it its name Terapanth, which literally means "thirteen-panthan". Alternatively, according to "Kavitta Terapanth kau" by Chanda Kavi, the movement was named Terapanth because it founders disagreed with the Bhattaraka on thirteen points. A letter of 1692 from Terapanthis at Kama to those at Sanganer mentions 13 rituals practices they rejected.The Terapanthis reject these practices:

Mentioned in Buddhivilas (1770) of Bakhtaram:

Authority of Bhattarakas

Use of flowers, cooked food or lamps

Abhisheka (panchamrita)

consecration of images without supervision by the representatives of Bhattarakas.The letter by Tera Panthis at Kama also mentions:

Puja while seated

Puja at night

Using drums in the templeTerapanth Khandan of Pandit Pannalal also mentions:

Worship of minor gods like the guardians of the directions, śāsanadevis such as Padmavati, and Kshetrapala.

Digambara monk

Digambara monk (also muni, sādhu) is a monk in the Digambara tradition of Jainism, and as such an occupant of the highest limb of the four-fold sangha. They are also called nirgrantha which means "one without any bonds". Digambara monks have 28 primary attributes which includes observance of the five supreme vows of ahimsa (non-injury), truth, non-thieving, celibacy and non-possession. A Digambara monk is allowed to keep only a feather whisk, a water gourd and scripture with him.

In Jainism, those śrāvakas (householders) who wish to attain moksha (liberation) renounce all possessions and become an ascetic. According to the Jain text, Dravyasamgraha: Salutation to the Ascetic (Sādhu) abound in faith and knowledge, who incessantly practises pure conduct that surely leads to liberation.

Digambara monks are also called nirgrantha which means "one without any bonds". The term originally applied to those of them who were on the point of attaining to omniscience, on the attainment of which they were called munis.Rishabhanatha (the first tirthankara) is said to be the first Digambara monk of the present half cycle of time (avasarpini). The presence of gymnosophists (naked philosophers) in Greek records as early as the fourth century BC, supports the claim of the Digambaras that they have preserved the ancient Śramaṇa practice. Acharya Bhadrabahu, Acharya Kundakunda are two of the most revered Digambara monks.

Gaccha

Gaccha, alternatively spelled as Gachchha, is a monastic order, along with lay followers, of the image worshipping Murtipujaka Svetambara sect of Jainism. The term is also used in the Digambara sect.

Jain Agamas (Digambara)

Agamas are texts of Digambara Jainism based on the discourses of the tirthankara. Samaysara, Pravachanasara, Niyamsara, Pancastikayasara, Ashtapahuda, Kasayapahuda and Shatkhandagama are considered Agamic Texts by Digambaras.

Jain literature

Jain literature comprises Jain Agamas and subsequent commentaries on them by various Jain asectics. Jain literature is primarily divided between Digambara literature and Svetambara literature. Jain literature exists mainly in Magadhi Prakrit, Sanskrit, Marathi, Tamil, Rajasthani, Dhundari, Marwari, Hindi, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu and more recently in English.

Jain monasticism

Jain monasticism refers to the order of monks and nuns in the Jain community. The term nirgrantha ("bondless") was used for Jain monks in the past. The monastic practices of two major sects (Digambara and Śvētāmbara) vary greatly, but the major principles of both are identical.

Jain schools and branches

Jainism is an Indian religion which is traditionally believed to be propagated by twenty-four spiritual teachers known as tirthankara. Broadly, Jainism is divided into two major schools of thought, Digambara and Svetambara. These are further divided into different sub-sects and traditions. While there are differences in practices, the core philosophy and main principles of each sect is same.

Jainism

Jainism (), traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient, trans-theistic, universal, dharmic religion, with the worldview as described in Pravachanasara and Tattvartha Sutra. Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains consider their religion to be eternal (sanatan), and trace their history through a succession of 24 victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first in current time cycle being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, twenty-third being Parshvanatha in 8th century BCE and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology.

The main religious premises of Jainism are ahiṃsā (non-violence), anekāntavāda (many-sidedness), aparigraha (non-attachment) and asceticism. Devout Jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā (non-violence), satya (truth), asteya (not stealing), brahmacharya (celibacy or chastity), and aparigraha (non-attachment). These principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles. Parasparopagraho Jīvānām (the function of souls is to help one another) is the motto of Jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most common and basic prayer in Jainism.Jainism has two major ancient sub-traditions, Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; and several smaller sub-traditions that emerged in the 2nd millennium CE. The Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices, gender and which Jain texts can be considered canonical. Jain mendicants are found in all Jain sub-traditions except Kanji Panth sub-tradition, with laypersons (śrāvakas) supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources.

Jainism has between four and five million followers, with most Jains residing in India. Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Europe, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname, Fiji, and the United States. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, and Diwali.

Jinasena

Jinasena (8th century CE) was one of the several famous Digambara Acharya (head of a monastic order). He was the author of famous Adipurana and Mahapurana. He was the disciple of Acharya Virasena and he completed his teacher's famous commentary Dhavala on Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama (Vikram 894, 837 CE), the most revered text in the Digambara tradition. The name is shared by an earlier Acharya Jinasena who was the author of Harivamsa Purana in Saka 705 (Vikram 840, 783 AD)

Kanji Panth

Kanji Panth or "Pure Terapanth" is a Universal stream of Digambara, a school of Jainism that posits that the discriminative knowledge between the "true pure knowledge self" and "the other" is the true and the only procedure of self-realization and the path of liberation where definitions of "true pure knowledge self" and "the other" is as originally practiced and described in Samaysara (Essence of Self), Pravachanasara (Essence of Doctrine) and Pancastikayasara (The five cosmic constituents) and their commentaries. They also quote Amritchandra for their support: "In this world, only those are liberated who have understood the 'art of discriminative knowledge'; In this world, only those are in bondage who do not know the 'art of discriminative knowledge'".

The Digambara Jain scholar Kundakunda, in his Pravacanasara states that a Jain mendicant should meditate on "I, the pure self". Anyone who considers his body or possessions as "I am this, this is mine" is on the wrong road, while one who meditates, thinking the antithesis and "I am not others, they are not mine, I am one knowledge" is on the right road to meditating on the "soul, the pure self". This meditative focus contrasts with the anatta focus of Buddhism, and the atman focus in various vedanta schools of Hinduism such as the advaita and vishistadvaita schools.

Kasayapahuda

Kasayapahuda (Kāsāyapahuḍa) (also Kasayaprabhrta) is one of the oldest canonical text of the Digambara Jains. Another oldest canonical text, the Shatkhandagama was written about the same time. Both these texts are held in high esteem by the Digambaras. Kasaya (passions) form the subject matter of Kasayapahuda.

Kundakunda

Acharya Kundakunda was a Digambara Jain monk and philosopher, who is still revered. He authored many Jain texts such as: Samayasara, Niyamasara, Pancastikayasara, Pravachanasara, Atthapahuda and Barasanuvekkha. He occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Digambara Jain acharyas, a position comparable to Christ in Christianity. All Digambara Jains say his name before starting to read the scripture. Modern scholarship has found it difficult to locate him chronologically, with a possible low date in the 2nd-3rd centuries CE and a late date in 8th century.

List of Jain monks

This is a list of Jain ascetics. The list include the names of ascetics who are known for their contributions to Jain philosophy and Jainism in general.

Indrabhuti Gautama

Bhadrabahu, c. 4th century BCE. Last acharya of undivided Jain sangha.

Kundakunda- 1st century BCE

Sudharma Swami

Umaswati- Author of the Jain text, Tattvarthsutra

Samantabhadra (Jain monk)

Samantabhadra was a Digambara acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada. The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami but before Pujyapada.

Shatkhandagama

Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama (Devanagari: षटखंडागम), literally the "Scripture in Six Parts", is the foremost and oldest Digambara Jain sacred text. According to Digambara tradition, the original canonical scriptures of the Jains were totally lost within a few centuries of Nirvana of Lord Mahavira. Hence, Satkhandāgama is the most revered Digambara text that has been given the status of āgama. The importance of the Satkhandāgama to the Digambaras can be judged by the fact that, the day its Dhavalā commentary was completed, it is commemorated as Shruta Pañcami, a day when all the Jaina scriptures are venerated. Satkhandāgama, the first āgama is also called the Pratham Shrut-Skandh, while the Panch Paramāgama by Acharya Kundakunda are referred to as the second āgama or Dvitiya Shrut-Skandh.

Siddhachakra

Siddhachakra is a popular yantra or mandala (mystical diagram) used for worship in Jainism. It is also known as Navapada in the Svetambara tradition and Navadevta in the Digambara tradition. In the Svetambara tradition it is associated with the Namokar Mantra. It is related to the legend of King Shripala and his wife Mayanasundari. It is depicted as a Kalasha with the core of a blossomed lotus representing Navapada in the centre surrounded by guarding deities on petals. It is used in some rituals.

Yapaniya

Yapaniya was a Jain order in western Karnataka which is now extinct. The first inscription that mentions them by Mrigesavarman (AD 475-490) a Kadamba king of Palasika who donated for a Jain temple, and made a grant to the sects of Yapaniyas, Nirgranthas (identifiable as Digambaras), and the Kurchakas (not identified).The last inscription which mentioned the Yapaniyas was found in the Tuluva region southwest Karnataka, dated Saka 1316 (AD 1394).According to Darshana-Sara, they were a branch of the Svetambara sect. However, they were regarded to be Digambara by Swetambar authors. The Yapaniya monks remained naked but followed some Svetamabar views. They also possessed their own versions of texts that have been preserved in the Svetambar tradition. The Yapaniya monks wore a piece of cloth while in public and remained naked while in secluded area like forests.

The great grammarian Shakatayana, who was a contemporary of the Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha (c. 817-877), was a Yapaniya, as mentioned by Malayagira in his commentary on the NandiSutra.

Śvētāmbara

The Śvētāmbara (; Sanskrit: श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara. Śvētāmbara "white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara "sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity.Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha. Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara, Māllīnātha, was a woman.

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