Diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSR), or ultra-low emittance storage rings, are synchrotron light sources where the emittance of the electron-beam in the storage ring is smaller or comparable to the emittance of the x-ray photon beam they produce at the end of their insertion devices. These facilities operate in the soft to hard x-ray range (100eV—100keV) with extremely high brilliance (in the order of 1021—1022 photons/s/m2/mrad2/0.1%BW)
Together with x-ray Free-electron laser, they constitute the fourth generation of light sources, characterized by a relatively high coherent flux (in the order of 1014—1015photons/s/0.1%BW for DLSR) and enable extended physical and chemical characterizations at the nano-scale.
Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil Portuguese pronunciation: [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil, listen ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. The capital is Brasília, and the most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the eighth largest GDP in the world by both nominal and PPP measures. It is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.High Energy Photon Source
The High Energy Photon Source (HEPS) is a diffraction-limited storage ring synchrotron light source producing hard x-ray radiations for scientific applications that will be built in the Huairou District in suburban Beijing, with estimated completion in 2025.MAX IV Laboratory
MAX IV is the next-generation synchrotron radiation facility in Lund, Sweden. It is the strongest of its kind in the world. Its design and planning has been carried out within the Swedish national laboratory, MAX-lab, which up until 2015 operated three accelerators for synchrotron radiation research: MAX I (550 MeV, opened 1986), MAX II (1,5 GeV, opened 1997) and MAX III (700 MeV, opened 2008). MAX-lab supported about 1000 users from over 30 countries annually. The facility operated 14 beamlines with a total of 19 independent experimental stations, supporting a wide range of experimental techniques such as macromolecular crystallography, electron spectroscopy, nanolithography and production of tagged photons for photo-nuclear experiments. The facility closed on the 13th of December (St Lucia dagen) 2015 in preparation for MAX IV.
On 27 April 2009 the Swedish Ministry of Education and Research, Swedish Research Council, Lund University, Region Skåne and Vinnova, a Swedish government funding agency, decided to fund the research center.The new laboratories, including two storage rings and a full-energy linac is situated in Brunnshög in Lund North East. The inauguration of MAX IV took place 21 June 2016, on the day of summer solstice. The larger of the two storage rings has a circumference of 528 meters, operates at 3 GeV energy, and has been optimized for high-brightness x-rays. The smaller storage ring (circumference 96 meters) is operated at 1.5 GeV energy and has been optimized for UV. There are also plans for a future expansion of the facility that would add a free-electron laser (FEL) to the facility, but is yet to be funded.At this point the 3 GeV ring along with the first few beam-lines has been opened for users to start their experiments. The smaller storage ring will not be opened for users until 2018.Sirius (synchrotron light source)
Sirius is a diffraction-limited storage ring synchrotron light source at the Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. It will have a circumference of 518.4 metres (1,701 ft), a diameter of 165 metres (541 ft), and an electron energy of 3 GeV. The produced synchrotron radiation covers the range of infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray light.Costing R$1.8 billion, it was funded by the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication (Brazil) and the São Paulo Research Foundation. Discussion started in 2008, and initial funding of R$2 million was granted in 2009. Construction started in 2015, and is due to open in 2018.With its construction near the end, Sirius will be the second particle accelerator in Brazil, next to the UVX, also operator by the LNLS. Brazil and Argentina are the only countries in South America to operate particle accelerators.