Different Class is the fifth studio album by English Britpop band Pulp. It was released on Island Records in the UK on 30 October 1995, and in the US on 27 February 1996. The album was a critical and commercial success, entering the UK Albums Chart at number one and winning the 1996 Mercury Music Prize. It has been certified four times platinum and had sold 1,300,000 copies in the United Kingdom as of September 2018. In 2013, NME ranked the album at number 6 in its list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.
|Studio album by|
|Released||30 October 1995|
|Studio||The Town House, London|
|Singles from Different Class|
The album was released in the UK at the height of Britpop. It followed from the success of their breakthrough album His 'n' Hers the previous year. Two of the singles on the album – "Common People" (which reached number two in the UK singles chart) and "Disco 2000" (which reached number seven) – were especially notable, and helped propel Pulp to nationwide fame. A "deluxe edition" of Different Class was released on 11 September 2006. It contains a second disc of B-sides, demos and rarities.
The inspiration for the title came to frontman Jarvis Cocker in Smashing, a club night that ran during the early 1990s in Eve's Club on Regent Street in London. Cocker had a friend who used the phrase "different class" to describe something that was "in a class of its own". Cocker liked the double meaning, with its allusions to the British social class system which was a theme of some of the songs on the album. A message on the back of the record also references this idea:
"We don't want no trouble, we just want the right to be different. That's all."
The sleeve design was created by Blue Source. Initial copies of the CD and vinyl album came with 6 different double-sided inserts of alternative cover art, and a sticker inviting the listener to "Choose your own front cover". In all standard copies thereafter these 12 individual covers made up the CD booklet, with the wedding photograph used as the actual cover.
The full details of the wedding photograph used on the front cover of the standard sleeve editions were described on 2011 tour posters:
"When we got married we were putting the wedding together ourselves, we pulled a lot of favours from people we knew ... My little brother Ben went to art college in Edinburgh and he made friends with a guy who subsequently became a photographer and had done a lot of work with the Britpop bands – I think he worked with Blur, and Elastica, and of course Pulp. So we asked him about a couple of months before whether he would be prepared to do some photos for us, and he couldn't actually do it because he said he was busy working on some Pulp stuff. But he phoned us about a week before and said Pulp were thinking about using some photos with real people in them, including a wedding photo, and if we would do some joke shots where he'd bring some life-size cutouts of the band down, he would do some proper wedding shots for us as well. And that's basically what happened. They rocked up on the wedding day with the life-size cutouts of the band and took the photos, and I suppose the rest is history."
Apart from the bride and groom, the photograph features the parents of both the bride and the groom, O'Connor's two brothers, his two best friends and his wife's best friend. O'Connor also told Hawkins that he and his family had no further contact with the photographer after the day of the wedding, and had no idea that the photographs would be used for the album cover until his mother saw a poster advertising the album in an HMV record store. He later saw a billboard poster of the album cover while he was out shopping. Pulp's record company at the time did not pay the family for the use of their picture, but when Pulp reformed in 2011 Rough Trade paid for the family members to see Pulp play live. O'Connor said, "Rough Trade very kindly sent us a signed copy of the photo that Jarvis had signed last year, just saying 'Thank you very much Dom and Sharon for letting us crash your wedding', which I thought was a really nice touch actually".
|Los Angeles Times|||
|The Village Voice||A−|
Different Class received widespread acclaim from music critics in the UK. In the NME John Mulvey summarised the record as "funny, phenomenonally nasty, genuinely subversive, and, of course, hugely, flamingly POP!... Different Class is a deft, atmospheric, occasionally stealthy and frequently booming, confident record." Melody Maker awarded the album its star rating of "bloody essential", and its critic Simon Reynolds observed that "the album's title alone announces that Cocker's broadened his scope, has another axe to grind: social antagonism", and stated that Pulp was "not so much the jewel in Britpop's crown, more like the single solitary band who validate the whole sorry enterprise". In Q Robert Yates felt that "the range of Different Class is impressive: tracks such as ["Live Bed Show" and "F.E.E.L.I.N.G.C.A.L.L.E.D.L.O.V.E."] render more redundant than ever the view of Pulp as kitsch", while in Vox Keith Cameron awarded the album eight out of ten and wrote that "no other Pulp album of recent years froths around the mouth so unselfconsciously... Pulp have managed to elevate their grandiose, popoid vision-thing to new and greater heights, without crashing into the realms of extreme fantasy." In Mojo Bob Stanley stated, "You'd have to be a fool or a low-fi obsessive not to concede that it's easily the closest that Pulp have come to realising their potential... Different Class is curiously sparse yet lush enough in all the right places, warm and soulful where unnecessary electro-clutter used to be", and concluded, "Arguments about Blur versus Oasis are irrelevant. Pulp are in a different class."
Different Class was released in the US in February 1996, and received equally enthusiastic reviews from American critics. David Fricke of Rolling Stone called it "a brilliant, eccentric, irresistible pop album about fucking and fucking up... The record is rife with sexual combat and bitter recrimination." He concluded, "Even in a truly classless society, sex separates the men from the boys, the women from the girls, the romantics from the mere runters. Different Class is the sound of Jarvis Cocker keeping score – with delicious accuracy." Robert Christgau wrote in The Village Voice that "1996 won't produce a more indispensable song than "Common People", and described the album as neither Blur nor Oasis, but "Culture Club with lyrics... Smart and glam, swish and het, its jangle subsumed beneath swelling crescendos or nagging keybs and its rhythms steeped in rave". In Spin Barry Walters described the album as "songs about naughty infidelities, sexless marriages, grown-up teenage crushes, twisted revenge fantasies, obsessive voyeurism and useless raves; songs that demand your full attention and deserve it".
AllMusic declared that Different Class "blows away all their previous albums, including the fine His 'n' Hers. Pulp don't stray from their signature formula at all – it's still grandly theatrical, synth-spiked pop with new wave and disco flourishes, but they have mastered it here. Not only are the melodies and hooks significantly catchier and more immediate, the music explores more territory ... Jarvis Cocker's lyrics take two themes, sex and social class, and explore a number of different avenues in bitingly clever ways. As well as perfectly capturing the behavior of his characters, Cocker grasps the nuances of language, creating a dense portrait of suburban and working-class life." Writing about the album in 2011, BBC Music stated that "over 15 years since its release [it] continues to reward the listener with some of the smartest, slinkiest, sauciest, spectacular pop songs of a decade that was, looking back, not that brilliant once the bucket hats and ironic anoraks are whipped away."
PopMatters retrospective review in 2004 opined that "nearly nine years after its release, Different Class has aged very well, possessing that timeless quality that is present in all classic albums, but is still obviously a product of its time, a snapshot of mid-'90s life in the UK. Along with Blur's Parklife, it remains the high point of the Britpop era; music, lyrics, production, artwork, it's as perfect as it gets." Reviewing the 2006 deluxe edition, Garry Mulholland of Q stated that the album "defined the mood of the day", while Drowned in Sound described Different Class as "easily the best album of its year of release and arguably the best album from the Britpop era" and went on to call it "a certifiable masterpiece that not only lived up to the sky-high expectations heaped upon it with appalling ease, but surpassed them."
The album was the winner of the 1996 Mercury Music Prize. In 1997, it was ranked at number 34 out of 100 in a "Music of the Millennium" poll conducted by HMV, Channel 4, The Guardian and Classic FM. In 1998 Q readers voted Different Class the 37th greatest album of all time; a repeat poll in 2006 put it at number 85. In 2000 the same magazine placed it at number 46 in its list of the 100 Greatest British Albums Ever. In 2005 it was voted number 70 in Channel 4's The 100 Greatest Albums. In 2006 British Hit Singles & Albums and NME organised a poll in which 40,000 people worldwide voted for the 100 best albums ever and Different Class was placed at number 54 on the list. The album was ranked at number 35 on Spin's "The 300 Best Albums of the Past 30 Years (1985–2014)" list. Select ranked the album at number one in its end-of-year list of the 50 best albums of 1995.
Released in 1995 at the height of the Britpop era, it is often considered an album which best defines Britpop and has featured at the top of polls of best Britpop albums. 2014 marked the 20th anniversary of Britpop, which drew strong interest from the music press with various polls. A BBC Radio poll of over 30,000 listeners voted lead single "Common People" as the top Britpop anthem. DJ Steve Lamacq said: "It is one of the defining records of Britpop because it seemed to embrace the essence of the time so perfectly." Paste also ranked "Common People" at number one in its list, "The 50 Best Britpop Songs." The Village Voice ranked Different Class at number one in its list of the 10 best Britpop albums. Exactly twenty years on from its release, Complex magazine declared Different Class as "the most important Britpop album." It also topped Pitchfork's 2017 poll of "The 50 Best Britpop Albums."
The album was certified 4x platinum in the UK and has sold 1.3 million copies as of September 2018. One tenth of which were sold in its first week. By the end of 1996, worldwide sales were around 1.3 million, according to Billboard.
All lyrics written by Jarvis Cocker; all music composed by Pulp (Cocker, Nick Banks, Steve Mackey, Russell Senior, Candida Doyle and Mark Webber), except "Common People", "Underwear" and "Monday Morning" by Cocker, Banks, Mackey, Senior and Doyle.
|6.||"Live Bed Show"||3:29|
|8.||"Sorted for E's & Wizz"||3:47|
|Different Class – Japanese edition (bonus tracks)|
|No.||Title||Place of origin||Length|
|13.||"P.T.A. (Parent Teacher Association)"||"Mis-Shapes" / "Sorted for E's & Wizz" single||3:16|
|14.||"Common People" (Motiv8 club mix)||"Common People" single||7:51|
|Second Class – Japanese edition (bonus disc)|
|No.||Title||Place of origin||Length|
|1.||"Mile End"||"Something Changed" single||4:32|
|2.||"Ansaphone"||"Disco 2000" single||4:00|
|3.||"Live Bed Show" (extended)||"Disco 2000" single||4:10|
|4.||"Your Sister's Clothes"||The Sisters EP||4:37|
|5.||"Seconds"||The Sisters EP||4:19|
|6.||"Deep Fried in Kelvin"||"Lipgloss" single||9:49|
|7.||"The Babysitter"||"Do You Remember the First Time?" single||5:01|
|8.||"Street Lites"||"Do You Remember the First Time?" single||5:55|
|9.||"Common People '96" (7" edit)||"Common People" single||4:07|
|Second Class – German edition (bonus disc)|
|No.||Title||Place of origin||Length|
|1.||"Mile End"||"Something Changed" single||4:32|
|2.||"Ansaphone"||"Disco 2000" single||4:00|
|3.||"P.T.A. (Parent Teacher Association)"||"Mis-Shapes" / "Sorted for E's & Wizz" single||3:16|
|4.||"Live Bed Show" (extended)||"Disco 2000" single||4:10|
|5.||"Your Sister's Clothes"||The Sisters EP||4:37|
|6.||"Seconds"||The Sisters EP||4:19|
|7.||"Deep Fried in Kelvin"||"Lipgloss" single||9:49|
|8.||"The Babysitter"||"Do You Remember the First Time?" single||5:01|
|9.||"Street Lites"||"Do You Remember the First Time?" single||5:55|
|Different Class – 2006 deluxe edition (bonus disc)|
|No.||Title||Place of origin||Length|
|1.||"Common People" (at Glastonbury 1995)||"Mis-Shapes" / "Sorted for E's & Wizz" single||7:38|
|2.||"Mile End"||"Something Changed" single||4:30|
|3.||"P.T.A."||"Mis-Shapes" / "Sorted for E's & Wizz" single||3:17|
|4.||"Ansaphone" (demo)||Previously unavailable||4:09|
|5.||"Paula" (demo)||Previously unavailable||3:37|
|6.||"Catcliffe Shakedown" (demo)||Previously unavailable||6:43|
|7.||"We Can Dance Again" (demo)||Previously unavailable||3:51|
|8.||"Don't Lose It" (demo)||Previously unavailable||3:10|
|9.||"Whiskey in the Jar"||Childline||4:48|
|10.||"Disco 2000" (Nick Cave pub rock version)||Previously unavailable||4:22|
|11.||"Common People" (Vocoda mix)||"Common People" single||6:18|
Elections to the United States Senate will be held on November 8, 2022 with 34 of the 100 seats in the Senate being contested in regular elections, the winners of which will serve six-year terms in the United States Congress from January 3, 2023 to January 3, 2029. Senators are divided into three groups, or Classes, whose terms are staggered so that a different class is elected every two years. Class 3 Senators were last elected in 2016, and will be up for election again in 2022.2024 United States Senate elections
Elections to the United States Senate will be held on November 5, 2024 with 33 of the 100 seats in the Senate being contested in regular elections, the winners of which will serve six-year terms in the United States Congress from January 3, 2025 to January 3, 2031. Senators are divided into three groups, or Classes, whose terms are staggered so that a different class is elected every two years. Class 1 Senators were last elected in 2018, and will be up for election again in 2024.Candida Doyle
Candida Mary Doyle (born 25 August 1963 in Belfast, Northern Ireland) is a keyboard player and occasional backing vocalist with the band Pulp, which she joined in 1984. She joined her brother Magnus Doyle in the line-up replacing a previous keyboard player who had left the band.Doyle attended piano lessons from age 8, but did not practice despite finding the experience enjoyable. At age 16 Doyle was diagnosed with arthritis.During Doyle's first few years in the group, Pulp were not enjoying financial success; she has been recorded as saying that she spent more money on the band than she made from it. She kept jobs in two toy shops in Manchester, before being sacked from one for a "lack of dedication". Although Pulp "sort of split up" in the period around 1986, they went on to release Freaks in 1987 with Doyle on board for her first album.
When playing live with the band Doyle has used Farfisa Compact Professional and Roland XP-10 synthesizers as well as Akai S3000 samplers.Other artistic members of her family include her mother Sandra Voe, an actress who has appeared in Coronation Street, and two musician brothers. Her grandfather owned a fishing factory in the Shetland Islands. Doyle has lived in many places, including Belfast (where she was born), Manchester, Sheffield from the age of ten and where Pulp formed, and London, her current home.
Since Pulp began a hiatus in 2002, Doyle has occasionally appeared live with Jarvis Cocker, playing keyboards. Following this period, with Pulp's 2011 reunion, Doyle joined the rest of the Different Class line-up on stage in concert for their UK comeback gig at the Isle of Wight Festival on 11 June 2011.Common People (song)
"Common People" is a song by English alternative rock band Pulp, released in May 1995 as the lead single off their fifth studio album Different Class. It reached number two on the UK Singles Chart, becoming a defining track of the Britpop movement and Pulp's signature song in the process. In 2014, BBC Radio 6 Music listeners voted it their favourite Britpop song in an online poll. In 2015, Rolling Stone readers voted it the greatest Britpop song in a poll.
The song is about those who were perceived by the songwriter as wanting to be "like common people" and who ascribe glamour to poverty. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as slumming or "class tourism". The song was written by the band members Nick Banks, Jarvis Cocker, Candida Doyle, Steve Mackey and Russell Senior. In 2004, a Ben Folds-produced William Shatner cover version brought "Common People" to new audiences outside Europe.Disco 2000 (song)
"Disco 2000" is a hit single by British band Pulp, released in 1995. The song tells the story of a narrator falling for a childhood friend called Deborah, who is more popular than he is and wondering what it would be like to meet again when they are older. Deborah was based on a real-life childhood friend of Cocker's, Deborah Bone, who moved away from Sheffield to Letchworth when she was 10. As the lyrics suggest, she did marry and have children. Pulp frontman Jarvis Cocker said "the only bit that isn't true is the woodchip wallpaper." It is believed that the fountain referred to as the meeting place was Goodwin Fountain, formerly located on Fargate, in Sheffield city centre. The song's riff is said to be influenced by Umberto Tozzi's 1979 hit "Gloria"."Disco 2000" reached number seven on the UK Singles Chart, becoming the third top 10 single from the album Different Class, following "Common People" and the double A-side "Mis-Shapes"/"Sorted for E's & Wizz", both of which reached number two. The song also charted highly in Austria, Finland, Iceland and Ireland, and it became Pulp's only top 50 hit in Australia.Due to its millennial subject matter, Pulp removed the song's synchronisation licence, effectively banning the song from being used in TV and radio trailers throughout 1999 and 2000.Ed Byrne (comedian)
Edward Cathal Byrne (born 10 April 1972) is an Irish stand-up comedian, voice over artist and actor. He has presented television shows Uncut! Best Unseen Ads and Just for Laughs, and is a guest on television panel games. As an actor, he played the title character in the 2000 ITV adaptation of the pantomime Aladdin.Hetaira
Hetaira (plural hetairai (), also hetaera (plural hetaerae ), (Ancient Greek: ἑταίρα, "companion", pl. ἑταῖραι) was a type of prostitute in ancient Greece.
Traditionally, historians of ancient Greece have distinguished between hetairai and pornai, another class of prostitute in ancient Greece. In contrast to pornai, who provided sex for a large number of clients in brothels or on the street, hetairai were thought to have had only a few men as clients at any one time, to have had long-term relationships with them, and to have provided companionship and intellectual stimulation as well as sex. For instance, Charles Seltman wrote in 1953 that "hetaeras were certainly in a very different class, often highly educated women".More recently, however, historians have questioned the extent to which there was really a distinction between hetairai and pornai. The second edition of the Oxford Classical Dictionary, for instance, held that hetaira was a euphemism for any kind of prostitute. This position is supported by Konstantinos Kapparis, who holds that Apollodorus' famous tripartite division of the types of women in the speech Against Neaera ("We have courtesans for pleasure, concubines for the daily tending of the body, and wives in order to beget legitimate children and have a trustworthy guardian of what is at home.") classes all prostitutes together, under the term hetairai.A third position, advanced by Rebecca Futo Kennedy, suggests that hetairai "were not prostitutes or even courtesans". Instead, she argues, hetairai were "elite women[...] who participated in sympotic and luxury culture", just as hetairoi – the masculine form of the word – was used to refer to groups of elite men at symposia.Even when the term hetaira was used to refer to a specific class of prostitute, though, scholars disagree on what precisely the line of demarcation was. Kurke emphasises that hetairai veiled the fact that they were selling sex through the language of gift-exchange, while pornai explicitly commodified sex. She claims that both hetairai and pornai could be slaves or free, and might or might not work for a pimp. Kapparis says that hetairai were high-class prostitutes, and cites Dover as pointing to the long-term nature of hetairai's relationships with individual men. Miner disagrees with Kurke, claiming that hetairai were always free, not slaves.
Along with sexual services, women described as hetairai rather than pornai seem to have often been educated, and have provided companionship. According to Kurke, the concept of hetairism was a product of the symposium, where hetairai were permitted as sexually available companions of the male party-goers. In Athenaeus' Deipnosophistai, hetairai are described as providing "flattering and skillful conversation": something which is, elsewhere in classical literature, seen as a significant part of the hetaira's role. Particularly, "witty" and "refined" (αστεία) were seen as attributes which distinguished hetairai from common pornai. Hetairai are likely to have been musically educated, too.Free hetairai could become very wealthy, and control their own finances. However, their careers could be short, and if they did not earn enough to support themselves, they might have been forced to resort to working in brothels, or working as pimps, in order to ensure a continued income as they got older.Hits (Pulp album)
Hits is a greatest hits collection by the English rock band Pulp, released in November 2002.List of fastest production motorcycles
The fastest production motorcycle for a given year is the unmodified motorcycle with the highest tested top speed that was manufactured in series and available for purchase by the general public. Modified or specially produced motorcycles are a different class, motorcycle land-speed record. Unlike those records, which are officially sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM), production model tests were conducted under a variety of unequal or undefined conditions, and tested by numerous different sources, mainly motorcycling magazines. This has led to inconsistent and sometimes contradictory speed statistics from various sources.Mark Webber (guitarist)
Mark Andrew Webber (born 14 September 1970 in Chesterfield, Derbyshire) is an English rock guitarist. He is most famous for playing in Pulp (since 1995), and appearing on all of their albums since their Mercury Music Prize winning collection Different Class. Webber was originally the president of Pulp's fan club. Before joining the group Webber had assisted in the production of stage sets and acted as their tour manager.Webber's musical instruments include: Gretsch Viking Guitar; Gibson ES-345 Guitar; Gibson Les Paul Custom Guitar; Gibson Firebird Guitar; Yamaha Acoustic; Fender Jazzmaster; and Rhodes Piano.In 1998 Webber curated the 'Underground America' film presentation at the Barbican. When Pulp went on hiatus in 2002, Webber travelled the world presenting avant garde films. Webber first met the band in 1986 while doing a fanzine called Cosmic Pig. He is a fan of the Velvet Underground and has been influenced by Andy Warhol. His amplifier onstage can often be seen to bear the legend "Warhol". He is also a piano player and has played it on a few Pulp songs.Mis-Shapes
"Mis-Shapes" is a song by Sheffield band Pulp. Taken from the number-one album Different Class, it was released as a double A-sided single with "Sorted for E's & Wizz" in September 1995, and reached number two in the UK charts.
The single was Pulp's second successive number two hit in 1995, "Common People" having reached the same position in June.
Despite being Pulp's second biggest hit it did not feature on their best of album Hits.Pulp (band)
Pulp were an English rock band formed in Sheffield in 1978. Their best-known line-up from their heyday (1994–1996) consisted of Jarvis Cocker (vocals, guitar, keyboards), Candida Doyle (keyboards), Russell Senior (guitar, violin), Mark Webber (guitar, keyboards), Steve Mackey (bass) and Nick Banks (drums, percussion). Senior quit in 1996 and returned for tours in 2011, while Leo Abrahams had been a touring member of the band since they reunited in 2011, contributing electric and acoustic guitar.
Throughout the 1980s, the band struggled to find success, but gained prominence in the UK in the mid-1990s with the release of the albums His 'n' Hers in 1994 and particularly Different Class in 1995, which reached the number one spot in the UK Albums Chart. The album spawned four top ten singles, including "Common People" and "Sorted for E's & Wizz", both of which reached number two in the UK Singles Chart. Pulp's musical style during this period consisted of disco influenced pop-rock coupled with references to British culture in their lyrics in the form of a "kitchen sink drama"-style. Cocker and the band became reluctant figures in the Britpop movement, and were nominated for the Mercury Music Prize in 1994 for His 'n' Hers; they won the prize in 1996 for Different Class and were nominated again in 1998 for This Is Hardcore. Pulp headlined the Pyramid Stage of the Glastonbury Festival twice and were regarded among the Britpop "big four", along with Oasis, Blur and Suede.The band released We Love Life, in 2001, after which they entered an extended hiatus, having sold more than 10 million records. Pulp reunited and played live again in 2011, with dates at the Isle of Wight Festival, Reading and Leeds Festivals, Pohoda, Sziget Festival, Primavera Sound, the Exit festival, and the Wireless Festival. A number of additional concert dates have since been added to their schedule. In January 2013 Pulp released "After You", a re-recording of a We Love Life demo track, as a digital download single. It was the band's first single release since "Bad Cover Version" in 2002. On 9 March 2014 Pulp and filmmaker Florian Habicht premiered the feature documentary Pulp: A Film about Life, Death & Supermarkets at SXSW Music and Film Festival in Austin, Texas. The film toured the international film festival circuit and was released theatrically by Oscilloscope Laboratories in the US in November 2014. It is the first film about Pulp (and Sheffield) that has been made in collaboration with the band.Pulp discography
The discography of Pulp, an English Britpop band, consists of seven studio albums, 9 compilation albums, 2 live albums and 26 singles. They were formed in 1978 by Jarvis Cocker and had a continuously rotating band membership until the eleven years between 1991 and their hiatus on 15 December 2002, during which they were largely settled. They rose to prominence during the Britpop era in the early 1990s with their album His 'n' Hers (1994).
The band released two albums and eight singles in the 1980s, which garnered little attention from audiences or critics. Their first charting single was "Razzmatazz", which reached number 80 on the UK Singles Chart. His 'n' Hers was their first charting album, peaking at number 9 on the UK Albums Chart.
As they became part of the Britpop music scene, the band scored their first major hits, most notably "Common People" and "Disco 2000". Their 1995 album Different Class was a commercial success, peaking at number 1 in the UK and going platinum four times. Two further albums, This Is Hardcore and We Love Life, achieved moderate commercial success.
Fire Records, who own the material from the band's first three albums, re-released it several times after Pulp achieved success in a number of compilation albums, most of which had little commercial success.
In 2013 Pulp released a new single "After You", written a number of years earlier but never fully finished or released until then. It peaked at number 101 in the UK Singles Chart and in the Top 10 of the UK Indie Chart.Redoutable-class submarine (1967)
The Le Redoutable-class submarine was a ballistic missile submarine class of the French Marine Nationale. In French, the type is called Sous-marin Nucléaire Lanceur d'Engins (SNLE), literally "Missile-launching nuclear submarine". When commissioned, they constituted the strategic part of the naval component of the French nuclear triad, then called Force de frappe (the aircraft carriers Clemenceau and Foch constituting the tactical part).
The class entered active service in 1971 with Redoutable, six submarines were built in total. All have since been decommissioned. The structural changes in Inflexible have seen it regarded as a different class from the early boats. The class has been superseded by the Triomphant class, firing the larger M45 missile (M51 from around 2010).Robbie Haines
Robert Bentley Haines, Jr. (born March 27, 1954) is an American sailor and Olympic champion. Born in San Diego, California, he has won seven world championships in 4 different class of boats. He was associate producer and sailing team manager for the Walt Disney film "Morning Light". He was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal for being a member of the 1980 US Olympic Sailing Team, which did not compete in the Soviet Union (Estonia) due to the boycott of the Olympic Games that year by President Jimmy Carter.
Haines, skipper of the Haines-Trevelyan-Davis team, received a gold medal in the Soling class at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Haines was inducted into the San Diego Sports Hall of Fame in 2018.Shattering (agriculture)
In agriculture, shattering is the dispersal of a crop's seeds upon their becoming ripe. From an agricultural perspective this is generally an undesirable process, and in the history of crop domestication several important advances have involved a mutation in a crop plant that reduced shattering — instead of the seeds being dispersed as soon as they were ripe, the mutant plants retained the seeds for longer, which made harvesting much more effective.
A particularly important mutation that was selected very early in the history of agriculture removed the "brittle rachis" problem from wheat. A ripe head ("ear") of wild-type wheat is easily shattered into dispersal units when touched, or blown by the wind, because during ripening a series of abscission layers forms that divides the rachis into short segments, each attached to a single spikelet (which contains 2–3 grains along with chaff).
A different class of shattering mechanisms involves dehiscence of the mature fruit, which releases the seeds.
Current research priorities to understand the genetics of shattering include the following crops:
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus)Sesame and canola are harvested before the seed is fully mature, so that the pods do not split and drop the seeds.Shiur (Torah)
Shiur (, Hebrew: שיעור [ʃiˈʔuʁ], pl. shiurim, שיעורים [ʃiʔuˈʁim] lit. "Lesson") is a lesson on any Torah topic, such as Gemara, Mishnah, halakha, Tanakh, etc.Something Changed
"Something Changed" is the fourth and final single taken from the album Different Class by British pop band Pulp, released in 1996 with two different sleeves (a "boy" and "girl" version), but with identical track listings. It is also their fourth consecutive top ten single, peaking at #10 in the UK Singles Chart. The song was included on the compilation Hits released in 2002. The B-side, "Mile End" appeared on the Trainspotting soundtrack album.This Is Hardcore
This Is Hardcore is the sixth album by English band Pulp, first released in March 1998. It came three years after their breakthrough album, Different Class, and was eagerly anticipated. In 2013, NME ranked it at number 166 in its list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.