Diego de Almagro

Diego de Almagro (Spanish: [ˈdjeɣo ðe alˈmaɣɾo]; c. 1475[2] – July 8, 1538), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador known for his exploits in western South America. He participated with Francisco Pizarro in the Spanish conquest of Peru. From Peru Almagro led an expedition that made him the second European to set foot in central Chile (after Gonzalo Calvo de Barrientos). Back in Peru a longstanding conflict with Pizarro over the control of the former Inca capital of Cuzco erupted into a civil war between the two bands of conquistadores. In the battle of Las Salinas in 1538 Almagro was defeated by the Pizarro brothers and months later he was executed.


Diego de Almagro
Diego de Almagro
Personal details
Bornc.1475
Almagro, Crown of Castile
DiedJuly 8, 1538 (aged 62–63)
Cuzco, New Castile, Spanish Empire
NationalityCastilian
Spouse(s)Ana Martínez
Mencia
ChildrenDiego de Almagro II (son)
Isabel de Almagro (daughter)
MotherElvira Gutiérrez
FatherJuan de Montenegro
OccupationConquistador
Known forExploration of the Kuna
Conquest of Peru
Discovery of Chile
Military service
Battles/warsConquest of Peru

Early years

Escudo de Diego de Almagro
Shield of Diego de Almagro

The origins of Diego de Almagro remain obscure. He was born in 1475 in the village of Almagro, 1 in Ciudad Real, where he took the surname for being the illegitimate son of Juan de Montenegro and Elvira Gutiérrez. In order to save the honor of the mother, her relatives took her infant and moved him to the nearby town of Bolaños de Calatrava, being raised in this town and in Aldea del Rey, run by Sancha López del Peral.

When he turned 4 he returned to Almagro, being under the tutelage of an uncle named Hernán Gutiérrez until he was 15 years old, when due to his uncle's hardness he ran away from home. He went to the home of his mother, who was now living with her new husband, to tell her what had happened and that she was going to travel the world, asking for some bread to help her live in her misery. His mother, anguished, gave him a piece of bread and some coins and said: "Take, son, and do not give me more pressure, and go, and God help in your adventure."

He went to Seville and after probably stealing to survive the boy becomes a "criado" or servant and raised by Don Luis de Polanco, one of the four mayors of the Catholic Kings and later his counselor, and who was mayor of that city. While performing his duties as a servant, Almagro stabbed another servant for certain differences, leaving him with injuries so serious that they motivated that a trial against him be promoted.

Being wanted for justice, Don Luis de Polanco, making use of his influence, got Don Pedro Arias de Avila to allow him to embark in one of the ships that would go to the New World from the port of Sanlucar de Barrameda. The Casa de Contratacion demanded that the men who crossed the Indies carry their own weapons, clothes, and farming tools, which Don Polanco provided to his servant.

Arrival in America

Conquest of Colombia
Conquest of Colombia
Route by Diego de Almagro shown in purple

Diego de Almagro arrived in the New World on June 30, 1514, under the expedition that Ferdinand II of Aragon had sent under the guidance of Pedrarias Dávila. The expedition had landed in the city of Santa María la Antigua del Darién, Panama, where many other future conquistadors had already arrived, among them Francisco Pizarro.

There are not many details of Almagro's activities during this period, but it is known that he accompanied various sailors who departed from the city of Darien between 1514 and 1515. De Almagro eventually returned and settled in Darien, where he was granted an encomienda. He built a house and made a living from agriculture.

De Almagro undertook his first conquest on November 1515, commanding 260 men as he founded Villa del Acla, named after the Indian place. Due to illness he had to leave behind this mission to the licenciate Gaspar de Espinosa.

Espinosa decided to undertake a new expedition, which departed in December 1515 with 200 men, including De Almagro and Francisco Pizarro, who for the first time was designated as a captain. During this expedition, which lasted 14 months, De Almagro, Pizarro and Hernando de Luque became close friends.

Also during this time De Almagro established a friendship with Vasco Núñez de Balboa, who was in charge of Acla. De Almagro wanted to have a ship built with the remaining materials of the Espinosa expedition, to be finished on the coast of the "Great South Sea", as the Pacific Ocean was first called by the Spanish. Current historians do not believe that De Almagro was expected to participate in Balboa's expedition and probably returned to Darien.

De Almagro took part in the various expeditions that took place in the Gulf of Panama, taking part again in Espinosa's parties. Espinosa was supported by using Balboa's ships. De Almagro was recorded as a witness on the lists of natives whom Espinosa ordered to be carried. De Almagro remained as an early settler in the newly founded city of Panama. For four years he stayed there, working at the management of his properties and those of Pizarro. He took Ana Martínez, an indigenous woman, as a common-law wife. In this period, his first son, el "Mozo", was born to them.

Conquest of Peru

By 1524 an association of conquest regarding South America was formalized among Almagro, Pizarro and Luque.[3]:24 By the beginning of August 1524, they had received the requisite permission to discover and conquer lands further south. De Almagro would remain in Panama to recruit men and gather supplies for the expeditions led by Pizarro.[4]:92–102

After several expeditions to South America, Pizarro secured his stay in Peru with the Capitulation on 6 July 1529.[4]:133 During Pizarro's continued exploration of Incan territory, he and his men succeeded in defeating the Inca army under Emperor Atahualpa during the Battle of Cajamarca in 1532. De Almagro joined Pizarro soon afterward, bringing more men and arms.[5]:219–222,233

After Peru fell to the Spanish, both Pizarro and De Almagro initially worked together in the founding of new cities to consolidate their dominions. As such, Pizarro dispatched De Almagro to pursue Quizquiz, fleeing to the Inca Empire's northern city of Quito. Their fellow conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar, who had gone forth without Pizarro's approval, had already reached Quito and witnessed the destruction of the city by Inca general Rumiñawi. The Inca warrior had ordered the city to be burned and its gold to be buried at an undisclosed location where the Spanish could never find it. The arrival of Pedro de Alvarado from Guatemala, in search of Inca gold further complicated the situation for Almagro and Belalcázar. Alvarado's presence, however, did not last long as he left South America in exchange for monetary compensation from Pizarro.[4]:223–227

In an attempt to claim Quito ahead of Belalcázar, in August 1534 De Almagro founded a city on the shores of Laguna de Colta (Colta Lake) in the foothills of Chimborazo, some 55 kilometres (34 mi) south of present-day Quito, and named it "Santiago de Quito." Four months later would come the foundation of the Peruvian city of Trujillo, which Almagro named as "Villa Trujillo de Nueva Castilla" (the Village of Trujillo in New Castille) in honor of Francisco Pizarro's birthplace, Trujillo in Extremadura, Spain. These events were the height of the Pizarro-Almagro friendship, which historians describe as one of the last events in which their friendship soon faded and entered a period of turmoil for the control of the Incan capital of Cuzco.

Conflict with Pizarro

Diego de Almagro y Francisco Pizarro en Castilla
Diego de Almagro with Francisco Pizarro in Castile
drawing from 1615

After splitting the treasure of Inca emperor Atahualpa, both Pizarro and Almagro left towards Cuzco and took the city in 1533. However, De Almagro's friendship with Pizarro showed signs of deterioration in 1526 when Pizarro, in the name of the rest of the conquistadors, called forth the "Capitulacion de Toledo" law in which King Charles I of Spain had laid out his authorization for the conquest of Peru and the awards every conquistador would receive from it. Long before, however, each conquistador had promised to equally split the benefits. Pizarro managed to have a larger stake and awards for himself. Despite this, De Almagro still obtained an important fortune for his services, and the King awarded him in November 1532 the noble title of "Don" and he was assigned a personal coat of arms.

Although by this time Diego de Almagro had already acquired sufficient wealth in the conquest of Peru and was living a luxurious life in Cuzco, the prospect of conquering the lands further south was very attractive to him. Given that the dispute with Pizarro over Cuzco had kept intensifying, Almagro spent a great deal of time and money equipping a company of 500 men for a new exploration south of Peru.

By 1534 the Spanish crown had determined to split the region in two parallel lines, forming the governorship of "Nueva Castilla" (from the 1° to the 14° latitude, close to Pisco), and that of "Nueva Toledo" (from the 14° to the 25° latitude, in Taltal, Chile), assigning the first to Francisco Pizarro and the second to Diego de Almagro. The crown had previously assigned Almagro the governorship of Cuzco, and as such De Almagro was heading there when Charles V divided the territory between Nueva Castilla and Nuevo Toledo. This might have been the reason why Almagro did not immediately confront Pizarro for Cuzco, and promptly decided to embark on his new quest for the discovery of the riches of Chile.

Discovery of Chile

Descubrimiento de Chile por Diego de Almagro
Almagro takes possession of Chile in the valley of Copiapó
painting from first half 20th century

The preparations

Charles V had given Diego a grant extending two hundred leagues south of Francisco Pizarro's. Francisco and Diego concluded a new contract on 12 June 1535, in which they agreed to share future discoveries equally. Diego raised an expedition for Chile, expecting it "would lead to even greater riches than they had found in Peru."[4]:230,233–234 Almagro prepared the way by sending ahead three of his Spanish soldiers, the religious chief of the Inca empire, Willaq Umu, and Paullo Topa, brother of Manco Inca Yupanqui. De Almagro sent Juan de Saavedra forward with one hundred and fifty men, and soon followed them with additional forces.[4]:230,233–234 Saavedra established on January 23, 1535 the first Spanish settlement in Bolivia near the Inca regional capital of Paria.[6]

Following the Inca Trail and crossing the Andes

Almagro left Cuzco on July 3, 1535 with his supporters and stopped at Moina until the 20th of that month. Meanwhile, Francisco Pizarro's brother, Juan Pizarro, had arrested Inca Manco Inca Yupanqui, further complicating De Almagro's plans as it heavily increased the dissatisfaction of the Indians submitted to Spanish rule. Not having formally been appointed governor of any territories in the Capitulation of Toledo in 1528, however, forcing him to declare himself adelantado (governor) of Nueva Toledo, or southern Peru and present-day Chile. Some sources suggest Almagro received such a requirement in 1534 by the Spanish king and was officially declared governor of New Toledo.

Once he left Moina, De Almagro followed the Inca trail followed by 750 Spaniards deciding to join him in quest for the gold lost in the ransom of Atahualpa, which had mainly benefited the Pizarro brothers and their supporters. After crossing the Bolivian mountain range and traveling past Lake Titicaca, Almagro arrived on the shores of the Desaguadero River and finally set up camp in Tupiza. From there, the expedition stopped at Chicoana and then turned to the southeast to cross the Andes mountains.

The expedition turned out to be a difficult and exhausting endeavor. The hardest phase was the crossing of the Andean cordilleras: the cold, hunger and tiredness meant the death of various Spanish and natives, but mainly slaves who were not accustomed to such rigorous climate.[4]:252–253

Upon this point, De Almagro determined everything was a failure. He ordered a small group under Rodrigo Orgonez on a reconnaissance of the country to the south.[4]:253

By luck, these men found the Valley of Copiapó, where Gonzalo Calvo Barrientos, a Spanish soldier whom Pizarro had expelled from Peru for stealing objects the Inca had offered for his ransom, had already established a friendship with the local natives. There, in the valley of the river Copiapó, Almagro took official possession of Chile and claimed it in the name of King Charles V.

Dismayed in Chile

Estatua de Diego de Almagro en Almagro (España)
Statue of De Almagro in Almagro, Spain

De Almagro promptly initiated the exploration of the new territory, starting up the valley the Aconcagua River, where he was well received by the natives. However, the intrigues of his interpreter, Felipillo, who had previously helped Pizarro in dealing with Atahualpa, almost thwarted De Almagro's efforts. Felipillo had secretly urged the local natives to attack the Spanish, but they desisted, not understanding the dangers that they posed. De Almagro directed Gómez de Alvarado along with 100 horsemen and 100 foot to continue the exploration, which ended in the confluence of the Ñuble and Itata rivers. The Battle of Reinohuelén between the Spanish and hostile Mapuche Indians forced the explorers to return to the north.

De Almagro's own reconnaissance of the land and the bad news of Gómez de Alvarado's encounter with the fierce Mapuche, along with the bitter cold winter that settled ferociously upon them, only served to confirm that everything had failed. He never found gold or the cities which Incan scouts had told him lay ahead, only communities of the indigenous population who lived from subsistence agriculture. Local tribes put up fierce resistance to the Spanish forces. The exploration of the territories of Nueva Toledo, which lasted 2 years, was marked by a complete failure for De Almagro. Despite this, at first he thought staying and founding a city would serve well for his honor. The initial optimism that led Almagro to bring his son he had with the indigenous Panamanian Ana Martínez to Chile had faded.

Some historians have suggested that, but for the urging of his senior explorers, De Almagro would probably have stayed permanently in Chile. He was urged to return to Peru and this time take definitive possession of Cuzco, so as to consolidate an inheritance for his son. Dismayed with his experience in the south, Almagro made plans of return to Peru. He never officially founded a city in the territory of what is now Chile.[4]:254

The withdrawal of the Spanish from valleys of Chile was violent: Almagro authorized his soldiers to ransack the natives' properties, leaving their soil desolate. In addition, the Spanish soldiers took natives captive to serve as slaves. The locals were captured, tied together, and forced to carry the heavy loads belonging to the conquistadors.

Return to Peru

Diego-de-Almagro
Capture and execution of Diego de Almagro
Engraving, circa 1600

After the exhausting crossing of the Atacama Desert, mainly due to the weather conditions, Almagro finally reached Cuzco, Peru, in 1537.[4]:254 According to some authors, it was during this time that the Spanish term "roto" (torn), used by Peruvians to refer to Chileans, was first coined. De Almagro's disappointed troops returned to Cuzco with their "torn clothes" due to the extensive and laborious passage on foot by the Atacama Desert.

After his return, De Almagro was surprised to learn of the Inca Manco's rebellion. Diego de Almagro sent an embassy to the Inca, but they mistrusted all of the Spaniards by this time. Hernando Pizarro's men formed an uneasy truce with De Almagro's men, surveying to determine the boundaries of their leaders' royal grants. They needed to determine in which portion the city of Cuzco was located. However, De Almagro's troops quickly took the city and imprisoned the Pizarro brothers, Hernando and Gonzalo, on the night of 8 April 1537.[4]:254–256

After occupying Cuzco, De Almagro confronted an army sent by Francisco Pizarro to liberate his brothers. Alonso de Alvarado commanded it and was defeated during the Battle of Abancay on July 12, 1537.[4]:257 He and some of his men were imprisoned. Later, Gonzalo Pizarro and De Alvarado escaped prison. Subsequent negotiations between Francisco Pizarro and De Almagro concluded with the liberation of Hernando, the third Pizarro brother, in return for conceding control and administration of Cuzco to De Almagro. Pizarro never intended to give up the city permanently, but was buying time to organize an army strong enough to defeat Almagro's troops.[4]:260–262

During this time Almagro fell ill, and Pizarro and his brothers grabbed the opportunity to defeat him and his followers. The Almagristas were defeated at Las Salinas in April 1538, with Orgóñez being killed on the field of battle. De Almagro fled to Cuzco, still in the hands of his loyal supporters, but found only temporary refuge; the forces of the Pizarro brothers entered the city without resistance. Once captured, Almagro was humiliated by Hernando Pizarro and his requests to appeal to the King were ignored.

When Diego de Almagro begged for his life, Hernando responded:[4]:262–268

"-he was surprised to see Almagro demean himself in a manner so unbecoming a brave cavalier, that his fate was no worse than had befallen many a soldier before him; and that, since God had given him the grace to be a Christian, he should employ his remaining moments in making up his account with Heaven!"

Almagro was condemned to death and executed by garrote in his dungeon, and then decapitated, on July 8, 1538. His corpse was taken to the public Plaza Mayor of Cuzco, where a herald proclaimed his crimes. Hernan Ponce de Leon took his body and buried him in the church of Our Lady of Mercy in Cuzco.[4]:269

El Mozo

Diego de Almagro II (1520–1542), known as El Mozo (The Lad), son of Diego de Almagro I, whose mother was an Indian girl of Panama, became the foil of the conspirators who had put Pizarro to the sword. Pizarro was murdered on June 26, 1541; the conspirators promptly proclaimed the lad De Almagro Governor of Peru. From various causes, all of the conspirators either died or were killed except for one, who was executed after the lad Almagro gave an order. The lad De Almagro fought the desperate battle of Chupas on September 16, 1542, escaped to Cuzco, but was arrested, immediately condemned to death, and executed in the great square of the city.

See also

References

  1. ^ Diego de Almagro - Geni
  2. ^ (in German) García, Celso; 1973. Die Eroberung von Peru: Pizarro und andere Conquistadoren, 1526-1712. Erdmann: Horst Erdmann Verlag.
  3. ^ Hemming, J.. 1970. The Conquest of the Incas. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., New York.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Prescott, W.H.. 2011. The History of the Conquest of Peru. Digireads.com Publishing.
  5. ^ Leon, P.. 1998. The Discovery and Conquest of Peru, Chronicles of the New World Encounter. Duke University Press.
  6. ^ "Hace 476 años el Capitán Juan de Saavedra fundó Paria la Nueva," La Patria, http://www.lapatriaenlinea.com/?nota=56188, accessed 10 June 2016

Further reading

External links

Alonso de Alvarado

Alonso de Alvarado Montaya González de Cevallos y Miranda (1508–1555) was a Spanish conquistador and knight of the Order of Santiago.

He was born at Secadura de Trasmiera. After a period in Mexico under the orders of Hernán Cortés, he joined the campaign of Francisco Pizarro.

He went to Peru with his uncle Pedro de Alvarado in search of gold in 1534. There he fought against the armies of Manco Inca Yupanqui that were besieging Lima in 1536, against Diego de Almagro in 1537 and at the Battle of Las Salinas in 1538. He later fought at Chupas and Jaquijahuana.

While charged by some contemporaries with avarice and cruelty, it is undeniable that during the period of civil wars in Peru (about 1537 to 1555) Alvarado was an unflinching and determined adherent to the interests of the Spanish crown. He always sided with those whom he thought to be sincere representatives of the crown, and it was not always profitable and safe to be on that side.Thus in 1537, he commanded the troops of Pizarro's followers, when Diego de Almagro claimed the mythical Inca city of Cuzco. He was defeated and captured by the latter at the Battle of Abancay. Effecting his escape under great difficulties as well as dangers, and rejoining Pizarro, whom he looked upon as the legitimate governor of Peru, he took part in all the bloody troubles that followed, always as a prominent military leader and always unsuccessful when in immediate command. Still, he was counted upon as a mainstay of the Spanish cause, and occupied a high military position.Alvarado married in Spain while on a short visit, in 1544.When Francisco Hernández Girón initiated a rebellion in 1553, Alvarado was put in command of the forces to oppose him. At Chuquinga, in 1554, Alvarado suffered a signal defeat at the hands of the insurgents. Overcome by melancholy in consequence of that last disaster, he pined away and died in 1559. His principal achievement was the pacification of Chachapoyas in northeastern Peru, in the years 1535 and 1536, this being the first step taken from Peru towards the Amazonian basin.

Bartolomé Ruiz

Bartolomé Ruiz (c. 1482 in Moguer, Spain – c. 1532 in Cajamarca, Peru) was a Spanish conquistador. He started his career as Christopher Columbus's pilot, before joining Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro on their conquest of Peru. Ruiz was a member of the Famous Thirteen. He is also the first European to see Ecuador, and the first to land and begin European exploration there.

Battle of Abancay

The Battle of Abancay was a battle that took place during the Spanish conquest of Peru. Alonso de Alvarado, sent by Francisco Pizarro to relieve the siege of Cusco, was camped at Jauja with five hundred men. He guarded the bridge and a ford on the Rio de Abancay, awaiting Almagro's men. However, the soldier Alvarado placed in command of the ford, Pedro de Lerma, deserted, allowing Almagro to capture Alvarado's force almost intact.After emerging as the victor both in the siege of Cuzco and from initial disputes between the Pizarro brothers with allies and the Almagristas under Diego de Almagro, who had seized the former Inca capital upon rescuing Hernando Pizarro and Gonzalo Pizarro from emerging defeat, imprisoning them both.Unable to break the siege on his own, and having lost his youngest brother, Pizarro gathered a new army from Spanish settlers traveling to New Castile to find further wealth. The expedition force, commanded by Alonso de Alvarado, was completely defeated by Almagrist forces.

Alvarado was captured during the battle but managed to escape with Gonzalo Pizarro when Marshal Almagro left the main force with Hernando under his control. Hernando was later released as well with the condition that he would return to Spain within six weeks to ensure Francisco would not interfere in Almagro's future reign in Peru. This proved to be a mistake as the Pizarro brothers and Alvarado raised another army and faced Almagro yet again in a struggle for power at Las Salinas.

Battle of Chupas

After the assassination of Francisco Pizarro, in retaliation for his father's execution in 1538, Diego de Almagro II, El Mozo, continued to press claims as the rightful ruler of Peru and as leader of his father's supporters. His claims were largely unsuccessful, however, as Pizarro was succeeded as governor by Cristóbal Vaca de Castro, despite claims from his brother Gonzalo Pizarro, whose claims to join arms against the Almagristas and "El Mozo" largely remained unanswered.

Battle of Jaquijahuana

The Battle of Jaquijahuana was fought between the forces of Gonzalo Pizarro and Pedro de la Gasca, on April 9, 1548, during the Conquest of the Inca Empire by the Spanish conquistadores.

After the successful Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the assassination of Francisco Pizarro in 1541, and the execution of his main antagonist, Diego de Almagro (1538) and his son, El Mozo (1542), most of the competent commanders of the recently founded New Castile Governorate had been lost in the ensuing power struggle. In 1540, second in line of the Pizarro brothers, Hernando Pizarro, returned to Spain to defend the question of his and his brothers' reign in Peru against accusations of abuse of power. He was eventually imprisoned on orders of King Charles. The Almagristas, followers of Diego de Almagro, met their downfall in the battle of Chupas on September 16, 1542. Two years later, King Charles eventually sent his own envoy, Blasco Núñez Vela, as governor over the recently found Viceroyalty of Peru, and as well to ensure the accomplishment of the New Laws enacted in 1542 to protect the native Peruvian population of Peru.

Gonzalo Pizarro, however, refused to relinquish power and the sovereignty over Peru once belonging to him and his brothers. With his namesake as an ensuring symbol of the former reign of the Pizarros, he gathered supporters, mainly opposed by formal governor of New Castile, Cristóbal Vaca de Castro, victor at Chupas over the Almagristas. The Viceroy arrived at Lima, new capital of Peru, and was sworn into office on May 17, 1544. He shortly after had Castro imprisoned and sent home to Spain. On September 18, Gonzalo Pizarro managed to depose Blasco Núñez Vela and sent him as prisoner to Panama. On October 28, the 1,200 men strong army of Gonzalo Pizarro entered Lima. Upon arrival to Panama, however, Vela was released, and returned to Peru with royal claims as the rightful viceroy and governor of Peru, landing in Tumbes. The two gathered supporters and met on January 18, 1546 at Añaquito in present-day Ecuador, superiority in numbers and firepower ensured victory for Gonzalo Pizarro, who crushed the army of Blasco Núñez Vela, who was decapitated on the field of battle. This, in its turn, ensured a struggle for the control of Peru between Gonzalo Pizarro and the royal forces.

The king then appointed Pedro de la Gasca as new governor of Peru; meanwhile, the land itself fell under control by Gonzalo Pizarro and his forces. De la Gasca landed in Peru in 1547, winning supporters to his initially inferior forces by promising amnesty to those having committed treason to the crown, and proclaimed he would not enforce the New Laws, whose dispositions demanding better conditions for native laborers had led many powerful encomenderos to join Pizarro's cause.

After initial skirmishes, the two forces went close to a confrontation in late 1547 at Jaquijahuana (Xaquixaguana, Sacsahuana) plains near Cuzco, but de la Gasca succeeded in avoiding battle, gaining precious time which he employed to convince even more of Pizarro's officers to switch sides, among them the notorious Alonso de Alvarado. Although Pizarro had arrived to Jaquijahuana with a vastly superior force, by the time the two sides finally met on the battlefield in April 1518, the situation had reversed, a steady string of defections having left Pizarro's forces in grave numerical inferiority and poor morale.

The battle itself proved to be a disaster for Gonzalo Pizarro, with all his men who hadn't already defected being killed or captured on the field, while de la Gasca's men reportedly suffered a single casualty. Gonzalo himself, along with his most loyal commander, Francisco de Carvajal, dubbed the Deamon of the Andes, were captured on field of battle and executed by beheading. De la Gasca then made efforts to consolidate his control over Peru, which remained a royal colony and viceroyalty until the revolutionary actions of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar during the early 19th century.

Battle of Las Salinas

The Battle of Las Salinas was a military conflict and decisive confrontation between the forces of Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro against those of rival conquistador Diego de Almagro, on April 26, 1538, during the Conquest of Peru. Both camps claimed to represent the authority of the Spanish Crown; Pizarro's forces controlled the province of Nueva Castilla, and those of Almagro, Nueva Toledo.

After an hour of carnage, the battle yielded a victory for Pizarro's forces: with Almagro captured and his lieutenant, Rodrigo Orgóñez killed on the field of battle, the Pizarros routed the enemy and took possession of Cuzco. Almagro was executed in July 1538.

Chañaral Province

Chañaral Province (Spanish: Provincia de Chañaral) is one of three provinces in the northern Chilean region of Atacama (III). Its capital is the small coastal town of Chañaral.

Diego de Almagro, Chile

Diego de Almagro (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈdjeɣo ðe alˈmaɣɾo]) is a Chilean city and commune in Chañaral Province, Atacama Region. The commune has an area of 18,663.8 km2 (7,206 sq mi). The area is named after Diego de Almagro.

Diego de Almagro II

Diego de Almagro II (1520 – September 16, 1542) called El Mozo (the lad), was the son of Spanish conquistador Diego de Almagro and a native Panamanian Indian.

Diego de Almagro Island

Diego de Almagro Island (Spanish: Isla Diego de Almagro), formerly known as Cambridge Island, is an island in the Magallanes Region, Chile. It is located South-West of Hanover Island. It is named after Diego de Almagro.

El Salvador, Chile

El Salvador is a mining town in the commune of Diego de Almagro, Chañaral Province, Atacama Region, Chile. Located at an elevation of more than 2,400 meters in the foothills of the Andes and in the middle of the Atacama Desert, it has a population of approximately 7,000 inhabitants. At its peak, El Salvador once had a population of 24,000 inhabitants.

Felipillo

Felipillo (or Felipe) was a native Amerindian translator who accompanied Spanish conquistadors Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro on their various expeditions to Peru during their conquest of the Inca Empire. His real name is not known.

Ferronor

Ferronor (Empresa de Transporte Ferroviario S.A.) is a Chilean railway company operating on the old Red Norte (northern network) of Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado, which was privatised in 1997. Since 2004 the primary shareholder is APCO.

Currently Ferronor owns a railway network of about 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi), consisting of a 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge main line between La Calera and Iquique and various spur lines. However, about 60% of the railway network are currently unused due to damage like landslides, washouts and rail theft. Ferronor mostly transports mining supplies and products.

Ferronor transports 7,000,000 tonnes of iron ore concentrate, 900,000 tonnes of salt, 290,000 tonnes of copper concentrate, 530,000 tonnes of sulfuric acid, 230,000 tonnes of copper cathodes and 35,000 tonnes of fuel annually. Other railway operators transport 2,200,000 tonnes of freight on Ferronor lines annually.

Governorate of New Toledo

The Spanish Imperial Governorate of New Toledo was formed from the previous southern half of the Inca Empire, stretching south into present day central Chile, and east into present day central Brazil.

Established by King Charles I of Spain in 1528. Diego de Almagro was the appointed Spanish colonial governor.

It was replaced by the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru in 1542.

Hernando de Luque

Hernando de Luque (Unknown – 1532) was a Spanish priest who travelled to the New World in the 16th century. Luque was born in Olvera, Andalusia, but grew up in Luque, Spain. His last name comes from his town being Luque. His English name is Ferdinand of Luque. Luque left for the Americas in 1514. He arrived in 1514 with the expedition of Pedrarias Dávila to Panama, where he met Francisco Pizarro.

Luque acted as an agent for the financial backer, Judge Gaspar de Espinosa, of the joint expedition by Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro to Peru in 1526. He was named "Bishop of Tumbes" and "Protector of the Indians" in the Capitulation of 1529.In 1533, Hernando de Luque died in Panama.

Nelson Strait (Chile)

Nelson Strait is a channel in the Chilean Archipelago. It is located in Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region of Chilean Patagonia.

The Strait opens in the west to the Pacific Ocean, at 51°40′S 75°00′W, between the Diego de Almagro Island to the north and Ramírez Island to the south.

The strait widens to the east into a shallow rock-strewn basin which lead into various channels.

These are (clock-wise from the north) Esteban, (between the islands of Jorge Montt and Esperanza), Sarmiento (between Vancouver and Piazzi), Smyth (between Piazzi and North Rennell) and Uribe (between Rennell North and Vidal Gomez).

The Nelson Strait is unsuitable for general navigation.

Pedro de Candia

Pedro de Candia (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpeðɾo ðe kanˈði.a]; 1485 - 1542) was a Greek explorer and cartographer at the service of the Kingdom of Spain, an officer of the Royal Spanish Navy that under the Spanish Crown became a Conquistador, Grandee of Spain, Commander of the Royal Spanish Fleet of the Southern Sea, Colonial Ordinance of Cusco, and then Mayor of Lima between 1534 and 1535. Specialized in the use of firearms and artillery, he was one of the earliers explorers of Panama and the Pacific coastline of Colombia, and finally participated in the conquest of Peru. He was killed in the Battle of Chupas, (Peru), on 16 September 1542, by Diego de Almagro II.

Quintero

Quintero is a Chilean city and commune in Valparaíso Province, in the Valparaíso Region, 30 kilometers north of Valparaíso. The commune spans an area of 147.5 km2 (57 sq mi). It was the first port in the country, created during the expedition of Don Diego de Almagro .

Rodrigo Orgóñez

Rodrigo Orgóñez (1490 – 26 April 1538) was Spanish captain under Diego de Almagro.

Born in Oropesa, Rodrigo participated in the Italian Campaigns. He accompanied Francisco de Godoy from Nicaragua when they joined Diego's men in reinforcing Pizarro during the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire.He proved his loyalty serving as a soldier for 5 years before he was made second in command to conquer and govern the southern portion of the Incan Empire. He helped Almagro in his 1537 coup d'état in Cusco leading the group that surrounded the Amaru Cancha Palace capturing Hernando Pizarro and Gonzalo Pizarro. He later led an army against the Pizarros but was killed in 1538 during the Battle of Las Salinas.American historian William H. Prescott wrote: "Thus perished as loyal a cavalier, as decided in council, and as bold in action, as ever crossed to the shores of America."

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