Dido

Dido (/ˈdaɪdoʊ/ DY-doh; Ancient Greek: Δῑδώ, Latin pronunciation: [ˈdiːdoː]) was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage. She is primarily known from the account given by the Roman poet Virgil in his epic, Aeneid. In some sources she is also known as Elissa (/iːˈlɪsə/ ee-LISS-ə, Ἔλισσα).[1]

Guérin Énée racontant à Didon les malheurs de la ville de Troie Louvre 5184
Aeneas recounting the Trojan War to Dido, a painting by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin. This scene is taken from Virgil's Aeneid, where Dido falls in love with, only to be left by, the Trojan hero Aeneas.

Name

Dosso Dossi 041
Dido, a painting by Dosso Dossi.

Many names in the legend of Dido are of Punic origin, which suggests that the first Greek authors who mention this story have taken up Phoenician accounts. One suggestion is that Dido is an epithet from the same Semitic root as David, which means "Beloved".[2] Others state Didô means "the wanderer".[3][4]

According to Marie-Pierre Noël, "Elishat/Elisha" is a name repeatedly attested on Punic votives. It is composed of the Punic reflex of *ʾil- "god", the remote Phoenician creator god El, also a name for God in Judaism, and "‐issa", which could be either "ʾiš" (𐤀𐤎) means "fire", or another word for "woman".[5] Other works state it is the feminine form of El.[6] In Greek it appears as Theiossô, which translates Élissa: el becoming theos.[7]

Chronology

This understanding of the chronology related to Dido and her company resulted in the following dates for Dido and her immediate relations, as derived from F. M. Cross[8] and Wm. H. Barnes:[9]

  • Baal-Eser II (Ba‘l-mazzer II) 846-841 BC
  • Mattan I 840-832 BC
  • 839 BC: Dido was born in Tyre
  • 831 BC: Pygmalion begins to reign
  • 825 BC: Dido flees Tyre in 7th year of Pygmalion, after the death of Acerbas
  • 825 BC and possibly some time thereafter: Dido and companions on Cyprus
  • Between 825 BC and 814 BC: Tyrians build settlement on island of Cothon
  • 814 BC: Dido founds Carthage on mainland
  • 785 BC: Death of Pygmalion
  • 759 BC: Dido died in Carthage

Early accounts

Meister des Vergilius Vaticanus 001
Aeneid, Book IV, Death of Dido. From the Vergilius Vaticanus (Vatican Library, Cod. Vat. lat. 3225).

The person of Dido can be traced to references by Roman historians to lost writings of Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily (c. 356–260 BC).

Historians gave various dates, both for the foundation of Carthage and the foundation of Rome. Appian in the beginning of his Punic Wars claims that Carthage was founded by a certain Zorus and Carchedon, but Zorus looks like an alternative transliteration of the city name Tyre and Carchedon is just the Greek form of Carthage. Timaeus made Carchedon's wife Elissa the sister of King Pygmalion of Tyre. Archaeological evidence of settlement on the site of Carthage before the last quarter of the 8th century BC has yet to be found. Paucity of material for this period may be explained by rejection of the Greek Dark Age theory.[10] That the city is named 𐤒𐤓𐤕 𐤇𐤃𐤔𐤕‬ (Qart-hadasht, or "New City") at least indicates it was a colony.[11]

The only surviving full account before Virgil's treatment is that of Virgil's contemporary Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus in his Philippic histories as rendered in a digest or epitome made by Junianus Justinus in the 3rd century AD.

Justin quoting or paraphrasing Trogus states (18.4–6), a king of Tyre whom Justin does not name, made his very beautiful daughter Dido and son Pygmalion his joint heirs. But on his death the people took Pygmalion alone as their ruler though Pygmalion was yet still a boy. Dido married Acerbas her uncle who as priest of Heracles—that is, Melqart—was second in power to King Pygmalion. Acerbas (Sicharbas, Zacherbas) can be equated with the Zikarbaal king of Byblos mentioned in the Egyptian Tale of Wenamon. Rumor told that Acerbas had much wealth secretly buried and King Pygmalion had Acerbas murdered in hopes of gaining this wealth. Dido, desiring to escape Tyre, expressed a wish to move into Pygmalion's palace, but then ordered the attendants whom Pygmalion sent to aid in the move, to throw all Acerbas' bags of gold into the sea apparently as an offering to his spirit. In fact these bags contained only sand. Dido then persuaded the attendants to join her in flight to another land rather than face Pygmalion's anger when he discovered what had supposedly become of Acerbas' wealth. Some senators also joined her in her flight.

The party arrived at Cyprus where the priest of Jupiter joined the expedition. There the exiles also seized about eighty young women who were prostituting themselves on the shore in order to provide wives for the men in the party.

Eventually Dido and her followers arrived on the coast of North Africa where Dido asked the Berber king Iarbas[12][13] for a small bit of land for a temporary refuge until she could continue her journeying, only as much land as could be encompassed by an oxhide. They agreed. Dido cut the oxhide into fine strips so that she had enough to encircle an entire nearby hill, which was therefore afterwards named Byrsa "hide". (This event is commemorated in modern mathematics: The "isoperimetric problem" of enclosing the maximum area within a fixed boundary is often called the "Dido Problem" in modern calculus of variations.) That would become their new home. Many of the local Berbers joined the settlement and both Berbers and envoys from the nearby Phoenician city of Utica urged the building of a city. In digging the foundations an ox's head was found, indicating a city that would be wealthy but subject to others. Accordingly, another area of the hill was dug instead where a horse's head was found, indicating that the city would be powerful in war.

But when the new city of Carthage had been established and become prosperous, Iarbas, a native king of the Maxitani or Mauritani (manuscripts differ), demanded Dido for his wife or he would make war on Carthage. Dido's envoys, fearing Iarbas, told Dido only that Iarbas' terms for peace were that someone from Carthage must dwell permanently with him to teach Phoenician ways and they added that of course no Carthaginian would agree to dwell with such savages. Dido condemned any who would feel that way when they should indeed give their lives for the city if necessary. Dido's envoys then explained that Iarbas had specifically requested Dido as wife. Dido was trapped by her words. Still, she preferred to stay faithful to her first husband and after creating a ceremonial funeral pyre and sacrificing many victims to his spirit in pretense that this was a final honoring of her first husband in preparation for marriage to Iarbas, Dido ascended the pyre, announced that she would go to her husband as they desired, and then slew herself with her sword. After this self-sacrifice Dido was deified and was worshipped as long as Carthage endured.[14] In this account, the foundation of Carthage occurred 72 years before the foundation of Rome.

Servius in his commentary on Virgil's Aeneid gives Sicharbas as the name of Dido's husband in early tradition.

Questions of historicity and dating

Affresco romano - Enea e di
Dido and Aeneas, from a Roman fresco, Pompeian Third Style (10 BC - 45 AD), Pompeii, Italy

The oxhide story which explains the name of the hill must be of Greek origin since Byrsa means "oxhide" in Greek, not in Punic. The name of the hill in Punic was probably just a derivation from Semitic brt "fortified place". But that does not prevent other details in the story from being Carthaginian tradition though still not necessarily historical. Michael Grant in Roman Myths (1973) claims:

"That is to say, Dido-Elissa was originally a goddess."
It has been conjectured that she was first converted from a goddess into a mortal queen in some Greek work of the later 5th century BC.

But others conjecture that Dido was indeed historical, as described in the following accounts.

It is not known who first combined the story of Dido with the tradition that connected Aeneas either with Rome or with earlier settlements from which Rome traced its origin.

A fragment of an epic poem by Gnaeus Naevius who died at Utica in 201 BC includes a passage which might or might not be part of a conversation between Aeneas and Dido. Servius in his commentary (4.682; 5.4) cites Varro (1st century BC ) for a version in which Dido's sister Anna killed herself for love of Aeneas.

Evidence for the historicity of Dido (which is a question independent of whether or not she ever met Aeneas) can be associated with evidence for the historicity of others in her family, such as her brother Pygmalion and their grandfather Balazeros. Both of these kings are mentioned, as well as Dido, in the list of Tyrian kings given in Menander of Ephesus's list of the kings of Tyre, as preserved in Josephus's Against Apion, i.18. Josephus ends his quotation of Menander with the sentence "Now, in the seventh year of his [Pygmalion's] reign, his sister fled away from him and built the city of Carthage in Libya."

The Nora Stone, found on Sardinia, has been interpreted by Frank Moore Cross as naming Pygmalion as the king of the general who was using the stone to record his victory over the local populace.[15] On paleographic grounds, the stone is dated to the 9th century BC. (Cross's translation, with a longer discussion of the Nora stone, is found in the Pygmalion article). If Cross's interpretation is correct, this presents inscriptional evidence substantiating the existence of a 9th-century-BC king of Tyre named (in Greek) Pygmalion.

Several scholars have identified Baa‘li-maanzer, the king of Tyre who gave tribute to Shalmaneser III in 841 BC, with 𐤁𐤏𐤋𐤏𐤑𐤅𐤓Ba‘al-‘azor (Phoenician form of the name) or Baal-Eser/Balazeros (Greek form of the name), Dido's grandfather.[16][17][18][19] This lends credibility to the account in Josephus/Menander that names the kings of Tyre from Abibaal and Hiram I down to the time of Pygmalion and Dido.

Another possible reference to Balazeros is found in the Aeneid. It was a common ancient practice of using the hypocoristicon or shortened form of the name that included only the divine element, so that the "Belus" that Virgil names as the father of Dido in the Aeneid may be a reference to her grandfather, Baal-Eser II/Balazeros.

Even more important than the inscriptional and literary references supporting the historicity of Pygmalion and Dido are chronological considerations that give something of a mathematical demonstration of the veracity of the major feature of the Pygmalion/Dido saga, namely the flight of Dido from Tyre in Pygmalion's seventh year, and her eventual founding of the city of Carthage. Classical authors give two dates for the founding of Carthage. The first is that of Pompeius Trogus, mentioned above, that says this took place 72 years before the foundation of Rome. At least as early as the 1st century BC, and then later, the date most commonly used by Roman writers for the founding of Rome was 753 BC.[20] This would place Dido's flight in 753 + 72 = 825 BC. Another tradition, that of the Greek historian Timaeus (c. 345–260 BC), gives 814 BC for the founding of Carthage. Traditionally most modern scholars have preferred the 814 date. However, the publication of the Shalmaneser text mentioning tribute from Baal-Eser II of Tyre in 841 BC caused a re-examination of this question, since the best texts of Menander/Josephus only allow 22 years from the accession of Baal-Eser/Balazeros until the seventh year of Pygmalion, and measuring back from 814 BC would not allow any overlap of Balazeros with the 841 tribute to Shalmaneser. With the 825 date for the seventh year of Pygmalion, however, Balazeros's last year would coincide with 841 BC, the year of the tribute. Additional evidence in favor of the 825 date is found in the statement of Menander, repeated by Josephus as corroborated from Tyrian court records (Against Apion i.17,18), that Dido's flight (or the founding of Carthage) occurred 143 years and eight months after Hiram of Tyre sent assistance to Solomon for the building of the Temple. Using the 825 date, this Tyrian record would then date the start of Temple construction in 969 or 968 BC, in agreement with the statement in 1 Kings 6:1 that Temple construction began in Solomon's fourth regnal year. Solomon's fourth year can be calculated as starting in the fall of 968 BC when using the widely accepted date of 931/930 BC for the division of the kingdom after the death of Solomon. These chronological considerations therefore definitely favor the 825 date over the 814 date for Dido's departure from Tyre. More than that, the agreement of this date with the timing of the tribute to Shalmaneser and the year when construction of the First Temple began provide evidence for the essential historicity of at least the existence of Pygmalion and Dido as well as their rift in 825 BC that eventually led to the founding of Carthage.

According to J. M. Peñuela, the difference in the two dates for the foundation of Carthage has an explanation if we understand that Dido fled Tyre in 825 BC, but eleven years elapsed before she was given permission by the original inhabitants to build a city on the mainland, years marked by conflict in which the Tyrians first built a small city on an island in the harbor.[21] Additional information about Dido's activities after leaving Tyre are found in the Pygmalion article, along with a summary of later scholars who have accepted Peñuela's thesis.

If chronological considerations thus help to establish the basic historicity of Dido, they also serve to refute the idea that she could have had any liaison with Aeneas. Aeneas fought in the Trojan War, which is conventionally dated anywhere from the 14th to the 12th centuries BC, far too early for Aeneas to have been alive in the time of Dido. Even with the date of 864 BC that historical revisionist David Rohl gives for the end of the Trojan War,[22] Aeneas would have been about 77 years old when Dido fled Tyre in 825 BC and 88 when she began to build Carthage in 814 (following Peñuela's reconstruction), hardly consistent with the romantic intrigues between Dido and Aeneas imagined by Virgil in the Aeneid.

Virgil's Aeneid

Dido Cochet Louvre ENT2000.10
Dido, attributed to Christophe Cochet, formerly at Marly (Louvre)

Virgil's references in the Aeneid generally agree with what Justin's epitome of Trogus recorded. Virgil names Belus as Dido's father, this Belus sometimes being called Belus II by later commentators to distinguish him from Belus son of Poseidon and Libya in earlier Greek mythology. If the story of Dido has a factual basis and is synchronized properly with history then this Belus should stand for Mattan I, father of the historical Pygmalion.

Virgil (1.343f) adds that the marriage between Dido and Sychaeus, as Virgil calls Dido's husband, occurred while her father was still alive. Pygmalion slew Sychaeus secretly due to his wealth and Sychaeus appeared to Dido in a dream in which he told the truth about his death, urged her to flee the country, and revealed to her where his gold was buried. She left with those who hated or feared Pygmalion. None of these details contradicts Justin's epitome, but Virgil very much changes the import and many details of the story when he brings Aeneas and his followers to Carthage.

(1.657f) Dido and Aeneas fall in love by the management of Juno and Venus, acting in concert, though for different reasons. (4.198f) When the rumour of the love affair comes to King Iarbas the Gaetulian, "a son of Jupiter Ammon by a raped Garamantian nymph", Iarbas prays to his father, blaming Dido who has scorned marriage with him yet now takes Aeneas into the country as her lord. (4.222f) Jupiter dispatches Mercury to send Aeneas on his way and the pious Aeneas sadly obeys. Mercury tells Aeneas of all the promising Italian lands and orders Aeneas to get his fleet ready.

(4.450f)

Guercino Morte di Didone
Death of Dido, by Guercino, AD 1631.

Dido can no longer bear to live. (4.474) She has her sister Anna build her a pyre under the pretence of burning all that reminded her of Aeneas, including weapons and clothes that Aeneas had left behind and (what she calls) their bridal bed (though, according to Aeneas, they were never officially married.) (4.584f) When Dido sees Aeneas' fleet leaving she curses him and his Trojans and proclaims endless hate between Carthage and the descendants of Troy, foreshadowing the Punic Wars. (4.642) Dido ascends the pyre, lies again on the couch which she had shared with Aeneas, and then falls on a sword that Aeneas had given her. (4.666) Those watching let out a cry; Anna rushes in and embraces her dying sister; Juno sends Iris from heaven to release Dido's spirit from her body. (5.1) From their ships, Aeneas and his crew see the glow of Dido's burning funeral pyre and can only guess what has happened. At least two scholars have argued that the inclusion of the pyre as part of Dido's suicide—otherwise unattested in epic and tragedy—alludes to the self-immolation that took the life of Carthage's last queen (or the wife of its general Hasdrubal the Boetharch) in 146 BC.[23]

(6.450f) During his journey in the underworld Aeneas meets Dido and tries to excuse himself, but Dido does not deign to look at him. Instead she turns away from Aeneas to a grove where her former husband Sychaeus waits.

Virgil has included most of the motifs from the original: Iarbas who desires Dido against her will, a deceitful explanation for the building of the pyre, and Dido's final suicide. In both versions Dido is loyal to her original husband in the end. But whereas the earlier Elissa remained always loyal to her husband's memory, Virgil's Dido dies as a tortured and repentant woman who has fallen away from that loyalty.

Virgil consistently uses the form Dido as nominative, but derivates of Elissa for the oblique cases.

Later Roman tradition

Letter 7 of Ovid's Heroides is a feigned letter from Dido to Aeneas written just before she ascends the pyre. The situation is as in Virgil's Aeneid. In Ovid's Fasti (3.545f) Ovid introduced a kind of sequel involving Aeneas and Dido's sister Anna. See Anna Perenna.

The Barcids, the family to which Hannibal belonged, claimed descent from a younger brother of Dido according to Silius Italicus in his Punica (1.71–7).

The Augustan History ("Tyrrani Triginta" 27, 30) claims that Zenobia queen of Palmyra in the late third century was descended from Cleopatra, Dido and Semiramis.

Continuing tradition

Jongen S191a Didon
Christine Jongen, Dido, bronze sculpture, 2007-08.
10 TND - 2005 - obverse
10 TND banknote issued in 2005, with the portrait of Elissa.

In The Divine Comedy Dante sees the shade of Dido in the second circle of Hell, where she is condemned (on account of her consuming lust) to be blasted for eternity in a fierce whirlwind.

This legend inspired the Renaissance drama Dido, Queen of Carthage by Christopher Marlowe.[24]

Also from the 17th century is a ballad inspired by the relationship between Dido and Aeneas. The ballad, often printed on a broadside, is called "The Wandering Prince of Troy," and it alters the end of the relationship between the two lovers, rethinking Dido's final sentiment for Aeneas and rewriting Aeneas's visit to the underworld as Dido's choice to haunt him.[25]

The story of Dido and Aeneas remained popular throughout the post-Renaissance era and was the basis for many operas, including:

William Shakespeare refers to Dido twelve times in his plays: four times in The Tempest, albeit all in one dialogue, twice in Titus Andronicus, and also in Henry VI Part 2, Antony and Cleopatra, Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, and most famously in The Merchant of Venice, in Lorenzo's and Jessica's mutual wooing:

In such a night
Stood Dido with a willow in her hand
Upon the wild sea banks and waft her love
To come again to Carthage.[26]

In 1794 Germany, Charlotte von Stein wrote her own drama named Dido, with an autobiographical element - as von Stein had been forsaken by her own lover, the famous Goethe, in a manner which she found reminiscent of Aeneas.

Even today, Dido appears in Sid Meier's strategy games Civilization II and Civilization V, as the leader of the Carthaginian civilization, although she appears alongside Hannibal in the former. In Civilization V, she speaks Phoenician, with a modern Israeli accent. In 2019, Dido was made the leader of Phoenicia in Civilization VI: Gathering Storm, with Tyre as its capital.

In honor of Dido, the asteroid 209 Dido, discovered in 1879, was named after her. Another dedication of Queen Dido is the Mount Dido in Antarctica.[27]

Remembrance of the story of the bull's hide and the foundation of Carthage is preserved in mathematics in connection with the Isoperimetric problem which is sometimes called Dido's Problem (and similarly the Isoperimetric theorem is sometimes called Dido's Theorem). It is sometimes stated in such discussion that Dido caused her thong to be placed as a half circle touching the sea coast at each end (which would add greatly to the perimeter) but the sources mention the thong only and say nothing about the sea.

Carthage was the Roman Republic's greatest rival and enemy, and Virgil's Dido in part symbolises this. Even though no Rome existed in her day, Virgil's Dido curses the future progeny of the Trojans. In Italy under the Fascist regime, her figure was demonized, perhaps not only as an anti-Roman figure but because she represented together at least three other "unpleasant" qualities: feminine virtue, "Semitic race", and North African civilization. As an innocuous example: when Benito Mussolini's regime named the streets of new quarters in Rome with the characters of Virgil's Aeneid, only the name Dido did not appear.

Notes

  1. ^ "Elissa - Dido Legend of Carthage". www.phoenician.org. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
  2. ^ Barton, Semitic and Hamitic Origins (1934) at 305.
  3. ^ Noël 2014, p. 5
  4. ^ María Eugenia Aubet, Tiro and the Phoenician colonies of the West, 2nd edition, Bellaterra, 1994, p. 217
  5. ^ Noël 2014, p. 3
  6. ^ Smith, Carthage and the Carthaginians (1878, 1902) at 13.
  7. ^ Noël 2014, p. 5
  8. ^ Cross, "Nora Stone" 17, n. 11
  9. ^ Barnes, Studies 53.
  10. ^ David Rohl: The Lords of Avaris. London, Arrow Books, 2007.
  11. ^ G. Brereton (Ed.): I am Ashurbanipal, King of the World, King of Assyria (London 2018), p. 135. ISBN 978-0500480397.
  12. ^ Temehu.com. "Ancient History and Prehistory of Libya and the Sahara, from 55 million BC. to the present, early history of Libya". Temehu.com. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
  13. ^ de Gruyter, Walter. Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der Neueren Forschung.
  14. ^ "Dido | Classical mythology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  15. ^ F. M. Cross, "An Interpretation of the Nora Stone," Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 208 (December 1972) 13–19.
  16. ^ J. Liver, "The Chronology of Tyre at the Beginning of the First Millennium B.C." Israel Exploration Journal 3 (1953) 119–120.
  17. ^ J. M. Peñuela, "La Inscripción Asiria IM 55644 y la Cronología de los Reyes de Tiro", Sefarad 13 (1953, Part 1) 219–28.
  18. ^ Cross, "Nora Stone," 17, n. 11.
  19. ^ William H. Barnes, Studies in the Chronology of the Divided Monarchy of Israel (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991) 29–55.
  20. ^ Jack Finegan, Handbook of Biblical Chronology (rev. ed.: Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1998) 99.
  21. ^ Peñuela, "La Inscripción Asiria", Sefarad 14 (Part 2, 1954), p. 29, note 167.
  22. ^ David Rohl, The Lords of Avaris (London: Century, 2007) 474.
  23. ^ See Edgeworth 1977, 129–33.
  24. ^ "Dido, Queen of Carthage | play by Marlowe and Nashe". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  25. ^ English Broadside Ballad Archive, ballad facsimile and full text
  26. ^ The Merchant of Venice, Act 5, Scene 1
  27. ^ "Dido, Mount". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2012-01-19.

Selected bibliography

  • H. Akbar Khan, "Doctissima Dido": Etymology, Hospitality and the Construction of a Civilized Identity, 2002.
  • Elmer Bagby Atwood, Two Alterations of Virgil in Chaucer's Dido, 1938.
  • S. Conte, Dido sine veste, 2005.
  • R. S. Conway, The Place of Dido in History, 1920.
  • F. Della Corte, La Iuno-Astarte virgiliana, 1983.
  • G. De Sanctis, Storia dei Romani, 1916.
  • R.J. Edgeworth, "The Death of Dido." The Classical Journal 72.2 (1977) 129–33.
  • M. Fantar, Carthage, la prestigieuse cité d'Elissa, 1970.
  • L. Foucher, Les Phéniciens à Carthage ou la geste d'Elissa, 1978.
  • Michael Grant, Roman Myths, 1973.
  • M. Gras/P. Rouillard/J. Teixidor, L'univers phénicien, 1995.
  • H.D. Gray, Did Shakespeare write a tragedy of Dido?, 1920.
  • G. Herm, Die Phönizier, 1974.
  • T. Kailuweit, Dido – Didon – Didone. Eine kommentierte Bibliographie zum Dido-Mythos in Literatur und Musik, 2005.
  • R.C. Ketterer, The perils of Dido: sorcery and melodrama in Vergil's Aeneid IV and Purcell's Dido and Aeneas, 1992.
  • R.H. Klausen, Aeneas und die Penaten, 1839.
  • G. Kowalski, De Didone graeca et latina, 1929.
  • F.N. Lees, Dido Queen of Carthage and The Tempest, 1964.
  • J.-Y. Maleuvre, Contre-Enquête sur la mort de Didon, 2003.
  • J.-Y. Maleuvre, La mort de Virgile d’après Horace et Ovide, 1993;
  • L. Mangiacapre, Didone non è morta, 1990.
  • P.E. McLane, The Death of a Queen: Spencer's Dido as Elizabeth, 1954.
  • O. Meltzer, Geschichte der Karthager, 1879.
  • A. Michel, Virgile et la politique impériale: un courtisan ou un philosophe?, 1971.
  • R.C. Monti, The Dido Episode and the Aeneid: Roman Social and Political Values in the Epic, 1981.
  • S. Moscati, Chi furono i Fenici. Identità storica e culturale di un popolo protagonista dell'antico mondo mediterraneo, 1992.
  • R. Neuse, Book VI as Conclusion to The Faerie Queene, 1968.
  • Noël, Marie‐Pierre (2014), Élissa, la Didon grecque, dans la mythologie et dans l’histoire (PDF) (in French), Université de Montpellier, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-11
  • A. Parry, The Two Voices of Virgil's Aeneid, 1963.
  • G.K. Paster, Montaigne, Dido and The Tempest: "How Came That Widow In?, 1984.
  • B. Schmitz, Ovide, In Ibin: un oiseau impérial, 2004;
  • E. Stampini, Alcune osservazioni sulla leggenda di Enea e Didone nella letteratura romana, 1893.

Primary sources

  • Virgil, Aeneid i.338–368
  • Justinus, Epitome Historiarum philippicarum Pompei Trogi xviii.4.1–6, 8

External links

Selected English texts (Alternate links found in Wikipedia entries for the respective authors.)

Commentary

Aeneas

In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (; Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus). His father was a first cousin of King Priam of Troy (both being grandsons of Ilus, founder of Troy), making Aeneas a second cousin to Priam's children (such as Hector and Paris). He is a character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homer's Iliad. Aeneas receives full treatment in Roman mythology, most extensively in Virgil's Aeneid, where he is cast as an ancestor of Romulus and Remus. He became the first true hero of Rome. Snorri Sturluson identifies him with the Norse Æsir Vidarr.

Belle (2013 film)

Belle is a 2013 British period drama film directed by Amma Asante, written by Misan Sagay and produced by Damian Jones. It stars Gugu Mbatha-Raw, Tom Wilkinson, Miranda Richardson, Penelope Wilton, Sam Reid, Matthew Goode, Emily Watson, Sarah Gadon, Tom Felton and James Norton.The film is inspired by the 1779 painting of Dido Elizabeth Belle beside her cousin Lady Elizabeth Murray, at Kenwood House, which was commissioned by their great-uncle, William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, then Lord Chief Justice of England. Very little is known about the life of Dido Belle, who was born in the West Indies and was the illegitimate mixed-race daughter of Mansfield's nephew. She is found living in poverty by her father and entrusted to the care of Mansfield and his wife. The fictional film centres on Dido's relationship with an aspiring lawyer; it is set at a time of legal significance, as a court case is heard on what became known as the Zong massacre, when slaves were thrown overboard from a slave ship and the owner filed with his insurance company for the losses. Lord Mansfield rules on this case in England's Court of King's Bench in 1786, in a decision seen to contribute to the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act of 1807.

DIDO-2

DIDO-2, is a nano-satellite of the Swiss company SpacePharma. The nano-satellite is part of a research project whose goal is to test a miniaturized end-to-end pharmaceutical laboratory in space under micro-gravity conditions.The project includes two satellites

called DIDO-1 and DIDO-2. The platforms of the 3U CubeSats are developed and built by the Dutch company ISIS.DIDO-2 was successfully launched on February 15, 2017 3:58 UTC on a PSLV that released 104 satellites.

Dido, Queen of Carthage (play)

Dido, Queen of Carthage (full title: The Tragedie of Dido Queene of Carthage) is a short play written by the English playwright Christopher Marlowe, with possible contributions by Thomas Nashe. The story of the play focuses on the classical figure of Dido, the Queen of Carthage. It tells an intense dramatic tale of Dido and her fanatical love for Aeneas (induced by Cupid), Aeneas' betrayal of her and her eventual suicide on his departure for Italy. The playwrights depended upon Books 1, 2, and 4 of Virgil's Aeneid as their main source.

Dido-class cruiser

The Dido class was a class of sixteen (including five within the Bellona sub-class) light cruisers built for the British Royal Navy. The design was influenced by the inter-war Arethusa-class light cruisers. The first group of three ships were commissioned in 1940, the second group (six ships) and third group (two ships) were commissioned between 1941–1942. The Bellona subclass ships were commissioned between 1943 and 1944. Most members of the class were given names drawn from classical history and legend. Post war in the expanded 1951 programme of the Korean War Emergency a broad beam Bellona class armed with 4 twin Mk 6 4.5 guns was considered as a cruiser option along with the 1951 Minotaur class and the Tiger class completed with two Mk 24 6 inch turrets and 4 twin Mk 6 4.5.

From the initial trials of the lead ship of the class, Bonaventure the new light cruisers were considered a significant advance, with the 5.25 turrets, far more modern in design than previous light cruiser turrets, and offering efficient loading up to 90 degrees to give some DP capability. While some damage was experienced initially in extreme North Atlantic conditions, modified handling avoided the problem. The fitting of the three turrets forward in A,B and Q position depended on some use of Aluminium in structure and the non availability of aluminium after Dunkirk was one of the reasons for only 4 turrets being fitted to the later ships.

The Dido class were designed as small trade protection cruisers and for action in the Mediterranean Sea, where they were surprisingly effective in protecting crucial convoys to Malta and managed to see off far larger ships of the Italian Royal Navy. The 5.25-inch (133 mm) gun was primarily a surface weapon, but it was intended to fire the heaviest shell suitable for anti-aircraft defence and accounted for around 23 aircraft and saw off far more. Four original Dido-class ships were lost during the war: HMS Bonaventure, HMS Charybdis, HMS Hermione, and HMS Naiad. The original ship of the class, HMS Dido, was mothballed in 1947 and decommissioned ten years later. HMS Euryalus was the last remaining in-service ship of the original class, being decommissioned in 1954 and scrapped in 1959.

The Bellona class (as well as four rebuilt Dido ships) were mainly intended as picket ships for amphibious warfare operations, in support of aircraft carriers of the Royal Navy and United States Navy in the Pacific. HMS Spartan was the only ship of the sub-class to be sunk, struck by a German Fritz X while supporting the Anzio landings. Post war modernisation proposals were limited by the tight war emergency design which offered inadequate space and weight for the fire control and magazines for four or five 3-inch twin 70 turrets combined with the fact the heavy to handle 5.25-inch shells fitted when the cruisers were built had a large burst shock which made them a more effective high level AA weapon than post war RN 4.5-inch guns. HMS Royalist was somewhat different from the rest of the class, as it was modified to be a command ship of aircraft carrier and cruiser groups intended for action against German battlecruisers. It was later ordered to be rebuilt, by Winston Churchill, for potential action alongside HMS Vanguard against the post-war Soviet Sverdlov-class cruisers and Stalingrad-class battlecruisers. In 1956, Royalist was loaned to the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN), with whom it served until 1966. Despite being part of the RNZN, Royal Navy officers made up the majority of the senior command. During the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, it was regarded not only as the last Dido-class ship but also the last cruiser of the Royal Navy. The ship was decommissioned in 1967.

Dido (singer)

Dido Florian Cloud de Bounevialle O'Malley Armstrong (born 25 December 1971), known professionally as Dido (), is an English singer and songwriter. Dido attained international success with her debut album No Angel (1999). It sold over 21 million copies worldwide, and won her several awards, including two Brit Awards for Best British Female and Best Album, the MTV Europe Music Award for Best New Act, and two NRJ Awards for Best New Act and Best Album. Her next album, Life for Rent (2003), continued her success with the hit singles "White Flag" and "Life for Rent". In 2004 Dido performed with other British and Irish artists in the Band Aid 20 version of the charity single "Do They Know It's Christmas?".

Dido's first two albums are among the best-selling albums in UK Chart history, and both are in the top 10 best-selling albums of the 2000s in the UK. Her third studio album, Safe Trip Home (2008), received critical acclaim but failed to duplicate the commercial success of her previous efforts. She was nominated for an Academy Award for the song "If I Rise". Dido was ranked No. 98 on the Billboard chart of the top Billboard 200 artists of the 2000s (2000–2009) based on the success of her albums in the first decade of the 21st century.

Dido made a comeback in 2013, releasing her fourth studio album Girl Who Got Away, which reached the top 5 in the UK. In 2018, Dido announced her first tour in 15 years in support of her new album, Still on My Mind, to be released in March 2019.

Dido Elizabeth Belle

Dido Elizabeth Belle (1761 – July 1804) was born into slavery as the natural daughter of Maria Belle, an enslaved African woman in the British West Indies, and Sir John Lindsay, a British career naval officer who was stationed there. He was later knighted and promoted to admiral. Lindsay took Belle with him when he returned to England in 1765, entrusting her raising to his uncle William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, and his wife Elizabeth Murray, Countess of Mansfield. The Murrays educated Belle, bringing her up as a free gentlewoman at their Kenwood House, together with another great-niece, Lady Elizabeth Murray, whose mother had died. Lady Elizabeth and Belle were second cousins. Belle lived there for 30 years. In his will of 1793, Lord Mansfield confirmed her freedom and provided an outright sum and an annuity to her, making her an heiress.

In these years, her great-uncle, in his capacity as Lord Chief Justice, ruled in two significant slavery cases, finding in 1772 that slavery had no precedent in common law in England, and had never been authorised under positive law. This ruling was misinterpreted as presaging the formal end of slavery in Britain, but in fact slavery continued to be legal in the country until the 1830s. In the Zong massacre, a case related to the slave trade, Murray narrowly ruled that the owners of the ship were not due insurance payments for the loss of slaves they had thrown overboard during a voyage, because their killing appeared to be related to errors by the officers.

Dido Kvaternik

Eugen Dido Kvaternik (29 March 1910 – 10 March 1962) was a Croatian Ustaše General-Lieutenant and the Chief of the Internal Security Service in the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state during World War II.

Dido and Aeneas

Dido and Aeneas (Z. 626) is an opera in a prologue and three acts, written by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell with a libretto by Nahum Tate. The dates of the composition and first performance of the opera are uncertain. It was composed no later than July 1688, and had been performed at Josias Priest's girls' school in London by the end of 1689. Some scholars argue for a date of composition as early as 1683. The story is based on Book IV of Virgil's Aeneid. It recounts the love of Dido, Queen of Carthage, for the Trojan hero Aeneas, and her despair when he abandons her. A monumental work in Baroque opera, Dido and Aeneas is remembered as one of Purcell's foremost theatrical works. It was also Purcell's only true opera, as well as his only all-sung dramatic work. One of the earliest known English operas, it owes much to John Blow's Venus and Adonis, both in structure and in overall effect. The influence of Cavalli's opera Didone is also apparent.

Dido flip

The Dido flip was a female hairstyle of the early 21st century in imitation of the singer and songwriter Dido Armstrong. It was a "chopped" style with hair flipped to one or both sides and often strands not cut evenly. Dido noted in a number of interviews that she was surprised and uninterested by the attention she received over her hairstyle.

Feels Like Fire

"Feels Like Fire" was released in early 2003 as the second single outside the United States from Santana's album Shaman. The song features Dido on vocals. In the US, "Nothing at All" was released as the second single instead. "Feels Like Fire" managed to chart in New Zealand, where it reached number 26 and spent 13 weeks in the top 40 from March to June.

If I Rise

"If I Rise" is a song performed by A. R. Rahman and Dido, composed by A. R. Rahman, with lyrics by Dido and Rollo Armstrong. The song featured as the main theme for the Danny Boyle film 127 Hours.

The song won numerous awards including Broadcast Film Critics Association Award and Denver Film Critics Society Award. It was also nominated for Best Song Award at the Academy Awards and World Soundtrack Awards.

Life for Rent

Life for Rent is the second studio album by British singer and songwriter Dido, released by Arista Records on 29 September 2003. The album was produced by Rollo Armstrong and American songwriter Rick Nowels. Work on the album began in mid-2002. It was certified 7× Platinum by the BPI; and sold over 12 million copies worldwide, making it the fourth best-selling album worldwide of 2003. The album became the seventh best-selling album of the 2000s in the UK, making Dido the only singer to have two albums in the Top 10 list.

No Angel

No Angel is the debut studio album by British singer-songwriter Dido. Originally released on 1 June 1999 in the United States, the album found a mass audience when it was released worldwide in February 2001. As of 2014, the album has sold more than 22 million copies worldwide, and was the second best-selling album of the 2000s in the UK, behind James Blunt's Back to Bedlam.

Northeast Caucasian languages

The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East. They are occasionally called North Caspian, as opposed to North Pontic for the Northwest Caucasian languages.

Rollo Armstrong

Rowland Constantine O'Malley Armstrong (born 29 April 1966) is an English music producer and multi-instrumentalist. He is half of the remix team Rollo and Sister Bliss and is a founding member of the electronic music group Faithless. He has remixed tracks for Pet Shop Boys, Simply Red, R. Kelly, U2, Moby, Grace, Tricky, and Suede.

Stan (song)

"Stan" is a song by American rapper Eminem featuring English singer Dido. It was released on November 21, 2000 as the third single from Eminem's third album The Marshall Mathers LP (2000). It reached number one in twelve countries, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Ireland and Australia.

Dido's lyrics are a remix of the opening lines from her song "Thank You." The 45 King-produced track also uses a slightly modified break from "Thank You" as its base sample. Coincidentally, both songs were released as singles in late 2000. "Stan" has been called one of Eminem's best songs and is considered one of his signature songs. Rolling Stone magazine ranked "Stan" at #296 in their list in The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. The song was also listed at #15 on VH1's list of the greatest hip hop songs of all-time and was also named in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll.

The song was nominated for multiple awards, including Best Song at the MTV Europe Music Awards, Video of the Year, Best Rap Video, Best Direction, Best Cinematography at the MTV Video Music Awards, but only won Best International Artist Video at the MuchMusic Video Awards. In April 2011, Complex magazine put together a list of the 100 greatest Eminem songs, ranking "Stan" at #2. The name of the eponymous character has given rise to a slang term online which refers to overzealous, maniacal, overly obsessed fans of a celebrity or personality; the term has since been included in the Oxford English Dictionary.

Thank You (Dido song)

"Thank You" is a song written and performed by English singer-songwriter Dido. The song made its first appearance in 1998, on the soundtrack of the movie Sliding Doors. It was later included on Dido's 1999 debut album No Angel, becoming the album's biggest hit.

Entering the Billboard Hot 100 at number 80 in January 2001, "Thank You" peaked at number 3 in April 2001. It held that spot

for 3 weeks, and became Dido's first and only top three single in the United States. In the United Kingdom, "Thank You" also reached number 3, becoming the singer's third top-five single in the United Kingdom. Additionally, the song reached number one on the Billboard Adult Contemporary, Adult Pop Songs, and Hot Dance Club Songs charts.

Since becoming her biggest hit in multiple countries, the song has often been recognised as Dido's signature song.

White Flag (song)

"White Flag" is a song by English singer-songwriter Dido, released as the lead single from her second studio album Life for Rent on 1 September 2003. The song is considered one of her signature songs, and helped Life for Rent sell over ten million copies worldwide. The song was nominated for the Best Female Pop Vocal Performance at the 46th Grammy Awards, but lost to Christina Aguilera's "Beautiful". It won the Best British Single at the 2004 Brit Awards.

The song ranked on Blender's list "The 500 Greatest Songs Since You Were Born" at number 317. The single fared very well on the charts around the world, peaking at number one in Australia, Austria, Germany, Italy, and Norway; number two on the Irish Singles Chart, and number 18 on the US Billboard Hot 100. The song reached number two in the UK being kept off the top spot by the UK top selling single of the year, "Where Is the Love?" by the Black Eyed Peas and Justin Timberlake. The music video, directed by Joseph Kahn features actor David Boreanaz as Dido's love interest.

The song has been used in several TV series, Smallville, The Inbetweeners, Medium, The Sopranos, Tru Calling, Cold Case, Winners & Losers, and films Perfect Stranger and Mommy. Carly Rae Jepsen performed a cover version of the song on Canadian Idol.

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