Dictyoptera

Dictyoptera (from Greek δίκτυον diktyon "net" and πτερόν pteron "wing") is an insect superorder that includes two extant orders of polyneopterous insects: the order Blattodea (termites and cockroaches together)[1] and the order Mantodea (mantises), along with one extinct order, the Alienoptera. While all modern Dictyoptera have short ovipositors, the oldest fossils of Dictyoptera have long ovipositors, much like members of the Orthoptera.

Dictyoptera
Temporal range: Carboniferous–Recent 300–0 Ma
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Cohort: Polyneoptera
Superorder: Dictyoptera
Orders

Blattodea (cockroaches and termites)
Mantodea (mantids)
Alienoptera

Temnopteryx species Zebra Cockroach Uniondale South Africa 1435
Zebra cockroach, a Temnopteryx species, family Ectobiidae
Cupim rainha
Termite queen with soldiers

Classification and phylogeny

The use of the term Dictyoptera has changed over the years, and while largely out of use for much of the last century, it is becoming more widely used. It has usually been considered a superorder, with Isoptera, Blattodea and Mantodea being its three orders. In some classifications, however, Dictyoptera is shifted to order status and in others the class Isoptera has been subsumed under Blattodea while retaining Dictyoptera as a superorder. Regardless, in all classifications the constituent groups are the same, just treated at different rank. Termites and cockroaches are very closely related, with ecological and molecular data pointing to a relationship with the cockroach genus Cryptocercus.[2][3]

Based on genetic evidence, the closest living relatives of the Dictyoptera are the phasmids and the enigmatic groups Mantophasmatodea and Grylloblattodea. If the Dictyoptera are considered a superorder these three orders might be included in it.[4]

Evolutionary relationships based on Eggleton, Beccaloni & Inward (2007), are shown in the cladogram:[5] The cockroach families Lamproblattidae and Tryonicidae are not shown but are placed within the superfamily Blattoidea. The cockroach families Corydiidae and Ectobiidae were previously known as the Polyphagidae and Blattellidae.[6]

Dictyoptera
Blattodea
Blattoidea
Termitoidae (Termites)

Termitidae

Rhinotermitidae

Kalotermitidae

Termopsidae

Hodotermitidae

Mastotermitidae

Cryptocercoidae

Cryptocercidae (brown-hooded cockroaches)

Blattidae (Oriental, American and other cockroaches)

Blaberoidea

Blaberidae (Giant cockroaches)

Ectobiidae (part)

Ectobiidae (part)

Corydiodea

Corydiidae (Sand cockroaches, etc)

Nocticolidae (Cave cockroaches, etc)

Mantodea (Mantises)

Alienoptera

Oxyopsis sp.
Deimatic behaviour of the mantis Oxyopsis sp.

References

  1. ^ Beccaloni, G. W. 2014. Cockroach Species File Online. Version 5.0 World Wide Web electronic publication.
  2. ^ Lo, Nathan; Tokuda, Gaku; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Rose, Harley; Slaytor, Michael; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Bandi, Claudio; Noda, Hiroaki (June 2000). "Evidence from multiple gene sequences indicates that termites evolved from wood-feeding cockroaches". Current Biology. 10 (13): 801–804. doi:10.1016/s0960-9822(00)00561-3. PMID 10898984.
  3. ^ Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André; Svenson, Gavin J.; Robillard, Tony; Pellens, Roseli; Grandcolas, Philippe; Escriva, Hector (22 July 2015). "Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites with Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence". PLOS ONE. 10 (7): e0130127. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1030127L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130127. PMC 4511787. PMID 26200914.
  4. ^ Cameron, Stephen L.; Barker, Stephen C.; Whiting, Michael F. (January 2006). "Mitochondrial genomics and the new insect order Mantophasmatodea". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 38 (1): 274–279. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.09.020. PMID 16321547.
  5. ^ Eggleton, Paul; Beccaloni, George; Inward, Daegan (22 October 2007). "Response to Lo et al". Biology Letters. 3 (5): 564–565. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0367. PMC 2391203.
  6. ^ Beccaloni, George W.; Eggleton, Paul (23 December 2011). "Order Blattodea Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1882. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness". Zootaxa. 3148 (1): 199–200. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3148.1.37.

Further reading

Alienoptera

Alienoptera is an extinct order of insects. It is part of Dictyoptera making it closely related to cockroaches and mantises. The majority of known members of the group are known from the Cenomanian aged amber from Myanmar; however, the group also includes two genera (Apiblatta and Vcelesvab) from the Albian Crato Formation (Brazil), as well as two genera (Chimaeroblattina and Grant) from the middle Eocene Green River Formation (Colorado, United States).Vršanský et al. (2018) did not consider Alienoptera to be a separate insect order; instead, the authors assigned the family Alienopteridae to the order Blattaria and to the superfamily Umenocoleoidea.

Blattodea

Blattodea is an order of insects that contains cockroaches and termites. Formerly, the termites were considered a separate order, Isoptera, but genetic and molecular evidence suggests an intimate relationship with the cockroaches, both cockroaches and termites having evolved from a common ancestor. The Blattodea and the mantises (order Mantodea) are now all considered part of the superorder Dictyoptera. Blattodea includes approximately 4,400 species of cockroach in almost 500 genera, and about 3,000 species of termite in around 300 genera.

Termites are pale-coloured, soft-bodied eusocial insects that live in colonies, whereas cockroaches are darker-coloured (often brown), sclerotized, segmented insects. Within the colony, termites have a caste system, with a pair of mature reproductives, the king and the queen, and a large number of sterile workers and soldiers. The cockroaches are not colonial but do have a tendency to aggregate and may be considered pre-social, as all adults are capable of breeding. Other similarities between the two groups include various social behaviours, trail following, kin recognition and methods of communication.

Blattoptera

Blattoptera, or proto-cockroaches, is a name given to various "roachid" fossil insects related to cockroaches, mantises and termites, and of general cockroach-like appearance and possibly habit. The group is on the rank of an order, though being paraphyletic is most often given without formal taxonomic rank. Several alternative names have been suggested for this fossil group, including Blattodea, a name currently used for the group including the modern cockroaches as well as their fossil relatives.

Cockroach

Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests.

The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.

Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.

Cryptocercus

Cryptocercus is a genus of Dictyoptera (cockroaches and allies) and the sole member of its own family Cryptocercidae. Species are known as wood roaches or brown-hooded cockroaches. These roaches are subsocial, their young requiring considerable parental interaction. They also share wood-digesting gut bacteria types with wood-eating termites, and are therefore seen as evidence of a close genetic relationship, that termites are essentially evolved from social cockroaches.Cryptocercus is especially notable for sharing numerous characteristics with termites, and phylogenetic studies have shown this genus is more closely related to termites than it is to other cockroaches.

Dictyoptera (genus)

Dictyoptera is a genus of net-winged beetles in the family Lycidae. There are at least four described species in Dictyoptera.

Dictyoptera aurora

Dictyoptera aurora, known generally as the golden net-wing or red net-winged beetle, is a species of net-winged beetle in the family Lycidae. It is found in North America, Siberia and Europe.

Dictyoptera simplicipes

Dictyoptera simplicipes is a species of net-winged beetle in the family Lycidae. It is found in North America.

Eumetabola

Eumetabola is an unranked category of Neoptera. Two large unities known as the Paurometabola and Eumetabola are probably from the adelphotaxa of the Neoptera after exclusion of the Plecoptera. The monophyly of these unities appears to be weakly justified.

Hymenopodidae

Hymenopodidae is a family of the order Mantodea (mantises), which contains six subfamilies. Some of the species in this family mimic flowers and are found camouflaged among them; these are called Flower Mantises. The coloration is aggressive mimicry, luring prey to approach close enough to be seized and eaten.

List of fauna of Michigan

This is a list of fauna found in the U.S. state of Michigan, including those of wider distribution. See also List of threatened fauna of Michigan.

Lists of insects of Great Britain

The following are lists of insects of Great Britain. There are more than 20,000 insects of Great Britain, this page provides lists by order.

Mantis

Mantises are an order (Mantodea) of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 430 genera in 15 families. The largest family is the Mantidae ("mantids"). Mantises are distributed worldwide in temperate and tropical habitats. They have triangular heads with bulging eyes supported on flexible necks. Their elongated bodies may or may not have wings, but all Mantodea have forelegs that are greatly enlarged and adapted for catching and gripping prey; their upright posture, while remaining stationary with forearms folded, has led to the common name praying mantis.

The closest relatives of mantises are the termites and cockroaches (Blattodea), which are all within the superorder Dictyoptera. Mantises are sometimes confused with stick insects (Phasmatodea), other elongated insects such as grasshoppers (Orthoptera), or other unrelated insects with raptorial forelegs such as mantisflies (Mantispidae). Mantises are mostly ambush predators, but a few ground-dwelling species are found actively pursuing their prey. They normally live for about a year. In cooler climates, the adults lay eggs in autumn, then die. The eggs are protected by their hard capsules and hatch in the spring. Females sometimes practice sexual cannibalism, eating their mates after copulation.

Mantises were considered to have supernatural powers by early civilizations, including Ancient Greece, Ancient Egypt, and Assyria. A cultural trope popular in cartoons imagines the female mantis as a femme fatale. Mantises are among the insects most commonly kept as pets.

Neoptera

Neoptera is a classification group that includes most orders of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.

Orthopterida

The Orthopterida is a superorder of the Polyneoptera that represents the extant orders Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids), and Phasmatodea (stick insects and leaf insects). The Orthopterida also includes the extinct orders Titanoptera and Caloneurodea. There is general consensus of monophyly in this superorder, based on reduction of the second valvulae, an ovipositor derived from the gonoplac, and an enlarged precostal region on the forewing.

The two other superorders of the Polyneoptera are the Plecopterida, which represents the orders Plecoptera (stoneflies), Emboidea (Embioptera/Embiidina; webspinners), and Zoraptera (angel insects), and the Dictyoptera, which represents Blattodea (cockroaches & termites), and Mantodea (mantids). Two other orders, the Notoptera (ice-crawlers and gladiators) and Dermaptera (earwigs) are also placed in the Polyneoptera but outside the superorders discussed above.

Polyneoptera

The cohort Polyneoptera is probably the most appropriate taxonomic ranking for commonly-used terms such as Orthopteroid insects: namely the orders similar to the Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, etc.). They are all winged insects (Pterygota), derived from ancestors that evolved to fold their wings (Neoptera) and possess biting mouthparts, but undergo little or no metamorphosis.

Pterygota

The Pterygota are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution).The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The insect orders not included are the Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) and the Zygentoma (silverfishes and firebrats), two primitively wingless insect orders. Also not included are the three orders no longer considered to be insects: Protura, Collembola, and Diplura.

Thespidae

Thespidae is a family in the order Mantodea.

Tryonicidae

The Tryonicidae are a family of cockroaches.

Insect orders

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.