The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, first published in 1854, was the last of a series of classical dictionaries edited by the English scholar William Smith (1813–1893), which included as sister works A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. As declared by Smith in the Preface: "The Dictionary of Geography ... is designed mainly to illustrate the Greek and Roman writers, and to enable a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner". The book stays up to the description: in two massive volumes the dictionary provides detailed coverage of all the important countries, regions, towns, cities, geographical features that occur in Greek and Roman literature, without forgetting those mentioned solely in the Bible. The work was last reissued in 2005.
Agora (Ancient Greek: Ἀγορά) was an ancient town situated about the middle of the narrow neck of the Thracian Chersonese (called today Gallipoli peninsula), and not far from Cardia, in what is now European Turkey. Xerxes, when invading Greece in 480 BCE, passed through it.Its site is tentatively located near modern Bolayır, Turkey.Carallia (Pamphylia)
Carallia (Ancient Greek: Καραλλία) was a city of the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is mentioned in the acts of the Council of Ephesus (431). The same form of the name is given in the acts of the Council of Chalcedon (451).The 6th-century Synecdemus gives the name of this Pamphylian city as Καράλια (Caralia).William Smith took the Pamphylian Carallia to be identical with the town of Carallis (Κάραλλις, Καράλλεια) in Isauria, which he identified with a place in Turkey called Kereli. The site of the Pamphylian town is supposed to be at Uskeles.Modern scholars place Carallia near Güney Kalesi in Asiatic Turkey.Carambis
Carambis or Karambis (Ancient Greek: Κάραμβις) was an ancient Greek city of ancient Paphlagonia, on a promontory of the same name. The town is mentioned in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax (under the name Caramus or Karamos) and by Pliny the Elder. The name occurs as Carambas in the Peutinger Table.The promontory is now known as Kerembe Burnu. Its site is tentatively located near Fakas, Asiatic Turkey.Cenomani
This article is about the Cenomani in Gallia Celtica; for the Cenomani in Cisalpine Gaul, see Cenomani (Cisalpine Gaul).
The Cenomani or Aulerci Cenomani were a Celtic people, a branch of the Aulerci in Gallia Celtica, whose territory corresponded generally to Maine in the modern départment of Sarthe, west of the Carnutes between the Seine and the Loire. Their chief town was Vindinum or Suindinum (corrupted into 'Subdinnum'), afterwards Civitas Cenomanorum (whence Le Mans, and much later the Cenomanian geological age) and later Cenomani as in the Notitia Dignitatum, the original name of the town, as usual in the case of Gallic cities, being replaced by that of the people. According to Caesar (Bell. Gall. vii.75.3), they assisted Vercingetorix in the great rising (52 BC) with a force of 5000 men. Under Augustus they formed a civitas stipendiaria (Roman tributary town) of Gallia Lugdunensis, and in the 4th century part of Gallia Lugdunensis III.
There was another people called Cenomani that held extensive territory in Cisalpine Gaul; however, there is disagreement whether they are one and the same people. The orthography and the quantity of the penultimate vowel of Cenomani have given rise to discussion. According to Arbois de Jubainville, the Cenomni of Italy are not identical with the Cehomni (or Cenomanni) of Gaul. In the case of the latter, the survival of the syllable man in "Le Mans" is due to the stress laid on the vowel; had the vowel been short and unaccented, it would have disappeared. In Italy, Cenomani is the name of a people; in Gaul, merely a surname of the Aulerci. William Smith adopts the difference, placing the peoples in two separate articles in his Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. On the other hand, if the tradition recorded by Cato (in Pliny, Nat. Hist. iii. 19. s. 23) is true, that the Cenomani formed a settlement near Massilia (modern Marseille), among the Volcae, this could indicate a route that the Cenomani took to Cisalpine Gaul in Italy. According to Livy, the Cenomani of Cisalpine Gaul arrived after the expedition of Bellovesus, led by Helitovius, and are credited with the foundation of Brixia, or Brescia, and Verona.Chalcetor
Chalcetor or Chalketor (Ancient Greek: Χαλκήτωρ) was a town of ancient Caria. Strabo says that the mountain range of Grion is parallel to Latmus, and extends east from the Milesia through Caria to Euromus and the Chalcetores, that is, the people of Chalcetor. In another passage, Strabo names the town Chalcetor, which some writers have erroneously altered to Chalcetora.Its site is located near Karakuyu, Muğla Province, in Asiatic Turkey.Constantia (Osrhoene)
Constantia or Konstantia (Ancient Greek: Κωνσταντία) was a town of some importance in the province Osrhoene in Mesopotamia, on the road between Nisibis and Carrhae, at no great distance from Edessa. It was, after his departure from Nisibis, the residence of the dux Mesopotamiae until the foundation of Dara. There is considerable variation in different authors in the way in which the name of this town is written and the names under which it is known, including: Constantia or Konstantia (Κωνσταντία), Constantina or Konstantina (Κωνσταντίνα), Antoninopolis, Nicephorium or Nikephorion (Νικηφόριον), Maximianopolis (Μαξιμιανούπολις), Constantinopolis in Osrhoene, Tella and Antiochia Arabis, Antiochia in Mesopotamia (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μεσοποταμίας – Antiocheia tes Mesopotamias) and Antiochia in Arabia (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Ἀραβική – Antiocheia e Arabike).According to Pliny it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator after the death of Alexander the Great. According to the Byzantine historian John Malalas, the city was built by the Roman Emperor Constantine I on the site of former Maximianopolis, which had been destroyed by a Persian attack and an earthquake. Jacob Baradaeus was born near the city and was a monk in a nearby monastery.Under the names Constantina and Tella, it was also a bishopric, suffragan of Edessa; some names of early bishops have been preserved, including Sophronius who attended the Council of Antioch in 445. No longer a residential bishop, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church under the name Constantina. The city was captured by the Arabs in 639.Its site is near the modern Viranşehir, Turkey.Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1849, originally published 1844 under a slightly different title) is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans three volumes and 3,700 pages. It is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.Eudocia (Cappadocia)
Although William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) said that the Synecdemus of Hierocles mentions four towns in Asia Minor called Eudocia (Ancient Greek: Εὐδοκία), including one in Cappadocia, the text of the Synecdemus as edited by Gustav Parthey in 1866 mentions no town of that name or of any similar name among the Cappadocian towns.Smith also said that the town had formerly belonged to the Anatolian Theme but Leo VI incorporated it into Cappadocia. The Synecdemus was composed, under Justinian (527–565), before 535, three and a half centuries before the time of Leo VI, who reigned from 886 to 912.Eudocia (Lycia)
Eudocia (Ancient Greek: Εὐδοκία) was a town in ancient Lycia.
Although William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) said that the Synecdemus of Hierocles mentions four towns in Asia Minor called Eudocia (Εὐδοκία), including one in Lycia, other scholars report the Synecdemus as calling one or more of them Eudocias or Eudoxias. and the name of the Lycian town as it appears in the text of the Synecdemus as edited by Parthey in 1866 is clearly Eudocias (Εὐδοκιάς), while noting that in some Notitiae Episcopatuum the name is given as Eudoxias (Εὐδοξιάς).Lequien, who mentions no town in Lycia called Eudocia, says that the Synecdemus called a town in Lycia Eudocias and one in Pamphylia Eudoxias, but that other sources speak of the Pamphylian town also as Eudocias. He sees in the presence in the Synecdemus both of a Lycian Telmessus and a Lycian Eudocias and also of a Pamphylian Termessus and a Pamphylian Eudoxias or Eudocias proof that they were all distinct cities. It is curious then that, although, when speaking of Telmessus, he says that it was the Pamphylian Termessus and the Pamphylian Eudocias that for long had the same bishop, when he speaks of the Lycian Eudocias, he attributes to that see the same bishops that he attributes elsewhere to the Pamphylian Eudocias, calling the two most ancient one either bishops of Telmessus and Eudocias (when speaking of Lycia) or bishops of Termessus and Eudocias (when speaking of Pamphylia). The bishops that he mentions for both towns that he calls Eudocias are Timotheus (at the 431 Council of Ephesus), Zenodotus (at the 451 Council of Ephesus), and Photius or Photinus (at the 787 Second Council of Nicaea).The more recent study by Gams makes no mention of any bishopric in Lycia called either Eudocias or Eudocia, but mentions both the Lycian Telmessus and the Pamphylian Termessus and Eudocias.The Annuario Pontificio speaks of a no longer residential, and therefore now titular, episcopal see in the Roman province of Lycia as called Eudocia. It was a suffragan of Myra, the metropolitan see and capital of that province. The Annuario Pontificio states that the town that it calls Eudocia was near Makri, the name that at least by the 9th century was given to the city previously called Telmessus, which is now Fethiye, Muğla Province, Turkey.Eudocias (Pamphylia)
Eudocias (Ancient Greek: Εὐδοκιάς) or Eudocia (Ancient Greek: Εὐδοκία) was an ancient town in the Roman province of Pamphylia Secunda, in the neighbourhood of Termessus.
According to William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), the Synecdemus of Hierocles mentions four towns in Asia Minor, including one in Pamphylia, called Eudocia (Εὐδοκία), but other scholars report the Synecdemus as calling the Pamphylian town Eudocias. Lequien says the Synecdemus spoke of the Pamphylian town as Eudoxias but himself, in line with other sources, uses the form "Eudocias". Parthey's 1866 edition of the Synecdemus gives the name of the Pamphylian town as Eudocia, but notes that the earlier editions of Wesseling (1735) and Bekker (1840) gave the name as Eudocias.In recent studies, "Eudocias" is the form of the name given by George E. Bean, and by Hülya Yalçınsoy and Süleyman Atalay.The original name of the town seems to have been Anydros. It was rebuilt in the 5th century and renamed Eudocias in honour of Empress Aelia Eudocia, the wife of Theodosius II, and under this name is mentioned in the Synecdemus. Bishop Timotheus of Termessus and Eudocias took part in the Council of Ephesus in 431 and Bishop Sabinianus of Termessus, Eudocias and Iobia in a synod held in Constantinople in 448. But in 458, the suffragans of the metropolitan see of Perge (the capital of Pamphylia Secunda) who signed a joint letter to the Byzantine Emperor regarding the murder of Proterius of Alexandria included both Auxentius of Termessus and Innocentius of Eudocias, showing that Eudocias had by then become a distinct episcopal see. From then on Eudocias and Termessus appear as separate sees in the Notitiae Episcopatuum even as late as the 10th century.Other sources too give the names of these bishops of Eudocias, adding to them Callistus (or Calixtus), who took part in the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.No longer a residential bishopric, Eudocias is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.Its site is tentatively located near Evdirhan in Asiatic Turkey.Gergitha
Gergitha (Ancient Greek: Γέργιθα) or Gergetha (Ancient Greek: Γέργεθα), also known as Gergithium or Gergithion, was a town in ancient Lydia, near Stratonicea, at the sources of the Caicus River, said to have been peopled by the inhabitants of Gergis in the Troad by King Attalus of Pergamus.Its site is tentatively located near Yirca, Asiatic Turkey.Hergla
Hergla (Arabic: هرقلة) is a small cliff-top town in north-eastern Tunisia off the Gulf of Hammamet. White houses of Hergla are built in classic style characteristic for this region.Mandane (Cilicia)
Mandane (Ancient Greek: Μανδάνη) was a town on the coast of ancient Cilicia, between Celenderis, and Cape Pisidium or Posidium (modern Kızıl Burun), from which it was only 7 stadia distant. William Smith conjectured it to be the same place as the Myanda or Mysanda mentioned by Pliny the Elder; and if so, it must also be identical with the town of Myus (Μυούς) mentioned in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax between Nagidus and Celenderis. Modern scholarship does not accept the identity.Mandane is located near Akyaka in Asiatic Turkey.Mastaura in Asia
Mastaura in Asia, or simply Mastaura (Ancient Greek: Μάσταυρα), was a small town that under the Roman Empire was incorporated into the province of Asia I.
It is to be distinguished from the town of Mastaura in Lycia.Siderus (Lycia)
Siderus or Siderous (Ancient Greek: Σιδηροῦς) was a port town of ancient Lycia, referenced in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax and the Stadiasmus Maris Magni. The town is also noted by Stephanus of Byzantium under the name Sidarus or Sidarous (Σιδαροῦς). The place may also have borne the name Posidarisus or Posidarisous, mentioned in The Chronicon of Hippolytus as being 30 stadia from Crambousa and the same distance from Moron Hydor.There was a promontory of the same name, which is identified by modern scholars as Adrasan Burnu in modern Turkey. 19th century writers William Martin Leake and William Smith equated the site of Siderus with that of Olympus. However, modern scholars place Siderus at Ceneviz Limanı.Stephane (Paphlagonia)
Stephane (Ancient Greek: Στεφάνη) was a small port town on the coast of ancient Paphlagonia, according to Arrian 180 stadia east of Cimolis, but according to Marcian of Heraclea only 150. The place was mentioned as early as the time of Hecataeus of Miletus as a town of the Mariandyni, under the name of Stephanis (Στεφανίς). The town is also mentioned in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax and by the geographer Ptolemy. The name is written Stefano in the Peutinger Table.Its site is located near Istifan, Asiatic Turkey.Thenae
Thenae or Thenai (Ancient Greek: Θεναί), also written Thaena and Thaenae, was a Carthaginian and Roman town (civitas) located in or near Thyna, now a suburb of Sfax on the Mediterranean coast of southeastern Tunisia.Tyragetae
The Tyrageti, Tyragetae, or Tyrangitae (Greek: Τυραγγεῖται, Tυραγγέται, or Τυρεγέται, Strabo vii.; Ptol. iii. 5. § 25), literally, the Getae of the Tyras, were a sub-tribe of the Getae Thracians, situated on the river Tyras (modern-day Dniester in Moldova and Ukraine). They were regarded as an immigrant tribe of European Sarmatia dwelling E. of the river Tyras, near the Harpii and Tagri, and, according to Ptolemy, the northern neighbours of Lower Moesia. Pliny (v. 12. s. 26) calls them, with more correct orthography, Tyragetae, and represents them as dwelling on a large island in the Tyras.Vasada
Vasada (Ancient Greek: Οὐάσαδα, Ouasada) was an city of ancient Lycaonia and later of Isauria, Asia Minor (modern Turkey). It was located a little to the southwest of Laodiceia. In the acta of church councils attended by its bishop, the name appears variously as Usada or Ousada (Οὔσαδα) or Aasada (Ἀάσαδα).Its site is located near Bostandere, Asiatic Turkey.