Richard Keith Armey (/ˈɑːrmi/; born July 7, 1940) is an American economist and politician. He was a U.S. Representative from Texas' 26th congressional district (1985–2003) and House Majority Leader (1995–2003). He was one of the engineers of the "Republican Revolution" of the 1990s, in which Republicans were elected to majorities of both houses of Congress for the first time in four decades. Armey was one of the chief authors of the Contract with America. Armey is also an author and former economics professor. After his retirement from Congress, he has worked as a consultant, advisor, and lobbyist.
Dick Armey in 1997
|House Majority Leader|
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 2003
|Preceded by||Dick Gephardt|
|Succeeded by||Tom DeLay|
|Chairman of the House Republican Conference|
January 3, 1993 – January 3, 1995
|Preceded by||Jerry Lewis|
|Succeeded by||John Boehner|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Texas's 26th district
January 3, 1985 – January 3, 2003
|Preceded by||Tom Vandergriff|
|Succeeded by||Michael C. Burgess|
Richard Keith Armey
July 7, 1940
Cando, North Dakota, U.S.
|Alma mater||Jamestown College|
University of North Dakota
University of Oklahoma
Armey was born on July 7, 1940 in the farming town of Cando, North Dakota, the son of Marion (née Gutschlag) and Glenn Armey. He grew up in a rural area. He graduated from Jamestown College with a B.A. and then received an M.A. from the University of North Dakota and a PhD in economics from the University of Oklahoma. Armey is a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity.
Armey served on the economics faculty at the University of Montana from 1964 to 1965. He was an assistant professor of economics at West Texas State University from 1967 to 1968, at Austin College from 1968 to 1972, and at North Texas State (now the University of North Texas) from 1972 to 1977. He served as chairman of the economics department at North Texas State University from 1977 to 1983.
Armey has been married twice. His first marriage ended in divorce. He married his second wife, Susan Armey, after she called off the wedding three times. He and his second wife have five grown children together.
Armey was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1984 in Texas's 26th congressional district, narrowly defeating freshman congressman Tom Vandergriff. Armey was one of six freshmen Republican Party congressmen elected from Texas in 1984 that were known as the Texas Six Pack. He would never face another contest anywhere near that close, and was reelected eight more times, never dropping below 68 percent of the vote. His strongest performance was in 1998, when the Democrats didn't field a candidate and Armey defeated a Libertarian with 88 percent of the vote. This mirrored the growing Republican trend in his district.
In 1994, Armey, then House Republican Conference Chairman, joined Minority Whip Newt Gingrich in drafting the Contract with America. Republican members credited this election platform with the Republican takeover of Congress. Gingrich became Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, and Armey became Gingrich's second-in-command as House Majority Leader. Gingrich delegated to Armey an unprecedented level of authority over scheduling legislation on the House floor, a power traditionally reserved to the Speaker. In the summer of 1997, several House Republicans attempted to replace Gingrich as Speaker. The attempted "coup" began on July 9 with a meeting between Republican conference chairman John Boehner of Ohio and Republican leadership chairman Bill Paxon of New York. According to their plan, House Majority Leader Armey, House Majority Whip Tom DeLay, Boehner, and Paxon were to present Gingrich with an ultimatum: resign, or be voted out. Under the new plan, Paxon was to replace Gingrich as Speaker. However, Armey balked at the proposal, and told his chief of staff to warn Gingrich about the coup. On July 11, Gingrich met with senior Republican leadership to assess the situation. He explained that under no circumstance would he step down. If he were voted out, there would be a new election for Speaker, which would allow for the possibility that Democrats and dissenting Republicans would vote in Dick Gephardt as Speaker. On July 16, Paxon offered to resign his post, feeling that he had not handled the situation correctly.
In 1995, Armey referred to openly homosexual Congressman Barney Frank as "Barney Fag". Armey said it was a slip of the tongue. Frank did not accept Armey's explanation, saying, "I turned to my own expert, my mother, who reports that in 59 years of marriage, no one ever introduced her as Elsie Fag." After heavy Republican losses in the 1998 elections, Armey had to defeat a challenge for his majority leader post from Steve Largent of Oklahoma, a member of the Republican class of 1994. Although Armey was not popular in the Republican caucus, Largent was thought to be too conservative for some moderate Republicans, and Armey won on the third ballot. Soon afterward, Speaker-elect Bob Livingston of Louisiana announced he wouldn't take the post after the revelation of an extramarital affair. Armey initially seemed to have the inside track to become Speaker; as majority leader, he was the number-two Republican in the chamber. However, he was still badly wounded from Largent's challenge, and opted not to run. The post eventually went to Chief Deputy Whip Dennis Hastert of Illinois. Armey also feuded with Focus on the Family leader James Dobson in his later terms in office. Armey wrote, "As Majority Leader, I remember vividly a meeting with the House leadership where Dobson scolded us for having failed to 'deliver' for Christian conservatives, that we owed our majority to him, and that he had the power to take our jobs back. This offended me, and I told him so." Armey states that Focus on the Family targeted him politically after the incident, writing, "Focus on the Family deliberately perpetuates the lie that I am a consultant to the ACLU." Armey has also said that "Dobson and his gang of thieves are real nasty bullies."
Armey served another four years before announcing his retirement in 2002. In his final term, he was named chairman of the United States House Committee on Homeland Security and was the primary sponsor of the legislation that created the Department of Homeland Security. After Armey's retirement, fellow Texan Tom DeLay was elevated to Armey's Majority Leader position. Armey's son, Scott, ran for his father's seat in the 2002 election, but lost in the Republican Party runoff to Michael C. Burgess, who would go on to hold the strongly Republican 26th District for the GOP in November.
After leaving office, Armey joined the Washington office of the law firm DLA Piper as a senior policy advisor. Armey was also the firm's co-chairman of its Homeland Security Task Force. In 2009, Armey's FreedomWorks group launched a campaign against health care reform proposals, accusing the Obama administration of attempting to "socialize medicine". DLA Piper was concerned about the conflict of interest, particularly since their clients were spending millions in advertising and lobbying money to support the passage of health care reform, and FreedomWorks was linked to demonstrations at town hall forums where health care reform was being discussed. Amid what Politico called "the health care flap", DLA Piper asked Armey to resign in August 2009, and he left the firm.
In 2003, Armey became co-chairman of Citizens for a Sound Economy, which in 2004 merged with Empower America to become FreedomWorks. The group's name was derived from a common Armey saying: "Freedom works. Freedom is good policy and good politics."  FreedomWorks is a conservative non-profit organization based in Washington D.C.. In his role as chairman, Armey was a national political figure. He traveled widely, meeting with activists and legislators. In 2005, he testified before the President's Advisory Panel on Tax Reform and debated Governor of Colorado Bill Owens on a tax increase ballot measure. The Center for Public Integrity reported that Armey was paid $500,000 per year and flew first class, along with other FreedomWorks employees, for work travel.
On December 3, 2012 Mother Jones reported that Armey, in an email on November 30 to Matt Kibbe, president of FreedomWorks Inc., resigned his positions as chairman and trustee of FreedomWorks and severed all his ties to that organization, effective immediately. Mother Jones reported that Armey's reasons for resigning were "matters of principle. It's how you do business as opposed to what you do. But I don't want to be the guy to create problems." The Associated Press reported that in September 2012, Armey agreed to resign by November 2012 in exchange for $8 million in consulting fees paid in annual $400,000 installments.
On December 25, 2012, The Washington Post reported that Armey had escorted Matt Kibbe and FreedomWorks' Vice President Adam Brandon out of the FreedomWorks offices with the help of an armed guard on September 4, 2012. Armey reportedly wanted FreedomWorks to support Todd Akin after his controversial "legitimate rape" comments.
As a free-market economist influenced by the ideas of Milton Friedman, Armey favored relatively open immigration and advocated for free trade. Armey was one of Congress's fervent supporters of privatization of Social Security and phasing-out of farm subsidies. He was a strong supporter of replacing the progressive tax with a flat tax. Armey was very critical of a competing tax reform proposal that would replace the current system with a national sales tax, the FairTax. During his time in Congress, Armey conceived the Base Realignment and Closure Commission that became responsible for closing military bases as a cost-cutting measure. After his retirement from Congress, he told The New York Times: "A lot of people say if you cut defense, you're demonstrating less than a full commitment to our nation's security, and that's baloney."
In 1999, Armey sponsored the Fair Care for the Uninsured Act, something that would later be proposed by Mark Kennedy after Armey left Congress. It proposed using tax credits to offset the cost of health insurance, allowing individuals to go outside the workplace to obtain private health coverage directly from an insurance company, and the creation of a "safety net" for the uninsured. The law never made it through Congress, but some of these concepts did make it into the Massachusetts health care reform of 2006 and from there into the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010. Armey is a vocal opponent of the individual mandate to purchase health benefits. He also voiced public opposition to the individual mandate when it was proposed by First Lady Hillary Clinton during the contentious national health care reform debate of 1993 and 1994.
In 2006, Michael Isikoff's book Hubris included Armey as an on-the-record source, who said he was initially reluctant to support the Bush administration's call for war with Iraq, and that he had warned President George W. Bush that such a war might be a "quagmire". Armey said that the intelligence presented to him in support of the war appeared questionable, but he gave Bush the benefit of the doubt. According to Barton Gellman, former Vice President Dick Cheney told Armey that Saddam Hussein's family had direct ties to Al-Qaeda and that Saddam was developing miniature nuclear weapons. Armey then voted for the Iraq War, but after it became clear this was not true, stated that he "deserved better from Cheney than to be bullshitted by him." Robert Draper's Dead Certain: The Presidency of George W. Bush recounts a conversation in late summer 2002 between Armey and Cheney. Armey insisted that American forces would get "mired down" in Iraq if they invaded, but Cheney offered this assurance: "They're going to welcome us. It'll be like the American army going through the streets of Paris. They're sitting there ready to form a new government. The people will be so happy with their freedoms that we'll probably back ourselves out of there within a month or two."
On May 1, 2002, on MSNBC's Hardball with Chris Matthews, Armey called for Palestinians to be expelled from the Palestinian Occupied Territories. Armey, a stauch supporter of Israel, repeatedly said that he would be "content" with Israel completely taking over all of the Palestinian Occupied Territories and transferring the Palestinian population out. He further stated that the Palestinians could then build their state in the "many Arab nations that have many hundreds of thousands of acres of land".
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 26th congressional district
Michael C. Burgess
|Party political offices|
| Chairman of House Republican Conference
| House Majority Leader
The 1998 House elections in Texas occurred on November 3, 1998, to elect the members of the State of Texas's delegation to the United States House of Representatives. Texas had thirty seats in the House, apportioned according to the 1990 United States Census.
These elections occurred simultaneously with the United States Senate elections of 1998, the United States House elections in other states, and various state and local elections.2000 United States House of Representatives elections in Texas
The 2000 House elections in Texas occurred on November 7, 2000 to elect the members of the State of Texas's delegation to the United States House of Representatives. Texas had thirty seats in the House, apportioned according to the 1990 United States Census.
These elections occurred simultaneously with the United States Senate elections of 2000, the United States House elections in other states, and various state and local elections. Despite the presence of Texas governor George W. Bush as the Republican nominee for president and his landslide victory in the state, the Democratic Party retained its majority of House seats.Charley Armey
Charley Armey (born July 16, 1939) is a former American football coach, scout, and executive. He was an assistant and then interim head coach for the Denver Gold of the United States Football League (USFL) in 1983. He was a scout for the Green Bay Packers (1985–1987), Atlanta Falcons (1987–1991), and New England Patriots (1991–1997). He was the general manager of the St. Louis Rams 2000 to 2005 after being a scout for the Rams. His brother is Dick Armey.Citizens for a Sound Economy
Citizens for a Sound Economy (CSE) (1984–2004) was a conservative political group operating in the United States. It was established in 1984 by Charles and David Koch of Koch Industries. Ron Paul was appointed as the first chairman of the organization. The CSE described itself as "hundreds of thousands of grassroots citizens dedicated to (1) free markets and limited government, and (2) the highest level of personal involvement in public policy activism."In 2002, the CSE designed its tea party movement website, though the movement did not take off until 2009. In 2003, Dick Armey became the chairman of CSE after retiring from Congress. In 2004, Citizens for a Sound Economy split into two new organizations, with Citizens for a Sound Economy being renamed as FreedomWorks, and Citizens for a Sound Economy Foundation becoming Americans for Prosperity. Both organizations played key roles in the Tea party movement beginning in 2009.Contract from America
Not to be confused with the Contract with America.The Contract from America was the idea of Houston-based attorney Ryan Hecker. Hecker states that he developed the concept of creating a grassroots call for reform prior to the April 15, 2009 Tax Day Tea Party rallies. To get his idea off the ground, he launched a website which encouraged people to offer possible planks for the contract. Hecker told The New York Times, "Hundreds of thousands of people voted for their favorite principles online to create the Contract as an open-sourced platform for the Tea Party movement. The agenda had the imprint of everyday citizens every step of the way (in the online voting process)." Hecker said the Republicans’ 1994 Contract with America represented the nation’s last intellectual economic conservative movement, but the new list, he said, was “created from the bottom up. It was not crafted in Washington with the help of pollsters."From the original 1,000 ideas which were submitted, Hecker reduced it to about 50 based on popularity, then to 21 items with the help of former House Republican Leader Dick Armey, whose conservative group FreedomWorks has established close ties with many Tea Party activists around the country.After releasing the 21 ideas at CPAC on February 18, 2010, a final online vote was held to narrow the 21 ideas down to the final 10 to be included in the Contract from America. Over two months, 454,331 votes were cast. The resulting document, including the vote percentages for the statements, was posted online on April 12, 2010.The Contract lists 10 agenda items that it encourages congressional candidates to follow:
Identify constitutionality of every new law: Require each bill to identify the specific provision of the Constitution that gives Congress the power to do what the bill does (82.0%).
Reject emissions trading: Stop the "cap and trade" administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. (72.2%).
Demand a balanced federal budget: Begin the Constitutional amendment process to require a balanced budget with a two-thirds majority needed for any tax modification. (69.7%)
Simplify the tax system: Adopt a simple and fair single-rate tax system by scrapping the internal revenue code and replacing it with one that is no longer than 4,543 words – the length of the original Constitution. (64.9%)
Audit federal government agencies for constitutionality: Create a blue ribbon taskforce that engages in an audit of federal agencies and programs, assessing their constitutionality, and identifying duplication, waste, ineffectiveness, and agencies and programs better left for the states or local authorities. (63.4%)
Limit annual growth in federal spending: Impose a statutory cap limiting the annual growth in total federal spending to the sum of the inflation rate plus the percentage of population growth. (56.57%).
Repeal the health care legislation passed on March 23, 2010: Defund, repeal and replace the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. (56.4%).
Pass an 'All-of-the-Above' Energy Policy: Authorize the exploration of additional energy reserves (see Oil reserves in the United States) to reduce American dependence on foreign energy sources and reduce regulatory barriers to all other forms of energy creation. (55.5%).
Reduce Earmarks: Place a moratorium on all earmarks until the budget is balanced, and then require a 2/3 majority to pass any earmark. (55.5%).
Reduce Taxes: Permanently repeal all recent tax increases, and extend permanently the George W. Bush temporary reductions in income tax, capital gains tax and estate taxes, currently scheduled to end in 2011. (53.4%).
The Tea Party Patriots have asked both Democrats and Republicans to sign on to the Contract. No Democrats have signed on, and the contract has met resistance from some Republicans who have since created the Pledge to America. Brendan Buck, former Speaker of the House John Boehner's Communications Director for Special Legislative Initiatives (while Boehner was House Minority Leader), explained that the Contract is too narrow in focus, and not exactly what the Republican Party would include in its own top 10 list of priorities. "We just want to have as big and open process as we can," he said, while making sure to add that "[t]he tea party people will have a seat at the table."Candidates who have signed the Contract from America include Utah's Mike Lee, Nevada’s Sharron Angle, Sen. Coburn (R-OK), and Sen. DeMint (R-SC).Contract with America
The Contract with America was a document released by the United States Republican Party during the 1994 Congressional election campaign. Written by Newt Gingrich and Dick Armey, and in part using text from former President Ronald Reagan's 1985 State of the Union Address, the Contract detailed the actions the Republicans promised to take if they became the majority party in the United States House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years. Many of the Contract's policy ideas originated at The Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank.The Contract with America was introduced six weeks before the 1994 Congressional election, the first mid-term election of President Bill Clinton's Administration, and was signed by all but two of the Republican members of the House and all of the Party's non-incumbent Republican Congressional candidates.
Proponents say the Contract was revolutionary in its commitment to offering specific legislation for a vote, describing in detail the precise plan of the Congressional Representatives, and broadly nationalizing the Congressional election. Furthermore, its provisions represented the view of many conservative Republicans on the issues of shrinking the size of government, promoting lower taxes and greater entrepreneurial activity, and both tort reform and welfare reform. Critics of the Contract describe it as a political ploy and election tool designed to have broad appeal while masking the Republicans' real agenda and failing to provide real legislation or governance.
The 1994 elections resulted in Republicans gaining 54 House and 9 U.S. Senate seats. When the Republicans gained this majority of seats in the 104th Congress, the Contract was seen as a triumph by party leaders such as Minority Whip Newt Gingrich, Dick Armey, and the American conservative movement in general.Dade Phelan
Dade Phelan (born September 18, 1975) is an American real estate developer and politician who is a Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives for District 21, which encompasses half of Jefferson County and all of neighboring Orange County in the far southeastern corner of the state.Dick (nickname)
Dick is a nickname for Richard. Notable people with the nickname include:
Dick Advocaat (born 1947), Dutch football manager and former player
Dick Ambrose (born 1953), former American football linebacker in the National Football League
Dick Armey (born 1940), American politician and member of US House of Representatives from Texas (1985-2003)
Frederick Ashworth (1912–2005), United States Navy officer
Dick Assman (1934– 2016), Canadian gas station owner
Dick Attlesey (1929–1984), American hurdler
Richard Joseph Audet (1922–1945), Canadian fighter pilot ace during World War II
Dick Ault (1925–2007), American Olympian
Dick Barber (1910–1983), American long jumper
Dick Bavetta (born 1939), American retired professional basketball referee for the National Basketball Association (NBA)
Dick Butkus (born 1942), former American football player, sports commentator, and actor
Dick Cavett (born 1936), American television talk show host
Dick Cheney (born 1941), American politician who served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009
Dick Clark (1929–2012), American radio and television personality
Dick Clark (senator) (born 1928), American politician and US Senator from Iowa (1973-1979)
Dick Contino (1930–2017), American accordionist
Dick Davis (running back) (born 1946), American football player
Dick Davis (defensive end) (born 1938), American football player
Dick Enberg (1935–2017), American sportscaster
Dick Fencl (1910–1972), American football player
Richard S. Fuld Jr. (born 1946), American banker best known as the final Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Lehman Brothers
Dick Hoblitzell (1888–1962), American Major League Baseball player
Dick Ives (1926–1997), American basketball player
Dick Johnson (racing driver) (born 1945), Australian touring car driver and team owner
Richard Lamm (born 1935), American politician, writer, Certified Public Accountant, college professor, and lawyer
Richard Lyon (1923–2017), United States Navy admiral and former mayor of Oceanside, California
Richard Marcinko (born 1940), former United States Navy officer and retired Navy SEAL
Dick Murdoch (1946–1996), American professional wrestler
Dick Pole (born 1950), American baseball player and coach
Dick Pound (born 1942), Canadian swimming champion and first president of the World Anti-Doping Agency
Dick Reynolds (1915–2002), Australian rules footballer who represented Essendon in the Victorian Football League (VFL)
Dick Rutkowski, diving medicine pioneer
Richard "Dick" Savitt (born 1927), American tennis player
Dick Shawn (1923–1987), American actor and comedian
Dick Shikat (1897–1968), German professional wrestler and World Heavyweight Champion
Dick Stanfel (1927–2015), American football player
Dick Schweidler (1914–2010), American football player
Dick Tayler (born 1948), New Zealand long-distance runner
Dick Thornburgh (born 1932), American politician, Governor of Pennsylvania (1979-1987), and US Attorney General (1988-1991)
Dick Turpin (1705–1739), English highwayman executed for horse theft
Dick Van Dyke (born 1925), American actor, comedian, writer and producer
Richard Winters (1918–2011), officer of the United States Army and decorated war veteran
Richard McCourt (born 1976), Tv presenterFreedomWorks
FreedomWorks is a conservative and libertarian advocacy group based in Washington D.C., United States. FreedomWorks trains volunteers, assists in campaigns, and encourages them to mobilize, interacting with both fellow citizens and their political representatives. It is widely associated with the Tea Party movement.List of 1994 Contract with America signers
The Contract with America was signed by the following list of 367 Republican candidates for U.S. Congress on the steps of the U.S. Capitol on September 27, 1994. All candidates had won the Republican nomination in their respective districts and were candidates in the 1994 U.S. Congressional general elections.Mac Sweeney
David McCann "Mac" Sweeney (born September 15, 1955) is a Republican former member of the United States House of Representatives from Texas.
Born in Wharton in Wharton County west of Houston, Sweeney earned his Bachelor of Arts and Juris Doctor from the University of Texas at Austin. In his early political years Sweeney served on the staffs of Republican Senator John G. Tower from 1977–1978, and former Governor John B. Connally, Jr., from 1979 to 1980, when Connally was seeking the 1980 Republican presidential nomination but finished with only one committed delegate.
Sweeney served as the director of administrative operations in the Ronald Reagan White House from 1981–1983. In this capacity he worked directly with John F.W. Rogers and began a long-term association with another well-known Texan, James A. Baker III, then the White House Chief of Staff. In 1984, he unseated Democratic U.S. Representative William Neff "Bill" Patman in one of the nation's closest congressional elections. In doing so, Sweeney became the first-ever Republican to represent District 14.
In his campaign against Patman, Sweeney highlighted his time at the University of Texas Law School and claimed to had been published in the Texas Law Review. These were later proved to be untrue. In June 1986, a Sweeney staffer charged that she had told to work on his campaign or lose his job. Sweeney in reply said- "Most of what we are talking about here is junior staff indiscretions by a young staff." Ex-Congressman Patman said of Sweeney, "He's very flexible. I'd think he would vote for a Chinese Communist if it would help his cause.He was appointed to the House Armed Services Committee and became in 1985 one of six freshmen Republican congressmen from Texas infamously known as the Texas Six Pack, including future House Majority Leaders Dick Armey and Tom DeLay. Sweeney served two terms from 1985–1989, but was unseated in 1988 by Democrat Greg Laughlin. The prior, sprawling, 22-county District 14 has been divided, primarily by the 2003 Texas redistricting, into five different congressional districts today.
After his final unsuccessful campaign, Sweeney entered the private practice of law on Wall Street with the international firm Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle before later heading two businesses in New Jersey and Texas involved in successful restructurings or turnarounds. In 1997 he began what became a seven-year commitment to humanitarian and missionary work, based out of Cairo but also working in over five different Arab countries. A large number of the 400-plus Christians, Muslims and Coptics trained and funded by the Sweeney family continue to work today in Syria, Tunisia, Bahrain, Lebanon and Sudan primarily with schools, clinics, job training, micro-business and tent making enterprises.In 2004 Sweeney was considered for top positions at the Peace Corps and in helping to organize the first democratic Afghan presidential election, 2004 and the Afghan parliamentary election, 2005; but could not come to terms with the Bush Administration. As of 2011 he operates the Washington-based Paraclete Group which funds large infrastructure projects in developing nations that are typically paired with select in-country charities or international NGO groups. He serves on four non-profit or business boards, and he and his wife split time between Bethesda, Maryland and Houston. He has four children.Michael C. Burgess
Michael Clifton Burgess (born December 23, 1950) is a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives representing Texas's 26th congressional district. In 2002, he defeated Scott Armey, the son of House Majority Leader and then-U.S. Representative Dick Armey, in a primary runoff election. Prior to his election, he practiced as a doctor of obstetrics and gynecology.
Burgess is a member of the congressional Tea Party Caucus, and he has been involved in the debates over health care reform and energy policy. He opposes abortion, is unsure of the extent of the contribution of human activity to global warming, supports President Donald Trump's restrictions on travel from Muslim-majority countries and refugee immigration, and supports the repeal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.Peter B. Davidson
Peter B. Davidson is an American lawyer and government official who currently serves as the General Counsel of the United States Department of Commerce. From 2003 to 2017, he was the senior vice president for federal government relations at Verizon Communications. Before that he held positions as general counsel to the United States Trade Representative, vice president for congressional relations at US West and Qwest, general counsel and policy director to the Majority Leader of the House of Representatives, attorney-advisor in the Office of Legal Counsel of the United States Department of Justice, director of congressional and media relations at the United States Information Agency, staffer to Representatives Dick Armey and Bill Frenzel, and law clerk on the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit.Policy Review
Policy Review was a conservative journal from 1977 to 2013.Taxpayer Choice Act
The Taxpayer Choice Act (H.R. 3818/S. 2416) was a bill in the United States Congress which, if enacted, would have amended the Internal Revenue Code to eliminate the alternative minimum tax on individual taxpayers. The bill was reproposed in 2009. The bill was not voted upon in either session. The legislation would create an alternative, simplified tax that individuals may choose over the current personal income tax. The new system would have two tax rates (up to $100K at 10% and 25% for everything above), a large standard deduction with no special deductions, and is argued to greatly reduce the damage and complexity caused by the current income tax. The bill would also make permanent the capital gains and dividends rate reductions enacted by the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act. In the House, the bill was introduced by Rep. Paul Ryan (R-WI), ranking member on the House Budget Committee, and had 83 cosponsors in 2007 and 22 fellow Republicans in 2009. The bill was introduced in the Senate by Jim Demint. The plan has been supported by FreedomWorks, former House Majority Leader Dick Armey, and former 2008 presidential candidate Fred Thompson.Texas's 26th congressional district
Texas District 26 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district in the state of Texas that serves an area in the northern portion of the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex centering on Denton County. The current Representative is Michael C. Burgess. The District is best known as the seat of former House Majority Leader Dick Armey.Texas Six Pack
The Texas Six Pack was a group of six freshmen Republican congressmen from Texas who were elected during the 1984 Ronald Reagan landslide victory over Walter Mondale. With their victories the Texas congressional delegation shifted from a 21-6 Democratic advantage to only 17-10.
Several of the six new congressmen would go on to long and powerful careers in Washington. Beau Boulter, Mac Sweeney and Dick Armey upset three incumbent Democratic congressmen. Larry Combest won an open seat being vacated by retiring Democrat, later Republican Kent Hance, while Joe Barton and Tom DeLay won seats vacated by retiring Republicans Phil Gramm and Ron Paul, respectively. For Sweeney, Combest, and Armey it was the first time their districts had ever elected a Republican to congress. Boulter relinquished his seat after two terms to wage an unsuccessful race against U.S. Senator Lloyd M. Bentsen, who ran the same year for Vice President of the United States.Thad Bingel
Thaddeus M. Bingel is a Principal at Command Consulting Group. Under President George W. Bush from 2007-2008 Bingel served as Chief of Staff for U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Bingel was also majority counsel to the House Judiciary Committee in the 108th and 109th Congresses. Bingel served as a consultant and policy analyst under Dick Armey, Former Majority Leader in the 107th Congress.
A native of Plattsburgh, New York, Bingel received his bachelor's degree from College of the Holy Cross. He went on to graduate from Georgetown University Law School.United States congressional delegations from Texas
These are tables of congressional delegations from the State of Texas to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives.
(i) - interim