Diammonium phosphate

Diammonium phosphate (DAP) (chemical formula (NH4)2HPO4, IUPAC name diammonium hydrogen phosphate) is one of a series of water-soluble ammonium phosphate salts that can be produced when ammonia reacts with phosphoric acid. Solid diammonium phosphate shows a dissociation pressure of ammonia as given by the following expression and equation:[2]

At 100 °C, the dissociation pressure of diammonium phosphate is approximately 5 mmHg.[3]

Accordingly, to MSDS of DiammoniumPhosphate from CF Industries inc. decomposition starts as low as 70*C

"Hazardous Decomposition Products: Gradually loses ammonia when exposed to air at room temperature. Decomposes to ammonia and monoammonium phosphate at around 70°C (158°F). At 155°C (311°F), DAP emits phosphorus oxides, nitrogen oxides and ammonia."

Diammonium phosphate[1]
Diammonium phosphate
IUPAC name
diammonium hydrogen phosphate
Other names
ammonium monohydrogen phosphate, ammonium phosphate dibasic
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.079
E number E342(ii) (antioxidants, ...)
Molar mass 132.06 g/mol
Appearance white powder
Density 1.619 g/cm3
Melting point 155 °C (311 °F; 428 K) decomposes
57.5 g/100 mL (10 °C)
106.7 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility insoluble in alcohol, acetone and liquid ammonia
−1566.91 kJ/mol
Safety data sheet ICSC 0217
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroformReactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calciumSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions
Monoammonium phosphate
Triammonium phosphate
Other cations
Disodium phosphate
Dipotassium phosphate
Related compounds
Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium sulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).


DAP is used as a fertilizer.[4] When applied as plant food, it temporarily increases the soil pH, but over a long term the treated ground becomes more acidic than before upon nitrification of the ammonium. It is incompatible with alkaline chemicals because its ammonium ion is more likely to convert to ammonia in a high-pH environment. The average pH in solution is 7.5–8.[5] The typical formulation is 18-46-0 (18% N, 46% P2O5, 0% K2O).[5]

DAP can be used as a fire retardant. It lowers the combustion temperature of the material, decreases maximum weight loss rates, and causes an increase in the production of residue or char.[6] These are important effects in fighting wildfires as lowering the pyrolysis temperature and increasing the amount of char formed reduces that amount of available fuel and can lead to the formation of a firebreak. It is the largest component of some popular commercial firefighting products.[7]

DAP is also used as a yeast nutrient in winemaking and mead-making; as an additive in some brands of cigarettes purportedly as a nicotine enhancer; to prevent afterglow in matches, in purifying sugar; as a flux for soldering tin, copper, zinc and brass; and to control precipitation of alkali-soluble and acid-insoluble colloidal dyes on wool.[1]

External links


  1. ^ a b Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
  2. ^ John R Van Wazer (1958). Phosphorus And Its Compounds - Volume I: Chemistry. New York: Interscience Publishers, Inc. p. 503.
  3. ^ McKetta Jr, John J., ed. (1990). Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design (Chemical Processing and Design Encyclopedia). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. p. 478. ISBN 0-8247-2485-2.
  4. ^ IPNI. "Diammonium Phosphate" (PDF). www.ipni.net. International Plant Nutrition Institute. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  5. ^ a b International Plant Nutrition Institute. "Nutrient Source Specifics: Diammonium Phosphate" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-10.
  6. ^ George, C.W.; Susott, R.A. (April 1971). "Effects of Ammonium Phosphate and Sulfate on the Pyrolysis and Combustion of Cellulose". Research Paper INT-90. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: USDA Forest Service.
  7. ^ Phos-Chek MSDS, Phos-Chek website

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