Dholka

Dholka is a city and municipality in the Ahmedabad District of the Indian state of Gujarat. It is the headquarters of Dholka Taluka, and is 48 km by road via National Highway 8A southwest of the city of Ahmedabad. Dholka has an average elevation of 17 metres (56 ft).

Dholka City

Virat Nagar
city
Dholka City is located in Gujarat
Dholka City
Dholka City
Location in Gujarat, India
Coordinates: 22°43′N 72°28′E / 22.72°N 72.47°ECoordinates: 22°43′N 72°28′E / 22.72°N 72.47°E
Country India
StateGujarat
DistrictAhmedabad
TalukaDholka
Area rank1
Elevation
17 m (56 ft)
Population
(2001)
 • Total53,792
Languages
 • OfficialGujarati, Hindi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)

History

Ahmedabad District Map 1877
Dholka in map of Ahmedabad district under Bombay Presidency, British India 1877

Large numbers of old buildings in the city suggest that it was important in ancient times; archaeologists have discovered small stone chert tools made of chalcedony, quartz and agate which date to the Middle Stone and Iron Ages.

Dholka is said to stand on the site of Viratpur, or Matsyanagar, which, in their wanderings, the Pandavas (1400 BC) found governed by queen Sudishva of the Kaiyo or Bhil race. Her brother, Kichak Kaiyo, a prince of great power, was, according to the story, slain for an attempt on the chastity of Draupadi.

Here too in 144 AD, Kanaksen, a prince of the race of the sun, Suryavansh, is said to have settled.

At the close of the eleventh century, the town was adorned with a lake – still its chief ornament – by Minaldevi, the mother of Jayasimha Siddharaja of the Chaulukya dynasty.

In the 12th century, Muhammad al-Idrisi mentioned Dholka as one of the chief trading towns in Gujarat. Vaghelas were vassals of the Chaulukya rulers of Gujarat. As the Chaulukyas went into decline, so the Vaghelas rose in power, becoming rulers of Gujarat from 1243 until the Muslim conquest in 1297. They restored stability to Gujarat for the latter half of the 13th century, while the Vaghela kings and their officials were dedicated patrons of the arts and temple-building. Early in the thirteenth century, it was apparently called Dhavalgadh and held by Vir Dhaval, the founder of the Vaghela dynasty, whose territories included the lands of Godhra and Lat. In records of the Muslim kings and viceroys, though never a place of great consequence, Dholka is often mentioned as a town and fort, the quarters of a local governor; its remains show that at one time, it was adorned by many beautiful Muslim buildings.

In the eighteenth-century troubles, Dholka seems to have been taken by the Marathas in 1736; to have been recovered by the Viceroy in 1741; to have again fallen into the Gaikwad's hands in 1757; and to have remained with him till its cession to the British in 1804. It suffered much from the 1813 famine: when surveyed in 1820–1822, it showed few signs of returning prosperity.[1]

Other Name in Literature

Gujarati Historic Novel named Gujaratno Jay written by Zaverchand Meghani based on various Jain Prabandhas describes city as Dhavalakka(ધવલક્ક). [2]

Architecture

Regarded as the oldest municipality in Gujarat, the city has majestic ruined mosques featuring tracery work, carvings and designs. There are monuments there known as Pandava's Pathshala and Ali Khan's Mosque as well as mandapas and chattris (outdoor pavilions), all marked by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

Next to the lake stands the massive Dholka Idgah, or main mosque, which has mandapas on either side set some distance away. The three mosque towers are around 200 feet (61 m) tall, with massive domes covering each hall. Outside, one set of steps leads to the top of the structure and another to the muezzin's tower. The entire building is constructed of brick and limestone mortar; its doorway features large religious inscriptions. The rear wall of the mosque has a series of intricately designed limestone jalis (perforated screens) while the central room has a minbar (pulpit) where the imam stands to deliver sermons. This tall features is made of marble and remains completely intact. From here, even a softly spoken voice resounds throughout the entire mosque, which consists of three halls, each with an area of more than 100 square feet (9.3 m2). Each room has a spot identifying which direction is west, with a pillastered niche (mihrab) towards Mecca. Windows high up in the wall admit light and air to the building. The mosque is also called Ali Khan's mosque (or Alif Khan's mosque) and was built around the 11th century. Fallen pillars, grave stones with intricate patterns on all sides, and broken chattris (pavilions) lie within the premises of the idgah (congregation assembly area), while its paved ground is almost entirely covered in grass. A chattri similar in style to those found in the state of Rajasthan marks the border of the mosque area.

Nearby stands the Pandava's Pathshala. This is where the pandavas are said to have practiced and honed their war skills. This massive fort-like structure is enclosed on all sides and distinctly Hindu in style, with a chattri on each of the four corners. There are battlements and guard positions all around, with halls in the centre of this structure or boundary wall.

Around 10 km from Dholka is a place known as "Chandisar" on the land of which the great war between "Arjun and Bhishma Pitamah" was believed to happen. The Arjun had used these jungle trees to hide his weapons during "agyatwas". Some people also claimed that those weapons are sometimes visible at midnight after a thousands of years of happenings.

The city has so many underground water tanks and even UNDERGROUND WALK WAYS too. Since the Archaeological Survey of India is not taking interest in all these things / site, the said heritage monuments gets ruined. Surprisingly there is an under ground walkway at Brahmanpith, which was discovered by some people while resurfacing the road. Now it is closed and the door was fitted by the road. The monuments gets under road and will never even gets out.

Demographics

As of the 2001 Indian census,[3] Dholka had a population of 53,792, of which 52 percent were male and 48 percent female. The city has an average literacy rate of 66 percent, higher than the national average of 59.5 percent. Male literacy stands at 73 percent and that for females at 59 percent. In Dholka, 12 percent of the population is under six years of age.

Places of interest

Malav talav
Malav lake
Khan Masjid 6
Khan Masjid

The chief object of interest near Dholka is the Malav lake, built about the close of the eleventh century by Minaldevi, widow of Karna and mother of Jayasimha Siddharaja (or perhaps by Lavanprasad's wife Maybhalla, according to research done by R. T. Savliya, author of Ancient lakes of Gujarat). It is about 400 yards in diameter, surrounded by a finely carved stone wall and flights of stone steps. In the middle of the lake are the remains of a building, connected with the shore by a light and graceful wooden bridge, supported on sculpted stone piers. The platform and roadway are mostly gone, but the piers remain entire by 1857.[4]

Of Hindu temples, the chief is the Nageshvar, or Chandreshvar Mahadev, built in 1751 (1807 S.) by Antaji Rav, an officer of the Gaikwad's. The revenues of the village of Rajpur, assigned in 1758 (1814 S.) by the Gaikwad, were set apart for its support in past.[1]

Dholka is home to one of the old Hindu Swaminarayan temples in the world, which was established in 1883 on the fifth day of the bright half of Vaishakha in Vikram Samvat, according to the Hindu calendar.This temple is popular world over. Also, there is another Shree Akshar Purrshottam Swaminarayan Mandir in the town built by BAPS Sanstha, located south-easterly.

There are three Jain temples in this ancient town.[5]

  • Parshwanath Mandir, Dholka Bypass Rd, Rajasthani Society, Kalikund - This Jaina temple got constructed by Vastupal-Tejpal is situated is in Ambaji Pole.
  • Shri Jindatt Suri Dadawadi, Paresh Sompura, Dholka Bypass Rd, Kalikund, Dholka – is located opposite to Parshwanath Mandir
  • Shetrunjay Temple, Kalikund, Dholka [massive; newly constructed] – is located little south of Parshwanth mandir
  • There are few other Jain temples in the town.

Besides scattered remains, there are two mosques of almost the same size and plan, each about 150 feet square with three arches in the screen wall and five domes in the mosque front. There are many ancient mosques in the city, including the Khan Masjid (a rare brick structure) along with the magnificent stone Khan Talao, Jumu'ah Masjid (Friday prayer mosque). Other well known Muslim shrines include the Hazrat Shah shrine and Najmuddin Chisti's shrine in Lilajpur.

References

  1. ^ a b Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Ahmedabad (Public Domain text). Government Central Press. 1879. pp. 337–338.
  2. ^ Meghani, Zaverchand (April 2011). Gujaratno Jay. Ahmdabad: Gurjar Sahitya Bhavan. p. 64. ISBN 978-81-8461-481-7.
  3. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  4. ^ Shastri, Parth (27 September 2015). "ASI to renovate 2 Gujarat's ancient lakes". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  5. ^ http://www.khazano.com/india-travel/visit/shri-dholaka-jain-tirth

Further reading

  • Burgess, James, Muhammadan Architecture of Bharoch, Cambay, Dholka, Champanir, and Mahmudabad in Gujarat. Archaeological Survey of Western India Volume VI. (1896)
Ahmedabad district

Ahmedabad District comprises the city of Ahmedabad, in the central part of the state of Gujarat in western India. It is the seventh most populous district in India (out of 640).

Badarkha

Badarkha is a village and neighbourhood located in Ahmedabad, state of Gujarat, India, which has a population of more than 10,000. It is situated on the Ahmedabad–Dholka Highway, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from Dholka and 29 kilometres (18 mi) from Ahmedabad. It has two main bus stations. The predominant occupations are related to agriculture–crops and animals.Major population of Rajput like Mandora,Masani,Dod,Daya,Vaghela,gol & some other cast like "Patel,Ghadhvi,Gajjar& many others.

Bhat, Daskroi

Bhat ([ˈbhaːt] ) is a Village in Daskroi Taluka in Ahmedabad District of Gujarat State, India. Bhat is located near the bank of the Sabarmati River, 24 km towards west from District headquarters Ahmedabad, 5 km from Daskroi and 49 km from State capital Gandhinagar. Bhat Pin code is 382210 and postal head office is Sarkhej. As per constitution of India and Panchayati Raj Act, Bhat village is administered by Sarpanch (Head of Village) who is elected by representative of village.

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Dhandhuka

Dhandhuka is a city and a municipality in Ahmedabad district in the state of Gujarat, India.

Dhandhuka is included in the famous Bhal region.

Dholka (Vidhan Sabha constituency)

Dholka assembly constituency (ધોળકા વિધાનસભા બેઠક) is one of the 182 assembly constituency of Gujarat. It is located in Ahmedabad District.

Dholka Taluka

Dholka Taluka is a taluka of Ahmedabad District, India. Its administrative centre is the village of Dholka. The taluka covers an area of 1,019.41 square kilometres (393.60 sq mi).

Dilwara Temples

The Dilwara Temples are located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu, Rajasthan's only hill station. These Jain temples were built by Vimal Shah and designed by Vastupala-Tejpal, Jain ministers of Dholka , between the 11th and 13th centuries AD and are famous for their use of marble and intricate marble carvings. The five marble temples of Dilwara are a sacred pilgrimage place of the Jains. Some consider them to be one of the most beautiful Jain pilgrimage sites in the world. The temples have an opulent entranceway, the simplicity in architecture reflecting Jain values like honesty and frugality. The temples are in the midst of a range of forested hills. A high wall shrouds the temple complex.

Although Jains built some beautiful temples at other places in Rajasthan, Dilwara temples are believed to be the most beautiful example of architectural perfection. The ornamental detail spreading over the minutely carved ceilings, doorways, pillars and panels is simply marvellous.

Gomsi

Gomsi is an ancient archaeological site located between Rani Village and Sika Tode in East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India. It is associated with the 13th-century Chutiya Kingdom, which was located at the field of Rani Village, about 15 km from the town of Pasighat.

Gujarat under Muhammad Shah

The Mughal Empire's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the viceroys appointed by the emperors. The emperor Farrukhsiyar was deposed by influential Sayad brothers in 1719. He was succeeded by the short reigns of Rafi ud-Darajat and Shah Jahan II. Finally Muhammad Shah was raised to the throne by them. To make peace with powerful vassal, he appointed Ajítsingh of Márwár as a viceroy. The Maratha incursions continued and Píláji Gáikwár established himself at Songad near southern border of Gujarat. Ajit Singh had appointed Anopsingh Bhandari as his deputy. For helping to depose the influential Sayad brothers, Haidar Kúli Khán was appointed the next viceroy. People discontent with Anopsingh rejoiced his appointment but he tried to make himself free so he was recalled. Nizám-ul-Mulk took over who had to face the Maratha incursion again. The Marathas taking advantage of weakening Mughal Empire started extracting tribute from Gujarat regularly. The next viceroy Sarbuland Khan came in conflict with the Marathas whose generals were first defeated at Kapadvanj and again at Aras. The infighting in Marathas later stalled their advances. The imperial troops was sent by the emperor to help. Finally the Marathas were defeated at Sojitra and Kapadvanj and pushed back from their inroads in Gujarat. In subsequent years, the Marathas attacked Vadnagar and later captured Baroda, Dabhoi and Champaner. The growing power of Marathas in the southern Gujarat can not be contained.In 1730, Abheysingh was appointed as the viceroy who defeated Mubáriz-ul-Mulk at Adalaj who has opposed his appointment. He soon allied with Maratha Peshwa and defeated another Maratha Gaikwar. He returned to Marwar placing Ratansingh Bhandari, his deputy, in charge. He recovered Baroda but his rivalry with other Mughal leaders Momin Khan and Sohrab Khan weaken him. Soon Momin Khan was appointed as the viceroy but he had to laid siege of Ahmedabad to be in power as Ratansingh had not complied with the order. Soon the emperor reappointed Abheysingh but Momin Khan continued siege. He took help of Damaji Gaikwar and finally captured Ahmedabad. He had to share revenues with Gaikwars but soon disagreements rose and they had fights. He tried to manage his control over Gujarat but the Marathas keep growing and expanding their power. After death of Momin Khan, Fidá-ud-dín managed the province foe a while. Abdúl Ázíz Khán, the commander of Junnar near Pune came to power due to forged order but later had to relinquish. Muftakhir Khán, son of Momin Khan, appointed as the next viceroy. During his reign, the Marathas came to Ahmedabad and continued to attack towns in central Gujarat. Fakhr-ud-daulah succeeded him. He had some peace due to internal struggles between the different houses of the Marathas had slow down their advances in Gujarat. In 1748, Muhammad Shah died and he was succeeded by his son Ahmad Shah Bahadur.

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Kanjibhai Rayabhai Talpada is an Indian politician. He was successful in the Gujarat Legislative Assembly election, 2007 and became a member of the 12th Gujarat Legislative Assembly of Indian state of Gujarat. He was a MLA of Indian National Congress from Dholka from 2007 to 2012.

Koth, Ahmedabad

Koth is a village in Ahmedabad district of Gujarat, India. It is located in the Dholka taluka.According to 2011 census of India, the village's population is 10,439.

List of Monuments of National Importance in Ahmedabad district

This is a list of Monuments of National Importance (ASI) as officially recognized by and available through the website of the Archaeological Survey of India in the Indian state Gujarat. The monument identifier is a combination of the abbreviation of the subdivision of the list (state, ASI circle) and the numbering as published on the website of the ASI. 203 Monuments of National Importance have been recognized by the ASI in Gujarat.

Lothal

Lothal (IPA: [loˑt̪ʰəl]) is one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and first inhabited c. 3700 BCE. Discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from 13 February 1955 to 19 May 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), the official Indian government agency for the preservation of ancient monuments. According to the ASI, Lothal had the world's earliest known dock, which connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea. However, this interpretation has been challenged by other archaeologists, who argue that Lothal was a comparatively small town, and that the "dock" was actually an irrigation tank.Lothal was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa. The techniques and tools they pioneered for bead-making and in metallurgy have stood the test of time for over 4000 years.Lothal is situated near the village of Saragwala in the Dholka Taluka of Ahmedabad district. It is six kilometres south-east of the Lothal-Bhurkhi railway station on the Ahmedabad-Bhavnagar railway line. It is also connected by all-weather roads to the cities of Ahmedabad (85 km/53 mi), Bhavnagar, Rajkot and Dholka. The nearest cities are Dholka and Bagodara. Resuming excavation in 1961, archaeologists unearthed trenches sunk on the northern, eastern and western flanks of the mound, bringing to light the inlet channels and nullah ("ravine", or "gully") connecting the dock with the river. The findings consist of a mound, a township, a marketplace, and the dock. Adjacent to the excavated areas stands the Archaeological Museum, where some of the most prominent collections of Indus-era antiquities in India are displayed.

The Lothal site has been nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and its application is pending on the tentative list of UNESCO.

Momna

The Momin, sometimes referred to as Momna, Mumna or Momina, are a Muslim community found in the state of Gujarat in India.

Palitana railway station

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Four passenger and one Superfast trains start from here.

Panar

The Panar are a Muslim community found in the state of Gujarat in India.

Swami Ramanand Shastri

Swami Ramanand Shastri was an Indian politician .He was elected from the Bijnor in Uttar Pradesh to the Lower House of the Indian Parliament the Lok Sabha as a member of the Indian National Congress.

Shastri. Acharya (Darshan) (Cong.) U.P. Bijnor (Res. Sch. Castes)—1971, Son of Shri Kanji Bhakt; b. at Dholka, Distt. Ahmedabad, February 7, 1907; renounced the world in 1930; religious and social missionary; Agriculturist; Member, (i) All India Dalit Varg Sangh, since 1953; (2) Indian Harijan Welfare Board for the last six years; Mahant, Ravidas Mandir, Balawali, Distt. Bijnor; President, U.P. Dalit Varg Sangh, 1950-55; President and Founder, Bharatiya Ravidas Seva Sangh, Hardwar; Life President and Founder, Uttar Railway Class IV and Gangmen Association; President, Northern Railway Union; Patron, All India Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Railway Employees' Association; Secretary, Gandhi Harijan Dharmshala Nirman Trust, Jwalapur; Member, Provisional Parliament, First Lok Sabha, 1952-57; Second Lok Sabha, 1957-62, Third Lok Sabha, 1962-67 and Fourth Lok Sabha, 1967-70.

Vaghela dynasty

The Vaghela dynasty was a short-lived Indian dynasty that ruled Gujarat from their capital Dholka during the 13th century CE. The Vaghelas were the last Hindu monarchs to rule large parts of Gujarat, before the Muslim conquest of the region. Medieval bardic literature includes them among the Agnivashi Rajput dynasties.

Early members of the Vaghela family served the Chaulukyas in the 12th century CE, and claimed to be a branch of that dynasty. In the 13th century, during the reign of the weak Chaulukya king Bhima II, the Vaghela general Lavanaprasada and his son Viradhavala became very powerful, although they continued to nominally acknowledge the Chaulukya suzerainty. In the mid-1240s, Viradhavala's son Visaladeva usurped the throne. His successors ruled Gujarat until Karna was defeated by Alauddin Khalji of Delhi Sultanate in 1304 CE.

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