Dhimmitude

Dhimmitude is a neologism borrowed from the French language and popularized as a polemical term by the Egyptian-born British writer Bat Ye'or in the 1980s and 1990s. It was formed from dhimmi by analogy with servitude in order to draw an implicit comparison.[1]

Bat Ye’or defines it as a permanent status of subjection without protection in which Jews and Christians have allegedly been held under Islamic rule since the eighth century, and that forces them to accept discriminations or "face forced conversion, slavery or death". The term gained traction among Serbian ultra-nationalists during the Balkan wars in the 1990s and is popular among self-proclaimed counter-jihadi authors. Scholars have dismissed it as polemical.[2]

Origin

The term was coined in 1982 by the President of Lebanon, Bachir Gemayel, in reference to perceived attempts by the country's Muslim leadership to subordinate the large Lebanese Christian minority. In a speech of September 14, 1982 given at Dayr al-Salib in Lebanon, he said: "Lebanon is our homeland and will remain a homeland for Christians… We want to continue to christen, to celebrate our rites and traditions, our faith and our creed whenever we wish… Henceforth, we refuse to live in any dhimmitude!"[3]

The concept of "dhimmitude" was introduced into Western discourse by the writer Bat Ye'or in a French-language article published in the Italian journal La Rassegna mensile di Israel in 1983.[4] In Bat Ye'or's use, "dhimmitude" refers to allegations of non-Muslims appeasing and surrendering to Muslims and discrimination against non-Muslims in Muslim majority regions.[5]

Ye'or further popularized the term in her books The Decline of Eastern Christianity[6] and the 2003 followup Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide[7] In a 2011 interview, she claimed to have indirectly inspired Gemayel's use of the term.[8]

Associations and usage

The associations of the word "dhimmitude" vary between users:

  • Bat Ye'or defined dhimmitude as the condition and experience of those who are subject to dhimma, and thus not synonymous to, but rather a subset of the dhimma phenomenon: "dhimmitude ... represents a behavior dictated by fear (terrorism), pacifism when aggressed, rather than resistance, servility because of cowardice and vulnerability. ... By their peaceful surrender to the Islamic army, they obtained the security for their life, belongings and religion, but they had to accept a condition of inferiority, spoliation and humiliation. As they were forbidden to possess weapons and give testimony against a Muslim, they were put in a position of vulnerability and humility."[9] The term plays a key role in the Islamophobic[10] conspiracy theory of Eurabia.[11]
  • A more recent pejorative usage variant of "dhimmi" and "dhimmitude" divorces the words from the historical context and applies them to situations where non-Muslims in the West and India are championing Islamic causes above others. "Dhimmi" is treated as analogous to "Quisling" within this context.
  • Sidney H. Griffith states that it "has come to express the theoretical, social condition" of non-Muslims "under Muslim rule".[12]
  • According to Bassam Tibi, dhimmitude refers to non-Muslims being "allowed to retain their religious beliefs under certain restrictions". He describes that status as being inferior and a violation of religious freedom.[13]

Criticism

Sidney H. Griffith, a historian of early Eastern Christianity, dismissed Bat Ye'or's dhimmitude as "polemical" and "lacking in historical method", while Michael Sells, a scholar of Islamic history and literature, describes the dhimmitude theory as nothing more than the "falsification" of history by an "ideologue".[2]

Mark R. Cohen, a leading scholar of the history of Jewish communities of medieval Islam, has criticized the term as misleading and Islamophobic.[14]

Bernard Lewis, Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University, states,

If we look at the considerable literature available about the position of Jews in the Islamic world, we find two well-established myths. One is the story of a golden age of equality, of mutual respect and cooperation, especially but not exclusively in Moorish Spain; the other is of “dhimmi”-tude, of subservience and persecution and ill treatment. Both are myths. Like many myths, both contain significant elements of truth, and the historic truth is in its usual place, somewhere in the middle between the extremes.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ Muslims, multiculturalism and the question of the silent majority, S. Akbarzadeh, J.M. Roose, Journal of muslim minority affairs, 2011, Taylor & Francis.
  2. ^ a b Zia-Ebrahimi, Reza (13 July 2018). "When the Elders of Zion relocated to Eurabia: conspiratorial racialization in antisemitism and Islamophobia". Patterns of Prejudice: 1–24. doi:10.1080/0031322X.2018.1493876.
  3. ^ As reprinted in Lebanon News 8, no. 18 (September 14, 1985), 1-2
  4. ^ Bat Ye'or, "Terres arabes: terres de 'dhimmitude'", in La Cultura Sefardita, vol. 1, La Rassegna mensile di Israel 44, no. 1-4, 3rd series (1983): 94-102
  5. ^ Griffith, Sidney H., The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude, Seventh-Twentieth Century, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 30, No. 4. (Nov., 1998), pp. 619-621, doi:10.1017/S0020743800052831.
  6. ^ Bat Ye'or (1996). The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam. From Jihad to Dhimmitude. Seventh-Twentieth Century. Madison/Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press/Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8386-3688-8.
  7. ^ Bat Ye'or (2003). Islam and Dhimmitude. Where Civilizations Collide. Madison/Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press/Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8386-3943-7.
  8. ^ "I founded the word dhimmitude and I discussed it with my Lebanese friends [...] My friend spoke about this word to Bashir Gemayel who used it in his last speech before his assassination." in An Egyptian Jew in Exile: An Interview with Bat Ye’or[1], newenglishreview.org, October 2011
  9. ^ "John W. Whitehead, An interview with Bat Ye'or. Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis, 5 September 2005".
  10. ^ Carr, M. (2006). "You are now entering Eurabia". Race & Class. 48: 1. doi:10.1177/0306396806066636.
  11. ^ Færseth, John (2011). "Eurabia – ekstremhøyres konspirasjonsteori" (PDF). Fri Tanke. Human-Etisk Forbund (3–4): 38. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  12. ^ Sidney H. Griffith (2010). The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians and Muslims in the World of Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691146284.
  13. ^ Tibi, Bassam (April 2008). "The Return of the Sacred to Politics as a Constitutional Law The Case of the Shari'atization of Politics in Islamic Civilization". Theoria: 98. JSTOR 41802396.
  14. ^ Cohen, Mark R. (2011). "Modern Myths of Muslim Anti-Semitism". In Ma'oz, Moshe. Muslim Attitudes to Jews and Israel: The Ambivalences of Rejection, Antagonism, Tolerance and Cooperation. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 1845195272.
  15. ^ Bernard Lewis, 'The New Anti-Semitism', The American Scholar Journal - Volume 75 No. 1 Winter 2006 pp. 25-36.

External links

After Saturday comes Sunday

After Saturday comes Sunday (Arabic: min sallaf es-sabt lāqā el-ḥadd qiddāmūh‎, lit. ''When Saturday is gone, one will find Sunday''), is a traditional Arab proverb. It has been documented in Egypt and Syria-Lebanon, in the form: sállẹf ẹs-sábt bẹtlâqi l-ḥádd qẹddâmẹk ('Loan Saturday (out), and you will find Sunday before you'), as meaning "the good or bad you do comes back to you".In the Arabic speaking Maronite community of Lebanon, the proverb has been current in the sense that Muslims will do away with Christians after they have dealt with the Jews. Israeli folklorist Shimon Khayyat has stated that the proverb, in the sense of "Since the Jews are now persecuted, it is as inevitable that the Christians' turn will come next as it is that Sunday will follow Saturday," has a wider distribution with variants in both Iraqi and Egyptian Arabic. This more recent usage of the proverb is attributed to Christian Arabs expressing a fear that they might share the fate that befell Jews during the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries. It is often reported to be in use among certain Muslims as a slogan to threaten local Christian communities.

Bat Ye'or

Bat Ye'or (Hebrew: בת יאור‬) is the pen name of Gisèle Littman, an author of the history of religious minorities in the Muslim world and modern European politics. Ye'or has popularized the term dhimmitude in her books about the history of Middle Eastern Christians and Jews living under Islamic governments. Ye'or describes dhimmitude as the "specific social condition that resulted from jihad," and as the "state of fear and insecurity" of "infidels" who are required to "accept a condition of humiliation." She has also popularized the term Eurabia in her writings about modern Europe, in which she argues that Islam, anti-Americanism and antisemitism hold sway over European culture and politics as a result of collaboration between radical Arabs and Muslims on one hand, and fascists, socialists, Nazis, and antisemitic rulers of Europe on the other.Ye'or's work on the history of religious minorities under Islamic rule and her use of the term dhimmitude have had a predominantly critical reception among academic specialists in the field. Her work on this subject has been praised by some authors writing for a popular audience. Ye'or's other books have also been a subject of controversy.

Bobastro

Bobastro is the ruins of an old castle in the Province of Málaga, Spain. The castle was of Roman origin, but rebuilt by Umar ibn Hafsun during his rebellion against the Caliphate of Cordoba in the 9th century.

British neoconservatism

British neoconservatism is more socially liberal than its US counterpart, but shares a world view of threats and opportunities. British neoconservatives are strong proponents of foreign intervention in the Arab world and beyond, the role of the private sector in military contracts and an alliance with Israel.

Christianity in Syria

Christians in Syria make up about 10% of the population. The country's largest Christian denomination is the Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch (known as the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East), closely followed by the Melkite Catholic Church, one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, which has a common root with the Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch, and then by an Oriental Orthodoxy churches like Syriac Orthodox Church and Armenian Apostolic Church. There are also a minority of Protestants and members of the Assyrian Church of the East and Chaldean Catholic Church. The city of Aleppo is believed to have the largest number of Christians in Syria.

In the late Ottoman rule, a large percentage of Syrian Christians emigrated from Syria, especially after the bloody chain of events that targeted Christians in particular in 1840, the 1860 massacre, and the Assyrian genocide. According to historian Philip Hitti, approximately 900,000 Syrians arrived in the United States between 1899 and 1919 (more than 90% of them Christians). The Syrians referred include historical Syria or the Levant encompassing Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine.

Eurabia

Eurabia is a political neologism, a portmanteau of Europe and Arabia, used to describe a conspiracy theory of globalist elements, allegedly led by French and Arab powers, to Islamise and Arabise Europe, thereby weakening its existing culture and undermining a previous alignment with the U.S. and Israel.The concept was coined by Bat Ye'or (pen name of Gisele Littman) in the early 2000s and is described in her 2005 book titled Eurabia: The Euro‐Arab Axis. Benjamin Lee of the Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats at the University of Lancaster describes her work as arguing that Europe "has surrendered to Islam and is in a state of submission (described as dhimmitude) in which Europe is forced to deny its own culture, stand silently by in the face of Muslim atrocities, accept Muslim immigration, and pay tribute through various types of economic assistance." According to the theory, the blame rests with a range of groups including communists, fascists, the media, universities, mosques and Islamic cultural centres, European bureaucrats, and the Euro-Arab Dialogue.The term has gained some public interest and has been used and discussed across a wide range of the political spectrum, including right-wing activists, counter-jihadis and different sorts of anti-Islamic, and conservative activists. Bat Ye'or's “Mother conspiracy theory” has been used for further subtheories. The narrative grew important in expressing anti-Islamic sentiments and was used by movements like Stop Islamisation of Europe. It gained renewed interest after the 9/11 events and the use of the term by 2011 Norway attacker, Anders Behring Breivik. Ye'or's thesis has come under criticism by scholars, which intensified post Breivik. The conspiracy has been described as having resemblance to the anti-Semitic Protocols of the Elders of Zion.Eurabia is also discussed in classical anti-Europeanism, a strong influence in the culture of the United States and in the notion of American exceptionalism, which sometimes sees Europe on the decline or as a rising rival power, or, as is the case here, both.

Iraqi-Assyrians

Assyrians in Iraq are an ethnic and linguistic minority in present-day Iraq, and are the indigenous population of the region. Assyrians are about 1% of the population of Iraq. Assyrians in Iraq are those Assyrians still residing in the country of Iraq, and those in the Assyrian diaspora who are of Iraqi-Assyrian heritage. They are and have direct cultural and genetic lineage from the ancient Mesopotamians, in particular from the Akkadian peoples (Assyrians and Babylonians) who emerged in the region c. 3000 BC, and the Aramean tribes who intermingled with them from the 9th century BC onwards.

Assyrians are a Semitic people who speak, read and write a modern-day Eastern Dialects of ancient Aramaic that has existed in Iraq since 1200 BC, which retains even older Akkadian grammatical influences and loan words (the language which they originally spoke). They are mainly a Christian people, and follow a collection of ethnic-based Eastern Christian denominations which first evolved in the region in the 1st century AD. The Assyrians of Iraq adhere to Chaldean Catholic Church, Assyrian Church of the East, Syriac Orthodox Church and Ancient Church of the East, in addition to other recently formed Assyrian Protestant churches including the Assyrian Pentecostal Church and Assyrian Evangelical Church.

According to the CIA, the Assyrian Christians of Iraq or other religions (excluding Islam), make up .5% of the Iraqi population. The last Iraqi census, in 1987, counted 1.4 million Christians, including the Assyrian community (4–5%), although many left the country during the 1990s when economic sanctions were imposed on the country. Other indigenous Assyrian communities can be found just outside Iraq's borders in "southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and northeastern Syria".

Islamization of East Jerusalem under Jordanian occupation

Islamization of East Jerusalem under Jordanian occupation is what occurred during the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank between 1948–1967, when Jordan sought to alter the demographics and landscape of the city to enhance its Muslim character at the expense of its Jewish and Christian ones. At this time, all Jewish residents were expelled, and restrictions were imposed on the Christian population that led many to leave the city. Ghada Hashem Talhami states that during its nineteen years of rule, the government of Jordan took actions to accentuate the spiritual Islamic status of Jerusalem. Raphael Israeli, an Israeli professor, described these measures as "Arabization".

Jazira Region

Jazira Region, formerly Jazira Canton, (Kurdish: Herêma Cizîrê‎, Arabic: إقليم الجزيرة‎, Classical Syriac: ܦܢܝܬܐ ܕܓܙܪܬܐ‎, translit. Ponyotho d'Gozarto), is the largest of the three regions of the de facto autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria. As part of the ongoing Rojava campaign, its democratic autonomy was officially declared on 21 January 2014. The region was established on the Al-Hasakah Governorate formerly known as Al-Jazira Province of Syria.

According to the constitution, the city of Qamishli is the administrative center of Jazira Region. However, as parts of Qamishli remain under the control of Syrian government forces, meetings of the autonomous region's administration take place in the nearby city of Amuda.The region has two subordinate cantons, the Hasakah canton consisting of the al-Hasakah area (with the Al-Shaddadi, Al-Arisha and Al-Hawl districts subordinate to it), Serê Kaniyê area (with the Zirkan district subordinate to it), Ad-Darbasiyah area, and Tel Tamir area, as well as the Qamishli canton consisting of the Qamishli area (with the Amûda, Tirbê Sipî, Tel Hemîs and Tel Berak districts subordinate to it) and Derik area (with the Girkê Legê, Tel Koçer and Çilaxa districts subordinate to it).

Jewish hat

The Jewish hat also known as the Jewish cap, Judenhut (German) or Latin pileus cornutus ("horned skullcap"), was a cone-shaped pointed hat, often white or yellow, worn by Jews in Medieval Europe and some of the Islamic world. Initially worn by choice, its wearing was enforced in some places in Europe after the 1215 Fourth Council of the Lateran for adult male Jews to wear while outside a ghetto to distinguish them from others. Like the Phrygian cap that it often resembles, the hat may have originated in pre-Islamic Persia, as a similar hat was worn by Babylonian Jews.Modern distinctive or characteristic Jewish forms of male headgear include the kippah (skullcap), shtreimel, spodik, kolpik, kashkets, and fedora; see also Hasidic headwear.

Jihad Watch

Jihad Watch is a blog affiliated with the David Horowitz Freedom Center, run by blogger Robert Spencer, it has been described as one of the main homes of the Counter-jihad movement on the internet.According to the website, a theology of violent jihad, which denies non-Muslims and women equality, human rights, and dignity has been present throughout the history of Islam. Jihad Watch says that it is "dedicated to bringing public attention to the role that jihad theology and ideology plays in the modern world, and to correct popular misconceptions about the role of jihad and religion in modern-day conflicts."It has been criticized by academics who believe that it promotes an Islamophobic worldview and conspiracy theories.

Mark Durie

Mark Durie (born 1958, Dogura, Papua) is an Australian pastor and scholar in linguistics and theology.

Pieter Willem van der Horst

Pieter Willem van der Horst (born 4 July 1946) is a scholar and university professor emeritus specializing in New Testament studies, Early Christian literature, and the Jewish and Hellenistic context of Early Christianity.

The Decline of Eastern Christianity

The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude is a book by author Bat Ye'or. In the book the author describes her interpretation of the waning of the Eastern Christendom under the Islamic empire's conquests.

The Story of Islamic Imperialism in India

The Story of Islamic Imperialism in India is a book that was published by publisher and historian Sita Ram Goel under his Voice of India imprint in 1982. The second revised edition was published in 1994.

Goel describes the history of the Islamic invasions of India, and its role in contemporary Indian politics. The book also gives background to what he calls dhimmitude (dhimmitude is a neologism first found in French denoting an attitude of concession, surrender and appeasement towards Islamic demands) in India.

The Third Choice

The Third Choice: Islam, Dhimmitude and Freedom is written by Mark Durie, with a Foreword by Bat Ye'or. It deals with the status of non-Muslim populations (the dhimmis) after the conquest of their lands by Muslims.

The Third Choice was short-listed for Australian Christian Book of the Year, 2010.

Mervyn Bendle, writing in the News Weekly, reports that The Third Choice 'provides essential information about the basic beliefs and practices of Islam, the life and role of Muhammad, the relevant history of Islam, the origins and history of the doctrine of the dhimma, how dhimmitude operates in the

everyday life of non-Muslims in Muslim societies, its resurgence in contemporary times, and possible ways through which Christians and other non-Muslims may seek to overcome it and heal the damage that it has done...'

Universalism

Universalism is a philosophical and theological concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability. A community that calls itself universalist may emphasize the universal principles of most religions, and accept others in an inclusive manner. It is centered on the belief in a universal reconciliation between humanity and the divine. For example, some forms of Abrahamic religions claim the universal value of their doctrine and moral principles, and "feel inclusive"Christian Universalism is focused on the idea of universal reconciliation. Also known as universal salvation, it is a doctrine stating that every human soul will ultimately be reconciled to God because of divine love and mercy.A belief in one fundamental truth is another important tenet in Universalism. The living truth is seen as more far-reaching than the national, cultural, or religious boundaries or interpretations of that one truth. As the Rig Veda states, "Truth is one; sages call it by various names."Universalism has had an influence on modern day Hinduism, in turn influencing western modern spirituality.Unitarian Universalism emphasizes that religion is a universal human quality, and also focuses on the universal principles of most religions. It accepts all religions in an inclusive manner.

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