Dewan

Dewan (also known as diwan, also spelled or devan and divan) at various points in Islamic history and Indian history, designated a powerful government official, minister or ruler. A dewan was the head of a state institution of the same name (see Divan).

Etymology

The word is Persian in origin and was loaned into Arabic. The original meaning was "bundle (of written sheets)", hence "book", especially "book of accounts," and hence "office of accounts," "custom house," "council chamber". The meaning divan "long, cushioned seat" is due to such seats having been found along the walls in Middle Eastern council chambers.[1]

Council

The word first appears under the Caliphate of Omar I (A.D. 634–644). As the Caliphate state became more complicated, the term was extended over all the government bureaus.

The divan of the Sublime Porte was the council or Cabinet of the state. In the Ottoman Empire, it consisted of the usually (except in the Sultan's presence) presiding Grand Vizier and other viziers, and occasionally the Janissary Ağa.

In 19th Century Romania the Ad hoc Divan was a body which played a role in the country's development towards independence from Ottoman rule.

In Javanese and related languages, the cognate Dewan is the standard word for council, as in the Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or (Indonesia's Council of People's Representatives) and Dewan Negara (Senate of Malaysia).

Indian subcontinent

Mughal India

During the effective rule of Mughal India, the Dewan served as the chief revenue officer of a province.[2]

Later, when most vassal states gained various degrees of self-determination, the finance — and/or chief minister and leader of many princely states (especially Muslim, but also many Hindu, including Baroda, Hyderabad, Mysore, Kochi, Travancore — referred as Dalawa until 1811) became known as a dewan.

Exceptionally, a ruler was himself titled Dewan or a loftier variation, notably:

Maratha period

As a title used in various Early Modern Indian states, Diwan denoted the highest officials in the court after the king; the suffix -ji is added as a mark of respect in India.[3] In the major Maratha states of Baroda (ruled by the Gaekwad), Gwalior (ruled by Scindias or Shinde), Indore (ruled by Holkar), and Nagpur (ruled by Bhonsle, but not from the Chhatrapati Shivaji family), the highest officer after the king was called the Diwan.

One of the examples was – Shrimant Diwan/Rao Bahadur Atmaram Kulkarni was the Diwan (Prime Minister) of Maratha Jamkhandi State. In the 19th century, the British Parliament established in British India a supreme court for revenue matters (non-criminal matters) named the "Sudder Dewanny Adawlut", which applied Hindu law.[4][5]

Among Hindus and Sikhs of Punjab and Bengal

Dewan, Diwan, Divan, or Deo was the hereditary title borne by the Chief Minister of the Hindu Cooch State in Bengal region.

Diwan also became a surname of high-caste Hindus or Sikhs in the Punjab region.

Diwani in British India

After the Battle of Buxar when the Bengal was annexed by the East India Company in 1764, the Mughal Emperor granted the Company the Diwani (the right to collect revenue) in Bengal and Bihar in 1765.[6][7] The term Diwani thus referred to British (fiscal) suzerainty over parts of India during the early British Raj.

Diwani in French India

In French India, one of its constituent colonies, Yanaon, had Zamindar and Diwan. They were active in its local and municipal administration during French rule. The Zamindar of Yanam was given a 4 gun salute by French counterparts.

Nepal

The document dated Bikram Samvat 1833 Bhadra Vadi 3 Roj 6 (i.e. Friday 2 August 1776), shows that Vamsharaj Pande and Swaroop Singh Karki had carried the title of Dewan (equivalent to Prime Minister) of Kingdom of Nepal.[8]

See also

  • Diwan (disambiguation)

References

  1. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=divan
  2. ^ Thangjam, Homen (Summer 2014). "Militarism, Human Rights, and Democracy in Northeast India". Kangla Lanpung. RK Sanatomba Memorial Trust,Imphal. VIII (II): 27–. ISSN 2321-2357.
  3. ^ https://luthar.com/2014/05/06/the-meaning-of-the-term-ji-in-the-indian-culture-by-dr-harsh-k-luthar/
  4. ^ Campbell, Lawrence Dundas (ed), Asiatic Annual Register for 1802, or A View of the History of Hindustan and of the Politics, Commerce and Literature of Asia, London, J. Debrett, 1803, footnote pp.97-100, Miscellaneous Tracts [1]
  5. ^ Definition per James Mill (1826): "Dewan, Duan: place of assembly. Native minister of the revenue department; and chief justice, in civil causes, within his jurisdiction; receiver-general of a province. The term is also used, to designate the principal revenue servant under a European collector, and even of a Zemindar. By this title, the East India Company are receivers-general of the revenues of Bengal, under a grant from the Great Mogul"..."Dewanny, Duannee: the office, or jurisdiction of a Dewan" (Mill, James, The History of British India, Vol. 1 (of 6), 3rd Edition, London, 1826, Glossary [2])
  6. ^ Robb 2004, pp. 116–147 "Chapter 5: Early Modern India II: Company Raj", Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, pp. 56–91 "Chapter 3: The East India Company Raj, 1772-1850," Bose & Jalal 2003, pp. 76–87 "Chapter 7: Company Raj and Indian Society 1757 to 1857, Reinvention and Reform of Tradition."
  7. ^ Definition per James Mill (1826): "Dewan, Duan: place of assembly. Native minister of the revenue department; and chief justice, in civil causes, within his jurisdiction; receiver-general of a province. The term is also used, to designate the principal revenue servant under a European collector, and even of a Zemindar. By this title, the East India Company are receivers-general of the revenues of Bengal, under a grant from the Great Mogul"..."Dewanny, Duannee: the office, or jurisdiction of a Dewan" (Mill, James, The History of British India, Vol. 1 (of 6), 3rd Edition, London, 1826, Glossary [3])
  8. ^ Regmi 1975, p. 272.

Books

Sources

1999 Malaysian general election

A general election was held on Monday, 29 November 1999 for members of the 10th Parliament of Malaysia. Voting took place in all 193 parliamentary constituencies of Malaysia, each electing one Member of Parliament to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections also took place in 394 state constituencies in 11 out of 13 states of Malaysia (except Sabah and Sarawak) on the same day.

Dewan Negara

The Dewan Negara (Malay for Senate, literally State Assembly) is the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia, consisting of 70 senators of whom 26 are elected by the state legislative assemblies, with two senators for each state, while the other 44 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King), including four who are appointed to represent the federal territories.

The Dewan Negara usually reviews legislation that has been passed by the lower house, the Dewan Rakyat. All bills must usually be passed by both the Dewan Rakyat and the Dewan Negara (the Senate), before they are sent to the King for royal assent. However, if the Dewan Negara rejects a bill, it can only delay the bill's passage by a maximum of a year before it is sent to the King, a restriction similar to that placed on the House of Lords in the United Kingdom. Like the Dewan Rakyat, the Dewan Negara meets at the Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur.

Originally, the Dewan Negara was meant to act as a check on the Dewan Rakyat and represent the interests of the various states, based on the role played by its counterpart in the United States. However, the original constitution, which provided for a majority of state-elected senators, has since been modified to make the vast majority of senators instead appointed by the King, thus theoretically providing an avenue for sombre, relatively non-partisan reconsideration of bills, more similar to the role of the British House of Lords.

Dewan Rakyat

The Dewan Rakyat (Malay for House of Representatives, literally People's Assembly) is the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia, consisting of members elected during elections from federal constituencies drawn by the Election Commission.

The Dewan Rakyat usually proposes legislation through a draft known as a 'bill'. All bills must usually be passed by both the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives) and the Dewan Negara, before they are sent to the King for royal assent. However, if the Dewan Negara rejects a bill, it can only delay the bill's passage by a maximum of a year before it is sent to the King. Like the Dewan Negara, the Dewan Rakyat meets at the Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur.

Ethnic Indians in the Dewan Rakyat

There have been 65 ethnic Indians in the Dewan Rakyat since the establishment of the Parliament of Malaysia. As of 2018, there are 16 representatives, or 7.21% of the body.

There is currently one ethnic Indian woman representative in the Dewan Rakyat, Kasthuriraani Patto. The youngest representative elected in parliament at 22 years of age, Prabakaran Parameswaran is also ethnic Indian.D.P. Vijandran (BN-MIC) is the sole Malaysian Indian legislator to hold the post of Deputy Speaker of Dewan Rakyat from 18 October 1986 to 23 February 1990.

Hari Chand Dewan

Air Marshal Hari Chand Dewan (20 September 1921 – 22 August 2017) was an Indian Air Force officer. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1972 for his services at the head of the Eastern Air Command in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. He was commissioned in 1940. He also received Param Vishist Seva Medal in 1969. Dewan died in August 2017 at the age of 95.

Jenna Dewan

Jenna Lee Dewan (born December 3, 1980) is an American actress and dancer. She started her career as a backup dancer for Janet Jackson, and later worked with artists including Pink, Missy Elliott, and Christina Aguilera. She is known for her role as Nora Clark in the 2006 film Step Up. She has also starred on the short-lived NBC series The Playboy Club and had a recurring role on the FX series American Horror Story: Asylum. She portrayed Freya Beauchamp on the Lifetime series Witches of East End and played Lucy Lane in The CW series Supergirl. Dewan hosted the NBC reality competition television series World of Dance (2017–2018).

List of members of the Dewan Negara

This is a complete list of members of the Dewan Negara, upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia.

Members of the Dewan Negara, 1st Malayan Parliament; 1959–1964

Members of the Dewan Negara, 2nd Malaysian Parliament; 1964–1969

Members of the Dewan Negara, 3rd Malaysian Parliament; 1971–1974

Members of the Dewan Negara, 4th Malaysian Parliament; 1975–1978

Members of the Dewan Negara, 5th Malaysian Parliament; 1978–1982

Members of the Dewan Negara, 6th Malaysian Parliament; 1982–1985

Members of the Dewan Negara, 7th Malaysian Parliament; 1986–1990

Members of the Dewan Negara, 8th Malaysian Parliament; 1990–1994

Members of the Dewan Negara, 9th Malaysian Parliament; 1995–1999

Members of the Dewan Negara, 10th Malaysian Parliament; 1999–2003

Members of the Dewan Negara, 11th Malaysian Parliament; 2004–2007

Members of the Dewan Negara, 12th Malaysian Parliament; 2008–2012

Members of the Dewan Negara, 13th Malaysian Parliament; 2013–2018

Members of the Dewan Negara, 14th Malaysian Parliament; 2018-present

List of members of the Dewan Rakyat

This is a complete list of members of the Dewan Rakyat, lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia.

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 1st Malayan Parliament; 1959–1964

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 2nd Malaysian Parliament; 1964–1969

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 3rd Malaysian Parliament; 1971–1973

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 4th Malaysian Parliament; 1974–1978

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 5th Malaysian Parliament; 1978–1981

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 6th Malaysian Parliament; 1982–1986

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 7th Malaysian Parliament; 1986–1990

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 8th Malaysian Parliament; 1990–1994

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 9th Malaysian Parliament; 1995–1999

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 10th Malaysian Parliament; 1999–2003

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 11th Malaysian Parliament; 2004–2007

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 12th Malaysian Parliament; 2008–2012

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 13th Malaysian Parliament; 2013–2018

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 14th Malaysian Parliament; 2018-present

Malaysian Islamic Party

The Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS; Malay: Parti Islam Se-Malaysia; formerly known as Malayan Islamic Party) is an Islamist political party in Malaysia. PAS's electoral base is in Malaysia's rural and conservative north. The party has governed the east coast state of Kelantan twice (1959–1977 and 1990–present) and has also, in the past, formed governments in Terengganu (1959–1962, 1999–2004 and 2018–present), Perak (2008-2009), Kedah (2008–2013), Penang (2008-2015) and Selangor (2008-2018). The party currently holds 18 of the 222 seats in the federal House of Representatives and has elected parliamentarians or state assembly members in eight of the country's 13 states.

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 13th Malaysian Parliament

This is a list of the members of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives) of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia. The opposition coalition Pakatan Rakyat that contested the general elections in 2013 was dissolved after series of disagreements between two main parties, Democratic Action Party (DAP) and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS). A new opposition coalition Pakatan Harapan was formed by the Democratic Action Party, People's Justice Party (PKR) and newly formed party National Trust Party (PAN), consisting of ex-PAS members. Several ex-UMNO members have also formed their own party Malaysian United Indigenous Party (PPBM) and have signed an electoral pact with Pakatan Harapan to contest the future general election and ensure straight fights against Barisan Nasional. On 20 March, 2017 PPBM officially became a member of Pakatan Harapan.

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 5th Malaysian Parliament

This is a list of the members of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives) of the 5th Parliament of Malaysia, elected in 1978.

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 9th Malaysian Parliament

This is a list of the members of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives) of the 9th Parliament of Malaysia, elected in 1995.

Pakatan Harapan

The Alliance of Hope (Malay: Pakatan Harapan; abbrev: PH) is a political coalition in Malaysia. It is a successor to Pakatan Rakyat (the other being Gagasan Sejahtera). It was established in 2015 as an opposition to the former-ruling Barisan Nasional. It is the largest bloc in the Dewan Rakyat and is the current ruling party of Malaysia. The coalition is allied with the Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN) and the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO) in the state of Sabah. At the state level, the coalition is the largest party in 8 of 13 state legislative assemblies and forms the government in the states of Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Malacca, Johor and Sabah. Pakatan Harapan also form a government with two-thirds majority in the states of Penang, Selangor and Johor.

The coalition was formed on 22 September 2015, consisting of the Democratic Action Party, People's Justice Party, National Trust Party and Malaysian United Indigenous Party. The coalition was formed as an alliance of centre-left to centre-right parties to contest the 2018 Malaysian general election. The coalition contested the election under the logo of a component party, the People's Justice Party (PKR), due to inability to register as an official coalition.

After the 2018 general elections, Pakatan Harapan chairman Mahathir Mohamad was appointed as the Prime Minister of Malaysia while its president, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, was appointed as the Deputy Prime Minister. Mahathir Mohamad became the first prime minister from Pakatan Harapan, and the first prime minister to have tenures with two different parties.

Parliament of Malaysia

The Parliament of Malaysia (Malay: Parlimen Malaysia) is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The bicameral parliament consists of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives) and the Dewan Negara (Senate). The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) as the Head of State is the third component of Parliament.

The Parliament assembles in the Malaysian Houses of Parliament, located in the national capital city of Kuala Lumpur.

The term "Member of Parliament (MP)" usually refers to a member of the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of the Parliament.

The term "Senator" usually refers to a member of the Dewan Negara, the upper house of the Parliament.

People's Representative Council

The People's Representative Council (Indonesian: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), alternatively translatable as the House of Representatives or as the House of People's Representatives, is one of two elected national legislative assemblies in Indonesia.

Together with the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD), a second chamber with limited powers, it makes up a legislative body, the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR). Currently there are 560 members, following the 2014 elections, all elected.The house has been the subject of frequent public criticism due to perceived high levels of fraud and corruption.

President of the Dewan Negara

The President of the Senate (Malay: Yang di-Pertua Dewan Negara) is the presiding officer of the Dewan Negara, the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia.

The President of the Senate is created under Article 56 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The office is similar to the Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat: the president is elected by the members of the Senate and is expected to be politically impartial. If a member of the Dewan Negara is elected as the president and is a member of a state legislative assembly, he must resign from the assembly before exercising the functions of the office. As the president may hold different titles while in office, it also changes the style. The current president is Datuk SA. Vigneswaran. Therefore, while in session, the senators will call him as 'Datuk Yang di-Pertua' (Datuk President) or 'Tuan Yang di-Pertua' (Mr. President).

Sarawak State Legislative Assembly

The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly (Malay: Dewan Undangan Negeri Sarawak) is the state legislature of the Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is a unicameral institution consisting of 82 members elected from single-member constituencies throughout the state. Elections are held no more than five years apart.

The State Legislative Assembly convenes at the Sarawak State Legislative Assembly Building in the state capital, Kuching. At 82 seats, it is the largest state legislature in Malaysia.

Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat

The Speaker of the House of Representatives (Malay: Yang di-Pertua Dewan Rakyat) is the presiding officer of the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia. He is responsible for convening sessions of the Dewan Rakyat, organising debates, and examining the admissibility of petitions, bills and amendments.

In the absence of the Speaker, one of his deputies will take his place. The current Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat is independent candidate Mohamad Arif Md Yusof, while his deputies are Mohd Rashid Hasnon and Nga Kor Ming, both from the Pakatan Harapan coalition.

Women in the Dewan Rakyat

There have been 83 women in the Dewan Rakyat since the establishment of the Parliament of Malaysia. In the 14th Malaysian Parliament, there are 32 female representatives, or 14.41% of the body.Women have had the right to both vote and sit in parliament since 1959 and all states and territories have been represented by a woman in the Dewan Rakyat.

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