Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), or underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.[2] However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category.[3] A nation's GDP per capita compared with other nations can also be a reference point.

The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a changing dynamic or expected direction of progress. Since the late 1990s, developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries.[4] Developing countries include, in decreasing order of economic growth or size of the capital market: newly industrialized countries, emerging markets, frontier markets, least developed countries. Therefore, the least developed countries are the poorest of the developing countries.

Developing countries tend to have some characteristics in common. For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); high number of road traffic accidents. Often, there is also widespread poverty, low education levels, inadequate access to family planning services, corruption at all government levels and a lack of so-called good governance. Effects of global warming (climate change) are expected to impact developing countries more than wealthier countries, as most of them have a high "climate vulnerability".[5]

The Sustainable Development Goals, by the United Nations, were set up to help overcome many of these problems. Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social and political development of developing countries.

Developing countries
Map of countries which are neither newly-industrialized countries nor least-developed countries.
2018 UN Human Development Report
World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2017 data, published in 2018).[1]
  1.000–0.800 (very high)
  0.700–0.799 (high)
  0.555–0.699 (medium)
  0.350–0.554 (low)
  Data unavailable
Imf-advanced-un-least-developed-2008
  Advanced economies
  Emerging and developing economies (not least developed)
  Emerging and developing economies (Least Developed Countries)
  Data unavailable

Classifications by the IMF and the UN

Definitions

IMF Developing Countries Map 2014
  Developing economies according to the IMF
  Developing economies out of scope of the IMF
  Graduated to developed economy
Least Developed Countries map
  
Least Developed Countries
  
Graduated to developing economies (as of 2008)

The UN acknowledges that it has "no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas".[6][3] According to its so-called M49 standards, published in 1999:

The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.[7][8]

The UN implies that developing countries are those not on a tightly defined list of developed countries:

There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system. In common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania, and Europe are considered "developed" regions or areas. In international trade statistics, the Southern African Customs Union is also treated as a developed region and Israel as a developed country; countries emerging from the former Yugoslavia are treated as developing countries; and countries of eastern Europe and of the Commonwealth of Independent States [the former Soviet Union] in Europe are not included under either developed or developing regions.[3]

However, under other criteria, some countries are at an intermediate stage of development, or, as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) put it, following the fall of the Soviet Union, "countries in transition": all those of Central and Eastern Europe (including Central European countries that still belonged to the "Eastern Europe Group" in the UN institutions); the former Soviet Union (USSR) countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan); and Mongolia. By 2009, the IMF's World Economic Outlook classified countries as advanced, emerging, or developing, depending on "(1) per capita income level, (2) export diversification—so oil exporters that have high per capita GDP would not make the advanced classification because around 70% of its exports are oil, and (3) degree of integration into the global financial system"[9]

Along with the current level of development, countries can also be classified by how much their level of development has changed over a specific period of time.[10]

In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between “developed” and “developing” countries in the presentation of its data, considering the two-category distinction outdated.[11] Instead, the World Bank classifies countries into four groups, based on Gross National Income per capita, re-set each year on July 1. In 2016, the four categories in US dollars were:[11]

  • Low income countries: $995 or less.
  • Lower middle income countries: $996 to $3,895.
  • Upper middle income countries: $3,895 to $12,055.
  • High income countries: $12,056 and above [12]

Measure and concept of development

Least Developed Countries
  Least developed economies according to ECOSOC
  Least developed economies out of scope of the ECOSOC
  Graduated to developing economy

Newly industrialized countries 2013
Newly industrialized countries as of 2013.

Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, defined a developed country as "one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment".[13]

Development can be measured by economic or human factors. Developing countries are, in general, countries that have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and have, in most cases, a medium to low standard of living. There is an association between low income and high population growth.[14] The development of a country is measured with statistical indexes such as income per capita (per person), gross domestic product per capita, life expectancy, the rate of literacy, freedom index and others. The UN has developed the Human Development Index (HDI), a compound indicator of some of the above statistics, to gauge the level of human development for countries where data is available. The UN had set Millennium Development Goals from a blueprint developed by all of the world's countries and leading development institutions, in order to evaluate growth.[15] These goals ended in 2015, to be superseded by the Sustainable Development Goals.

The concept of the developing nation is found, under one term or another, in numerous theoretical systems having diverse orientations — for example, theories of decolonization, liberation theology, Marxism, anti-imperialism, modernization, social change and political economy.

Another important indicator is the sectoral changes that have occurred since the stage of development of the country. On an average, countries with a 50% contribution from the secondary sector (manufacturing) have grown substantially. Similarly countries with a tertiary sector stronghold also see a greater rate of economic development.

Terms used to classify levels of development

There are several terms used to classify countries into rough levels of development. Classification of any given country differs across sources, and sometimes these classifications or the specific terminology used is considered disparaging. Use of the term "market" instead of "country" usually indicates specific focus on the characteristics of the countries' capital markets as opposed to the overall economy.

Developing countries can also be categorized by geography:

Other classifications include:

  • Heavily indebted poor countries, a definition by a program of the IMF and World Bank
  • Transition economy, moving from a centrally planned to market-driven economy
  • Multi-dimensional clustering system: with the understanding that different countries have different development priorities and levels of access to resources and institutional capacities[20] and to offer a more nuanced understanding of developing countries and their characteristics, scholars have categorised them into five distinct groups based on factors such as levels of poverty and inequality, productivity and innovation, political constraints and dependence on external flows.[21][22]

Criticisms and other terms

There is criticism for using the term "developing country". The term could imply inferiority of this kind of country compared with a developed country. It could assume a desire to develop along the traditional Western model of economic development which a few countries, such as Cuba and Bhutan, choose not to follow.[23] Alternative measurements such as gross national happiness have been suggested as important indicators.

The classification of countries as "developing" implies that other countries are developed. This bipartite division is contentious.

To moderate the euphemistic aspect of the word "developing", international organizations have started to use the term less economically developed country for the poorest nations—which can, in no sense, be regarded as developing. This highlights that the standard of living across the entire developing world varies greatly. Other terms sometimes used are less developed countries, underdeveloped nations, and non-industrialized nations. Conversely, developed countries, most economically developed countries, industrialized nations are the opposite end of the spectrum.

At the development level, anthropologist and researcher Jason Hickel has challenged the widely propagated narrative that the rich countries of the OECD help the poor countries develop their ecocomies and eradicate poverty. Hickel's findings reveal that the rich countries "aren’t developing poor countries; poor countries are developing rich ones."[24]

Third World

Over the past few decades since the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the term Third World has been used interchangeably with developing countries, but the concept has become outdated in recent years as it no longer represents the current political or economic state of the world. The three-world model arose during the Cold War to define countries aligned with NATO (the First World), the Communist Bloc (the Second World, although this term was less used), or neither (the Third World). Strictly speaking, "Third World" was a political, rather than an economic, grouping.

Global South

The term "Global South" began to be used more widely since about 2004.[25][26] It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries.[27] The Global South refers to these countries' "interconnected histories of colonialism, neo-imperialism, and differential economic and social change through which large inequalities in living standards, life expectancy, and access to resources are maintained".[28]

Common challenges

Most developing countries have these criteria in common:[29][30]

  • High levels of poverty – measured based on GNI per capita averaged over three years. For example, if the GNI per capita is less than US $1,025 (as of 2018) the country is regarded as a least developed country.[30]
  • Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy; for example low literacy levels).
  • Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters).

Urban slums

According to UN-Habitat, around 33% of the urban population in the developing world in 2012, or about 863 million people, lived in slums.[31] In 2012, the proportion of urban population living in slums was highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (62%), followed by South Asia (35%), Southeast Asia (31%) and East Asia (28%).[31]:127

The UN-Habitat reports that 43% of urban population in developing countries and 78% of those in the least developed countries are slum dwellers.[32]

Slums form and grow in different parts of the world for many different reasons. Causes include rapid rural-to-urban migration, economic stagnation and depression, high unemployment, poverty, informal economy, forced or manipulated ghettoization, poor planning, politics, natural disasters and social conflicts.[33][34][35] For example, as populations expand in poorer countries, rural people are moving to cities in an extensive urban migration that is resulting in the creation of slums.[36]

In some cities, especially in countries in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan, slums are not just marginalized neighborhoods holding a small population; slums are widespread, and are home to a large part of urban population. These are sometimes called "slum cities".[37]

Violence against women

Several forms of violence against women are more prevalent in developing countries than in other parts of the world. For example, dowry violence and bride burning is associated with Ancient India but not the modern one, Bangladesh and Nepal. Acid throwing is also associated with these countries, as well as in Southeast Asia, including Cambodia. Honor killing is associated with the Middle East and South Asia. Marriage by abduction is found in Ethiopia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. Abuse related to payment of bride price (such as violence, trafficking and forced marriage) is linked to parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania.[38][39]

Female genital mutilation is another form of violence against women which is still occurring in many developing countries. It is found mostly in Africa, and to a lesser extent in the Middle East and some other parts of Asia. Developing countries with the highest rate of women who have been cut are Somalia (with 98 per cent of women affected), Guinea (96 per cent), Djibouti (93 per cent), Egypt (91 per cent), Eritrea (89 per cent), Mali (89 per cent), Sierra Leone (88 per cent), Sudan (88 per cent), Gambia (76 per cent), Burkina Faso (76 per cent), and Ethiopia (74 per cent).[40] Due to globalization and immigration, FGM is spreading beyond the borders of Africa and Middle East, to countries such as Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, New Zealand, the U.S., and UK.[41]

The Istanbul Convention prohibits female genital mutilation (Article 38).[42] As of 2016, FGM has been legally banned in many African countries.[43]

Public health

People in developing countries usually have a lower life expectancy than people in developed countries.

Undernutrition is more common in developing countries.[44] Certain groups have higher rates of undernutrition, including women—in particular while pregnant or breastfeedingchildren under five years of age, and the elderly. Malnutrition in children and stunted growth of children is the cause for more than 200 million children under five years of age in developing countries not reaching their developmental potential.[45] About 165 million children were estimated to have stunted growth from malnutrition in 2013.[46] In some developing countries, overnutrition in the form of obesity is beginning to present within the same communities as undernutrition.[47]

The following list shows the further significant environmentally-related causes or conditions, as well as certain diseases with a strong environmental component:[48]

Water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH)

Access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services is at very low levels in many developing countries. In 2015 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that "1 in 3 people, or 2.4 billion, are still without sanitation facilities" while 663 million people still lack access to safe and clean drinking water.[50][51] The estimate in 2017 by JMP states that 4.5 billion people currently do not have safely managed sanitation.[52] The majority of these people live in developing countries.

About 892 million people, or 12 per cent of the global population, practiced open defecation instead of using toilets in 2016.[52] Seventy-six per cent (678 million) of the 892 million people practicing open defecation in the world live in just seven countries. India is the country with the highest number of people practicing open defecation.[52] Further countries with a high number of people openly defecating are Nigeria (47 million), followed by Indonesia (31 million), Ethiopia (27 million), Pakistan (23 million),[53] Niger (14 million) and Sudan (11 million).[52][54]

Sustainable Development Goal 6 is one of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the UN in 2015. It calls for clean water and sanitation for all people. This is particularly relevant for people in developing countries.

Energy

In 2009, about 1.4 billion of people in the world lived without electricity, and 2.7 billion relied on wood, charcoal, and dung (dry animal dung fuel) for home energy requirements. This lack of access to modern energy technology limits income generation, blunts efforts to escape poverty, affects people's health, and contributes to global deforestation and climate change. Small-scale renewable energy technologies and distributed energy options, such as onsite solar power and improved cookstoves, offer rural households modern energy services.[55]

Renewable energy can be particularly suitable for developing countries. In rural and remote areas, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative.[56]

Renewable energy can directly contribute to poverty alleviation by providing the energy needed for creating businesses and employment. Renewable energy technologies can also make indirect contributions to alleviating poverty by providing energy for cooking, space heating, and lighting.[57]

Kenya is the world leader in the number of solar power systems installed per capita.[58]

Pollution

Indoor air pollution

Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a major health hazard.[59] A major source of indoor air pollution in developing countries is the burning of biomass. Three billion people in developing countries across the globe rely on biomass in the form of wood, charcoal, dung, and crop residue, as their domestic cooking fuel.[60] Because much of the cooking is carried out indoors in environments that lack proper ventilation, millions of people, primarily poor women and children face serious health risks.

Globally, 4.3 million deaths were attributed to exposure to IAP in developing countries in 2012, almost all in low and middle income countries. The South East Asian and Western Pacific regions bear most of the burden with 1.69 and 1.62 million deaths, respectively. Almost 600,000 deaths occur in Africa.[61] An earlier estimate from 2000 but the death toll between 1.5 million and 2 million deaths.[62]

Finding an affordable solution to address the many effects of indoor air pollution is complex. Strategies include improving combustion, reducing smoke exposure, improving safety and reducing labor, reducing fuel costs, and addressing sustainability.[63]

Water pollution

Water pollution is a major problem in many developing countries. It requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and diseases,[64][65] and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.[65]

India and China are two countries with high levels of water pollution: An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness (including waterborne diseases) every day.[66] About 90 per cent of the water in the cities of China is polluted.[67] As of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water.[68]

Further details of water pollution in several countries, including many developing countries:

Global warming

The effects of global warming such as extreme weather events, droughts, floods, biodiversity loss, disease and sea level rise are dangerous for humans and the environment.[69] Developing countries are the least able to adapt to climate change (and are therefore called "highly climate vulnerable") due to their relatively low levels of wealth, technology, education, infrastructure and access to resources. This applies to many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa or Small Island Developing States. Some of those island states are likely to face total inundation.[70] Fragile states or failed states like Afghanistan, Haiti, Myanmar, Sierra Leone, and Somalia are among the worst affected.

Climate vulnerability has been quantified in the Climate Vulnerability Monitor reports of 2010 and 2012. Climate vulnerability in developing countries occurs in four impact areas: health, extreme weather, habitat loss, and economic stress.[69][5] A report by the Climate Vulnerability Monitor in 2012 estimated that climate change causes 400,000 deaths on average each year, mainly due to hunger and communicable diseases in developing countries.[71]:17 These effects are most severe for the world’s poorest countries.

A changing climate also results in economic burdens. The economies in Least Developed Countries have lost an average of 7% of their gross domestic product for the year 2010, mainly due to reduced labor productivity.[71]:14 Rising sea levels cost 1% of GDP to the least developed countries in 2010 – 4% in the Pacific – with 65 billion dollars annually lost from the world economy.[69] Another example is the impact on fisheries: approximately 40 countries are acutely vulnerable to the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on fisheries. Developing countries with large fisheries sectors are particularly affected.[71]:279

In many cases, developing countries produce only small quantities of greenhouse gas emissions per capita but are very vulnerable to the negative effects of global warming.[70] Such countries include Comoros, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu - they have been called "forced riders" as opposed to the "free riders".[5] Internationally there is recognition of this issue, which is known under the term "climate justice". It has been a key topic at the United Nations Climate Change Conferences (COP).

During the Cancún COP16 in 2010, donor countries promised an annual $100 billion by 2020 through the Green Climate Fund for developing countries to adapt to climate change. However, concrete pledges by developed countries have not been forthcoming.[72][73] Emmanuel Macron (President of France) said at the 2017 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bonn (COP 23): "Climate change adds further injustice to an already unfair world".[74]

Climate stress is likely to add to existing migration patterns in developing countries and beyond but is not expected to generate entirely new flows of people.[75]:110 A report by World Bank in 2018 estimated that around 143 million people in three regions (Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America) could be forced to move within their own countries to escape the slow-onset impacts of climate change. They will migrate from less viable areas with lower water availability and crop productivity and from areas affected by rising sea level and storm surges.[76]

Economic development and climate are inextricably linked, particularly around poverty, gender equality, and energy.[77] Tackling climate change will only be possible if the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are met (goal number 13 is on climate action).[77]

Population growth

Over the last few decades, global population growth has largely been driven by developing countries, which often have higher birth rates (higher fertility rate) than developed countries. According to the United Nations, family planning can help to slow population growth and decrease poverty in these countries.[14]

Others

The economies of many developing nations are tried to primary products and a majority of their exports go to advanced nations. When advanced nations encounter economic downturns, they can quickly transmitted to their developing country trading partners as seen in global economic downturn of 2008-2009.

Opportunities

  • Human Capital
  • Trade Policy: Countries with more restrictive policies have not grown as fast as countries with open and less distorted trade policies.[78][80]
  • Investment: Investment has a positive effect on growth.[78]
  • Education [81]

Country lists

Developing countries according to International Monetary Fund

The following are considered developing economies according to the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018.[82][83]

Countries not listed by IMF

Countries and regions that are graduated developed economies

The following, including the Four Asian Tigers and new Eurozone European countries, were considered developing countries and regions until the '90s, and are now listed as advanced economies (developed countries and regions) by the IMF. Time in brackets is the time to be listed as advanced economies.

Three economies lack data before being listed as advanced economies. Because of the lack of data, it is difficult to judge whether they were advanced economies or developing economies before being listed as advanced economies.

Newly Industrialized countries

Fourteen countries belong to the "newly industrialized country" classification. They are countries whose economies have not yet reached a developed country's status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts:

BRICS countries

Five countries belong to the "emerging markets" groups and are together called the BRICS countries:

See also

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External links

Exploitation of natural resources

The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural resources for economic growth, sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying environmental degradation. It started to emerge on an industrial scale in the 19th century as the extraction and processing of raw materials (such as in mining, steam power, and machinery) developed much further than it had in preindustrial areas. During the 20th century, energy consumption rapidly increased. Today, about 80% of the world’s energy consumption is sustained by the extraction of fossil fuels, which consists of oil, coal and gas. Another non-renewable resource that is exploited by humans is subsoil minerals such as precious metals that are mainly used in the production of industrial commodities. Intensive agriculture is an example of a mode of production that hinders many aspects of the natural environment, for example the degradation of forests in a terrestrial ecosystem and water pollution in an aquatic ecosystem. As the world population rises and economic growth occurs, the depletion of natural resources influenced by the unsustainable extraction of raw materials becomes an increasing concern.

Fishing in Bangladesh

Bangladesh being a first line littoral state of the Indian Ocean has a very good source of marine resources in the Bay of Bengal. The country has an exclusive economic zone of 41,000 square miles (110,000 km2), which is 73% of the country's land area. On the other hand, Bangladesh is a small and developing country overloaded with almost unbearable pressure of human population. In the past, people of Bangladesh were mostly dependent upon land-based proteins. But, the continuous process of industrialisation and urbanisation consumes the limited land area. Now there is no other way than to harvest the vast under water protein from the Bay of Bengal, which can meet the country's demand.

More than 80 percent of the animal protein in the Bangladeshi diet comes from fish. Fish accounted for 6 percent of GDP in the fiscal year of 1970, nearly 50 percent more than modern industrial manufacturing at that time. Most commercial fishermen are low-caste Hindus who eke out the barest subsistence working under primitive and dangerous conditions. They bring a high degree of skill and ingenuity to their occupation; a few of the most enterprising ones are aided by domesticated otters, which behave like shepherds, swimming underwater, driving fish toward the fisherman's net (and being rewarded themselves with a share of the catch). Fish for local consumption are generally of freshwater varieties.

Fourth World

The Fourth World is an extension of the three-world model, used variably to refer to

Sub-populations socially excluded from global society;

Hunter-gatherer, nomadic, pastoral, and some subsistence farming peoples living beyond the modern industrial norm.

Sub-populations existing in a First World country, but with the living standards of those of a Third World, or developing country.The term is not commonly accepted. "Fourth World" has also been used to refer to other parts of the world in relation to the three-world model.

Free Software Foundation of India

The Free Software Foundation of India (FSFI) Is an Indian sister organisation to the US-based Free Software Foundation. It was founded in Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum), the capital of Kerala in 2001, as a non-profit Company. The FSFI advocates to promote the use and development of free software in India. This includes educating people about free software, including how it can help the economy of a developing country like India. FSF India regards non-free software as not a solution, but a problem to be solved. Free software is sometimes locally called swatantra software in India.

In 2003, after meeting with FSF founder Richard Stallman, the President of India Dr. Abdul Kalam urged Indian computer scientists and professionals to use free and open-source software in research and development.

Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi for short; previously the GAVI Alliance, and before that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization) is a public–private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunisation in poor countries.Gavi brings together developing country and donor governments, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the World Bank, the vaccine industry in both industrialised and developing countries, research and technical agencies, civil society, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and other private philanthropists.

Generalized System of Preferences

The Generalized System of Preferences, or GSP, is a preferential tariff system which provides tarriff reduction on various products. The concept of gsp is very different from the concept of mfn .MFN status provides equal treeatment in the case of tarriff being imposed by a nation but in case of gsp differential tarriff could be imposed by a nation on various country whether it is a developed country or a developing country. Both the rules comes under the purview of wto.

GSP provides tarriff reduction for least developed countries but mfn is only for not discriminating among wto members.

Group of 24

The Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development, or The Group of 24 (G-24) was established in 1971 as a chapter of the Group of 77 in order to help coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues, as well as and to ensure that their interests are adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Though originally named after the number of founding Member States, it now has 28 Members (plus China, which acts as a Special Invitee). Although the G-24 officially has 28 member countries, any member of the G-77 can join discussions.

Although the group is not an organ of the International Monetary Fund, but the IMF provides secretariat services for the Group. Its meets biannually, first prior to the International Monetary and Financial Committee, and secondly prior to the Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of the Bank and the Fund. These meetings allow developing country members to discuss agenda items prior to these important meeetings of the IMF/World Bank.

Landlocked developing countries

Landlocked developing countries (LLDC) are developing countries that are landlocked. The economic and other disadvantages experienced by such countries makes the majority of landlocked countries least developed countries (LDC), with inhabitants of these countries occupying the bottom billion tier of the world's population in terms of poverty. Apart from Europe, there is not a single successful highly developed landlocked country as measured by the Human Development Index (HDI), and nine of the twelve countries with the lowest HDI scores are landlocked. Landlocked European countries are exceptions in terms of development outcomes due to their close integration with the regional European market. Landlocked countries that rely on transoceanic trade usually suffer a cost of trade that is double that of their maritime neighbours. Landlocked countries experience economic growth 6% less than their non-landlocked countries, holding other variables constant.About 468 million people live in current LLDCs.

Least Developed Countries

The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. The concept of LDCs originated in the late 1960s and the first group of LDCs was listed by the UN in its resolution 2768 (XXVI) of 18 November 1971.A country is classified among the Least Developed Countries if it meets three criteria:

Poverty – adjustable criterion based on GNI per capita averaged over three years. As of 2018 a country must have GNI per capita less than US$1,025 to be included on the list, and over $1,230 to graduate from it.

Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy).

Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters).As of 2018, 47 countries are classified as LDC, while five have been upgraded between 1994 and 2017.

List of companies of Eswatini

Eswatini is a sovereign state in Southern Africa. Eswatini is a developing country with a small economy. Its GDP per capita of $9,714 means it is classified as a country with a lower-middle income. As a member of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), its main local trading partner is South Africa. Eswatini's currency, the lilangeni, is pegged to the South African rand. Eswatini's major overseas trading partners are the United States and the European Union. The majority of the country's employment is provided by its agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Eswatini is a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations.

List of diplomatic missions of the Central African Republic

This is a list of diplomatic missions of the Central African Republic, excluding honorary consulates. Nineteen countries have resident diplomatic representatives in Bangui, and the C.A.R. maintains approximately the same number of missions abroad. Since early 1989 the government recognizes both Israel and the Palestinian state. The C.A.R. also maintains diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China. The C.A.R. generally joins other African and developing country states in consensus positions on major policy issues. The most important countries with which C.A.R. maintain bilateral relations include France, Cameroon, Chad, DR Congo, R Congo, Gabon, Sudan, Pakistan and the US.

Mangu station

Mangu Station is a station on the Jungang Line, and the Gyeongchun Line since 21 December 2010. This station is probably most famous for being Seoul's main distribution center of charcoal briquettes in the 1950s and 1960s, extracted and manufactured in southern Gangwon province. These briquettes were widely used by people to weather harsh winters when Korea was a developing country and recovering from the Korean War. It is a station that still predominantly handles freight trains. It is very close to an E-Mart and Costco stores.

Although it is located close to the Sangbong Bus Terminal and Sangbong Station, it has yet to fulfill its potential as a transportation hub. With the electrification and twin-tracking of the Gyeongchun Line, this station is the newly designated western terminus station (however, the Gyeongchun Line operates about 1 km west further till its de facto terminus, Sangbong).

Palapa

Palapa is a series of communication satellites owned by Indosat, an Indonesian telecommunication company. All the satellites were launched by the United States, starting with the first in July 1976, at which time Indonesia became the first developing country to operate its own domestic satellite system.The estimated cost for this project is $1 billion.

Standard of living in Pakistan

The standard of living in Pakistan differentiates and varies between different classes of society. Pakistan is a largely developing country and according to the Human Development Index, is ranked 147th out of 170 countries, upper side of "low human development."Despite having a growing middle class numbering over 70 million, a large portion of the country's population remains poor. Poverty, unemployment and a population boom contribute to Pakistan's current social problems. As of 2008, over 17% of the total population was found abjectly living below the poverty line while the unemployment rate, as of 2010, lumbered up to an unprecedented 15%. Poor governance and political insecurity have further added to the issues faced by the average

T. N. Srinivasan

T. N. Srinivasan, in full Thirukodikaval Nilakanta Srinivasan (March 27, 1933 – November 11, 2018), was an Indian economist who since 1980 had taught and worked in the United States. He was the Emeritus Samuel C. Park, Jr. Professor of Economics at Yale University. He was formerly chairman of the department of economics. He was a special adviser to the Development Research Center at the World Bank from 1977 to 1980, and has taught at numerous academic institutions over the past four decades, including MIT, Stanford University, and the Indian Statistical Institute. In 2007, he received a Padma Bhushan decoration from the President of India for his contributions to Literature and Education.He earned his Ph.D. in Economics (1962) from Yale University, M.A. in Mathematics (1954) from University of Madras, India and B.A. (Honors) Mathematics 1953 from University of Madras, India. He did his Professional Training in Statistics (1953-1955) at Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta. He has made important contributions in the fields of economic growth and development economics, and international trade. He had been very active in policy debates concerning India. He was founding co-editor of the Journal of Development Economics.

He was visiting fellow at the Center for Research on Economic Development and Policy Reform, Stanford University; fellow of the Econometric Society, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and American Philosophical Society; and a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. He has authored a prolific collection of books and articles on econometrics, world trade, and developing country economics.

Trade and development

Trade can be a key factor in economic development. The prudent use of trade can boost a country's development and create absolute gains for the trading partners involved. Trade has been touted as an important tool in the path to development by prominent economists. However trade may not be a panacea for development as important questions surrounding how free trade really is and the harm trade can cause domestic infant industries to come into play.

UNEP OzonAction

OzonAction is a branch of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) which has its main office in Paris, and is part of UNEP's Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE). Created in 1991, today it has staff located in five regional offices of UNEP, - namely in Africa (Nairobi, Kenya), Asia & the Pacific (Bangkok, Thailand), Latin America and the Caribbean (Panama City, Panama), and West Asia (Manama, Bahrain).

Rajendra Shende, the Head of Branch since 1992, retired on 31 July 2011. Jim Curlin acted as Interim Head of Branch from 1 August 2011 until 17 December 2012. Shamila Nair-Bedouelle, the current Head of Branch officially took up her position on 18 December 2012.

UNEP OzonAction assists developing countries and countries with economies in transition (CEITs) to achieve and sustain their compliance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, and make informed decisions on alternative technologies and ozone-friendly policies.UNEP OzonAction has implemented over 1,000 projects and services that have benefited more than 100 developing countries. It has also assisted 17 CEITs and provided further services that have served another 40 countries.In order to help developing countries comply with the Montreal Protocol, the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol was set up. The Fund's "main objective is to assist developing country parties to the Montreal Protocol whose annual per capita consumption and production of ozone-depleting substances is less than 0.3 kg to comply with the control measures of the Protocol".UNEP’s OzonAction branch is one of the Fund’s implementing agencies, along with others, such as UNIDO, UNDP and the World Bank.

Uruguay Round

The Uruguay Round was the 8th round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) conducted within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), spanning from 1986 to 1993 and embracing 123 countries as "contracting parties". The Round led to the creation of the World Trade Organization, with GATT remaining as an integral part of the WTO agreements. The broad mandate of the Round had been to extend GATT trade rules to areas previously exempted as too difficult to liberalize (agriculture, textiles) and increasingly important new areas previously not included (trade in services, intellectual property, investment policy trade distortions). The Round came into effect in 1995 with deadlines ending in 2000 (2004 in the case of developing country contracting parties) under the administrative direction of the newly created World Trade Organization (WTO).The Doha Development Round was the next trade round, beginning in 2001 and still unresolved after missing its official deadline of 2005.

World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999

The WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 was a meeting of the World Trade Organization, convened at the Washington State Convention and Trade Center in Seattle, Washington, USA, over the course of three days, beginning Tuesday, 30 November 1999. A week before the meeting, delegates admitted failure to agree on the agenda and the presence of deep disagreements with developing countries. Intended as the launch of a new round of multilateral trade negotiations that would have been called "The Millennium Round", the negotiations were marred by poor organization and controversial management of large street protests. Developing country representatives became resentful and uncooperative on being excluded from talks as the United States and the European Union attempted to cement a mutual deal on agriculture. The negotiations collapsed and were reconvened at Doha, Qatar, in November 2001. The Doha venue enabled on-site public protest to be excluded. Necessary agenda concessions were made to include the interests of developing countries, which had by then further established their own negotiation blocs, such as the Non-Aligned Movement and the Shanghai Co-operation Organisation. Thus, the current round is called the Doha Development Round, which has since 2008 remained stalled as a result of diverging perspectives regarding tariffs, agriculture, and non-tariff barriers such as agricultural subsidies.

Anti-globalization activists made headlines around the world in 1999, when they forced the Seattle WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 to end early with direct action tactics.

Water pollution by country
Economic classification of countries
Three-World Model
Gross domestic product (GDP)
Gross national income (GNI)
Wages
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Other national accounts
Human development
Digital divide
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investment position
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